CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-101 Official Cert Guide

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  • Edition: 1st
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  • Copyright: 2013-04-25
  • Publisher: Cisco Press
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Cisco Press is the official publisher for the New CCENT Certification.  The New Edition of this Best-Selling Official Cert Guide includes Updated Content, New Exercises, 400 Practice Questions, and 90 Minutes of Video Training -- PLUS the CCENT Network Simulator Lite Edition with lab exercises.   The CCENT Certification is now the only prerequisite for the CCNA Routing and Switching, CCNA Voice, CCNA Wireless,CCNA Security and CCDA Certifications.


Cisco CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-101 Official Cert Guide from Cisco Press enables you to succeed on the exam the first time. Best-selling author and expert instructor Wendell Odom shares preparation hints and test-taking tips, helping you identify areas of weakness and improve both your conceptual knowledge and hands-on skills.

This complete study package includes

  • A test-preparation routine proven to help you pass the exam
  • Do I Know This Already? quizzes, which enable you to decide how much time you need to spend on each section
  • Chapter-ending and part-ending exercises, which help you drill on key concepts you must know thoroughly
  • Troubleshooting sections, which help you master the complex scenarios you will face on the exam
  • The powerful Pearson IT Certification Practice Test software, complete with hundreds of well-reviewed, exam-realistic questions, customization options, and detailed performance reports
  • A free copy of the CCENT/CCNA ICND1 100-101 Network Simulator Lite software, complete with meaningful lab exercises that help you hone your hands-on skills with the command-line interface for routers and switches
  • More than 90 minutes of video mentoring from the author
  • A final preparation chapter, which guides you through tools and resources to help you craft your review and test-taking strategies
  • Study plan suggestions and templates to help you organize and optimize your study time

This official study guide helps you master all the topics on the CCENT/CCNA ICND1 exam, including

  • Networking fundamentals
  • Ethernet LANs and switches
  • IPv4 addressing and subnetting
  • Operating Cisco routers
  • Configuring OSPF
  • ACLs and NAT
  • IPv6 fundamentals

Wendell Odom, CCIE® No. 1624, is the most respected author of Cisco networking books in the world. His past titles include books on the entry-level Cisco certifications (CCENT and CCNA), the more advanced CCNP, and the industry-renowned CCIE. His books are known for their technical depth and accuracy. Wendell has worked as a network engineer, consultant, instructor, course developer, and book author, and he has produced videos, software, and blogs related to Cisco certifications. His website, with links to various study tools and resources, is at www.certskills.com.

Well regarded for its level of detail, study plans, assessment features, challenging review questions and exercises, video instruction, and hands-on labs, this official study guide helps you master the concepts and techniques that ensure your exam success.

Companion DVD

The DVD contains more than 400 unique practice exam questions, ICND1 Network Simulator Lite software, and 90 minutes of video training.


Includes Exclusive Offer for 70% Off Premium Edition eBook and Practice Test


Pearson IT Certification Practice Test minimum system requirements:

Windows XP (SP3), Windows Vista (SP2), Windows 7, or Windows 8; Microsoft .NET Framework 4.0 Client; Pentium class 1GHz processor (or equivalent); 512 MB RAM; 650 MB disc space plus 50 MB for each downloaded practice exam

CCENT ICND1 Network Simulator Lite minimum system requirements:

  • Microsoft Windows XP (SP3), Windows Vista (32-bit/64-bit) with SP1, Windows 7 (32-bit/64-bit) or Windows 8 (32-bit/64-bit, x86 processors), Mac OS X 10.6, 10.7, or 10.8
  • Intel Pentium III 1GHz or faster processor
  • 512 MB RAM (1GB recommended)
  • 1 GB hard disk space
  • 32-bit color depth at 1024x768 resolution
  • Adobe Acrobat Reader version 8 and above

Other applications installed during installation:

  • Adobe AIR 3.6.0
  • Captive JRE 6

This volume is part of the Official Cert Guide series from Cisco Press. Books in this series provide officially developed exam preparation materials that offer assessment, review, and practice to help Cisco Career Certification candidates identify weaknesses, concentrate their study efforts, and enhance their confidence as exam day nears.


The 1 hour 14 minute presentation found at the following link was given by Wendell Odom to cover “Teaching the New CCENT ICND1 100-101 & CCNA ICND2 200-101 Exam Material.” http://bit.ly/OdomCCENTCCNA

Author Biography

Wendell Odom, CCIE No. 1624, has been in the networking industry since 1981. He has worked as a network engineer, consultant, systems engineer, instructor, and course developer; he currently works writing and creating certification tools. He is author of all the previous books in the Cisco Press CCNA Official Certification Guide series, as well as the CCNP ROUTE 642-902 Official Certification Guide, the QoS 642-642 Exam Certification Guide, coauthor of the CCIE Routing and Switch Official Certification Guide, and several other titles. He is also a consultant for the CCNA 640-802 Network Simulator from Pearson and for a forthcoming replacement version of that product. He maintains study tools, links to his blogs, and other resources at www.certskills.com.

Table of Contents

Introduction xxxi

Getting Started 3

Part I: Networking Fundamentals 12

Chapter 1 The TCP/IP and OSI Networking Models 15

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 15

Foundation Topics 18

Perspectives on Networking 18

TCP/IP Networking Model 19

    History Leading to TCP/IP 20

    Overview of the TCP/IP Networking Model 21

    TCP/IP Application Layer 23

        HTTP Overview 23

        HTTP Protocol Mechanisms 24

    TCP/IP Transport Layer 25

        TCP Error Recovery Basics 25

        Same-Layer and Adjacent-Layer Interactions 26

    TCP/IP Network Layer 26

        Internet Protocol and the Postal Service 27

        Internet Protocol Addressing Basics 28

        IP Routing Basics 29

    TCP/IP Link Layer (Data Link Plus Physical) 30

    TCP/IP Model and Terminology 32

        Comparing the Original and Modern TCP/IP Models 32

        Data Encapsulation Terminology 32

        Names of TCP/IP Messages 34

OSI Networking Model 34

    Comparing OSI and TCP/IP 34

    Describing Protocols by Referencing the OSI Layers 35

    OSI Layers and Their Functions 36

    OSI Layering Concepts and Benefits 37

    OSI Encapsulation Terminology 38

Exam Preparation Tasks 40

Chapter 2 Fundamentals of Ethernet LANs 43

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 43

Foundation Topics 46

An Overview of LANs 46

    Typical SOHO LANs 46

    Typical Enterprise LANs 47

    The Variety of Ethernet Physical Layer Standards 48

    Consistent Behavior over All Links Using the Ethernet Data Link Layer 49

Building Physical Ethernet Networks with UTP 50

    Transmitting Data Using Twisted Pairs 50

    Breaking Down a UTP Ethernet Link 51

    UTP Cabling Pinouts for 10BASE-T and 100BASE-T 53

        Straight-Through Cable Pinout 54

        Crossover Cable Pinout 55

        Choosing the Right Cable Pinouts 56

    UTP Cabling Pinouts for 1000BASE-T 57

Sending Data in Ethernet Networks 57

    Ethernet Data Link Protocols 58

        Ethernet Addressing 59

        Identifying Network Layer Protocols with the Ethernet Type Field 60

        Error Detection with FCS 61

    Sending Ethernet Frames with Switches and Hubs 62

        Sending in Modern Ethernet LANs Using Full-Duplex 62

        Using Half-Duplex with LAN Hubs 63

Exam Preparation Tasks 65

Chapter 3 Fundamentals of WANs 67

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 67

Foundation Topics 70

Leased Line WANs 70

    Positioning Leased Lines with LANs and Routers 70

    Physical Details of Leased Lines 71

        Leased Line Cabling 72

        Building a WAN Link in a Lab 73

    Data Link Details of Leased Lines 74

        HDLC Basics 74

        How Routers Use a WAN Data Link 75

Ethernet as a WAN Technology 77

    Ethernet WANs that Create a Layer 2 Service 78

    How Routers Route IP Packets Using Ethernet Emulation 79

Accessing the Internet 80

    The Internet as a Large WAN 80

    Internet Access (WAN) Links 81

    Digital Subscriber Line 82

    Cable Internet 84

Exam Preparation Tasks 86

Chapter 4 Fundamentals of IPv4 Addressing and Routing 89

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 89

Foundation Topics 92

Overview of Network Layer Functions 92

    Network Layer Routing (Forwarding) Logic 92

        Host Forwarding Logic: Send the Packet to the Default Router 93

        R1 and R2’s Logic: Routing Data Across the Network 94

        R3’s Logic: Delivering Data to the End Destination 94

    How Network Layer Routing Uses LANs and WANs 94

    IP Addressing and How Addressing Helps IP Routing 95

    Routing Protocols 97

IPv4 Addressing 97

    Rules for IP Addresses 98

    Rules for Grouping IP Addresses 98

        Class A, B, and C IP Networks 99

        The Actual Class A, B, and C IP Networks 101

    IP Subnetting 103

IPv4 Routing 105

IPv4 Host Routing 105

    Router Forwarding Decisions and the IP Routing Table 106

        A Summary of Router Forwarding Logic 106

        A Detailed Routing Example 107

IPv4 Routing Protocols 109

Other Network Layer Features 111

    Using Names and the Domain Name System 111

        The Address Resolution Protocol 112

    ICMP Echo and the ping Command 113

Exam Preparation Tasks 115

Chapter 5 Fundamentals of TCP/IP Transport and Applications 117

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 117

Foundation Topics 120

TCP/IP Layer 4 Protocols: TCP and UDP 120

    Transmission Control Protocol 121

        Multiplexing Using TCP Port Numbers 122

        Popular TCP/IP Applications 125

        Connection Establishment and Termination 126

    User Datagram Protocol 127

TCP/IP Applications 128

    QoS Needs and the Impact of TCP/IP Applications 128

        Defining Interactive and Batch Applications 129

        Real-Time Voice and Video Applications 129

    The World Wide Web, HTTP, and SSL 130

        Uniform Resource Locators 131

        Finding the Web Server Using DNS 131

        Transferring Files with HTTP 133

Exam Preparation Tasks 135

Part I Review 136

Part II: Ethernet LANs and Switches 140

Chapter 6 Building Ethernet LANs with Switches 143

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 143

Foundation Topics 146

LAN Switching Concepts 146

    Historical Progression: Hubs, Bridges, and Switches 146

    Switching Logic 148

        The Forward-Versus-Filter Decision 149

        How Switches Learn MAC Addresses 150

        Flooding Frames 151

        Avoiding Loops Using Spanning Tree Protocol 152

        Internal Processing on Cisco Switches 153

    LAN Switching Summary 154

Design Choices in Ethernet LANs 155

    Collision Domains, Broadcast Domains, and VLANs 155

        Collision Domains 155

        Broadcast Domains 156

        The Impact of Collision and Broadcast Domains on LAN Design 157

        Virtual LANs (VLAN) 158

    Choosing Ethernet Technology for a Campus LAN 159

        Campus Design Terminology 160

        Ethernet LAN Media and Cable Lengths 161

    Autonegotiation 162

        Autonegotiation Results When Only One Node Uses Autonegotiation 164

        Autonegotiation and LAN Hubs 165

Exam Preparation Tasks 166

Chapter 7 Installing and Operating Cisco LAN Switches 169

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 169

Foundation Topics 172

Accessing the Cisco Catalyst 2960 Switch CLI 172

    Cisco Catalyst Switches and the 2960 Switch 172

    Switch Status from LEDs 173

    Accessing the Cisco IOS CLI 176

        Cabling the Console Connection 176

        Configuring the Terminal Emulator for the Console 177

        Accessing the CLI with Telnet and SSH 179

        Password Security for CLI Access 179

    User and Enable (Privileged) Modes 180

    CLI Help Features 182

    The debugand showCommands 184

Configuring Cisco IOS Software 185

    Configuration Submodes and Contexts 185

    Storing Switch Configuration Files 187

    Copying and Erasing Configuration Files 190

    Initial Configuration (Setup Mode) 191

    IOS Version and Other Reload Facts 192

Exam Preparation Tasks 195

Review All the Key Topics 195

Chapter 8 Configuring Ethernet Switching 199

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 199

Foundation Topics 202

Configuration of Features in Common with Routers 202

    Securing the Switch CLI 202

        Securing Access with Simple Passwords 203

        Securing Access with Local Usernames and Passwords 206

        Securing Access with External Authentication Servers 207

        Configuring Secure Shell (SSH) 207

    Encrypting and Hiding Passwords 210

    Encrypting Passwords with the service password Command 210

        Hiding the Enable Password 212

        Hiding the Passwords for Local Usernames 214

    Console and vty Settings 214

        Banners 214

        History Buffer Commands 216

        The logging synchronous and exec-timeout Commands 216

LAN Switch Configuration and Operation 217

    Enabling IP for Remote Access 217

        Configuring IPv4 on a Switch 219

        Verifying IPv4 on a Switch 220

    Configuring Switch Interfaces 221

    Port Security 223

        Configuring Port Security 224

        Verifying Port Security 226

        Port Security Actions 227

    Securing Unused Switch Interfaces 228

Exam Preparation Tasks 229

Chapter 9 Implementing Ethernet Virtual LANs 235

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 235

Foundation Topics 238

Virtual LAN Concepts 238

    Creating Multiswitch VLANs Using Trunking 239

        VLAN Tagging Concepts 240

        The 802.1Q and ISL VLAN Trunking Protocols 241

    Forwarding Data Between VLANs 242

        Routing Packets Between VLANs with a Router 243

        Routing Packets with a Layer 3 Switch 245

VLAN and VLAN Trunking Configuration and Verification 246

    Creating VLANs and Assigning Access VLANs to an Interface 246

        VLAN Configuration Example 1: Full VLAN Configuration 247

        VLAN Configuration Example 2: Shorter VLAN Configuration 250

    VLAN Trunking Protocol (VTP) 251

    VLAN Trunking Configuration 252

        Controlling Which VLANs Can Be Supported on a Trunk 257

Exam Preparation Tasks 260

Chapter 10 Troubleshooting Ethernet LANs 265

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 265

Foundation Topics 269

    Perspectives on Network Verification and Troubleshooting 269

    Preparing to Use an Organized Troubleshooting Process 269

    Troubleshooting as Covered in This Book 272

Analyzing LAN Topology Using Cisco Discovery Protocol 272

        Examining Information Learned by CDP 273

        Examining the Status of the CDP Protocols 276

Analyzing Switch Interface Status 277

    Interface Status Codes and Reasons for Nonworking States 277

    Interface Speed and Duplex Issues 279

    Common Layer 1 Problems on Working Interfaces 282

Predicting Where Switches Will Forward Frames 284

    Predicting the Contents of the MAC Address Table 284

    Analyzing the Forwarding Path 286

    Port Security and Filtering 287

Analyzing VLANs and VLAN Trunks 288

    Ensuring That the Right Access Interfaces Are in the Right VLANs 288

    Access VLANs Not Being Defined 289

    Access VLANs Being Disabled 290

    Check the Allowed VLAN List on Both Ends of a Trunk 291

    Mismatched Trunking Operational States 292

Exam Preparation Tasks 294

Part II Review 298

Part III: IP Version 4 Addressing and Subnetting 302

Chapter 11 Perspectives on IPv4 Subnetting 305

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 305

Foundation Topics 308

Introduction to Subnetting 308

    Subnetting Defined Through a Simple Example 308

    Operational View Versus Design View of Subnetting 309

Analyze Subnetting and Addressing Needs 310

    Rules About Which Hosts Are in Which Subnet 310

    Determining the Number of Subnets 311

    Determining the Number of Hosts per Subnet 313

    One Size Subnet Fits All–Or Not 314

        Defining the Size of a Subnet 314

        One Size Subnet Fits All 315

        Multiple Subnet Sizes (Variable-Length Subnet Masks) 316

        This Book: One Size Subnet Fits All (Mostly) 316

Make Design Choices 317

    Choose a Classful Network 317

        Public IP Networks 317

        Growth Exhausts the Public IP Address Space 318

        Private IP Networks 319

        Choosing an IP Network During the Design Phase 320

    Choose the Mask 320

        Classful IP Networks Before Subnetting 321

        Borrowing Host Bits to Create Subnet Bits 321

        Choosing Enough Subnet and Host Bits 322

        Example Design:, 200 Subnets, 200 Hosts 323

        Masks and Mask Formats 324

    Build a List of All Subnets 325

Plan the Implementation 326

    Assigning Subnets to Different Locations 327

    Choose Static and Dynamic Ranges per Subnet 328

Exam Preparation Tasks 329

Chapter 12 Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks 331

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 331

Foundation Topics 334

Classful Network Concepts 334

    IPv4 Network Classes and Related Facts 334

        Actual Class A, B, and C Networks 335

        Address Formats 336

        Default Masks 337

    Number of Hosts per Network 337

    Deriving the Network ID and Related Numbers 338

        Unusual Network IDs and Network Broadcast Addresses 340

Practice with Classful Networks 341

    Practice Deriving Key Facts Based on an IP Address 341

    Practice Remembering the Details of Address Classes 342

    Additional Practice 343

Exam Preparation Tasks 344

Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 345

Chapter 13 Analyzing Subnet Masks 349

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 349

Foundation Topics 352

Subnet Mask Conversion 352

    Three Mask Formats 352

    Converting Between Binary and Prefix Masks 353

    Converting Between Binary and DDN Masks 354

    Converting Between Prefix and DDN Masks 356

    Practice Converting Subnet Masks 357

Identifying Subnet Design Choices Using Masks 358

    Masks Divide the Subnet’s Addresses into Two Parts 359

    Masks and Class Divide Addresses into Three Parts 360

    Classless and Classful Addressing 361

    Calculations Based on the IPv4 Address Format 361

    Practice Analyzing Subnet Masks 363

Exam Preparation Tasks 365

Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 366

Chapter 14 Analyzing Existing Subnets 369

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 369

Foundation Topics 372

Defining a Subnet 372

    An Example with Network and Four Subnets 372

    Subnet ID Concepts 374

    Subnet Broadcast Address 375

    Range of Usable Addresses 375

Analyzing Existing Subnets: Binary 376

    Finding the Subnet ID: Binary 376

    Finding the Subnet Broadcast Address: Binary 378

    Binary Practice Problems 379

    Shortcut for the Binary Process 380

    Brief Note About Boolean Math 382

    Finding the Range of Addresses 382

Analyzing Existing Subnets: Decimal 382

    Analysis with Easy Masks 383

    Predictability in the Interesting Octet 384

    Finding the Subnet ID: Difficult Masks 385

        Resident Subnet Example 1 386

        Resident Subnet Example 2 387

        Resident Subnet Practice Problems 387

    Finding the Subnet Broadcast Address: Difficult Masks 388

        Subnet Broadcast Example 1 388

        Subnet Broadcast Example 2 389

        Subnet Broadcast Address Practice Problems 390

Practice Analyzing Existing Subnets 390

    A Choice: Memorize or Calculate 390

    Additional Practice 391

Exam Preparation Tasks 392

Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 393

Part III Review 396

Part IV: Implementing IP Version 4 400

Chapter 15 Operating Cisco Routers 403

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 403

Foundation Topics 406

Installing Cisco Routers 406

    Installing Enterprise Routers 406

        Cisco Integrated Services Routers 408

        Physical Installation 409

    Installing Internet Access Routers 409

        A SOHO Installation with a Separate Switch, Router, and Cable Modem 409

        A SOHO Installation with an Integrated Switch, Router, and DSL Modem 411

Enabling IPv4 Support on Cisco Routers 411

    Comparisons Between the Switch CLI and Router CLI 412

    Router Interfaces 413

        Interface Status Codes 414

        Router Interface IP Addresses 415

        Bandwidth and Clock Rate on Serial Interfaces 417

    Router Auxiliary (Aux) Port 419

    Operational Status with the show version Command 419

Exam Preparation Tasks 421

Chapter 16 Configuring IPv4 Addresses and Routes 425

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 425

Foundation Topics 428

IP Routing 428

    IPv4 Routing Process Reference 428

    An Example of IP Routing 431

        Host Forwards the IP Packet to the Default Router (Gateway) 432

        Routing Step 1: Decide Whether to Process the Incoming Frame 432

        Routing Step 2: Deencapsulation of the IP Packet 433

        Routing Step 3: Choosing Where to Forward the Packet 433

        Routing Step 4: Encapsulating the Packet in a New Frame 434

        Routing Step 5: Transmitting the Frame 435

    Internal Processing on Cisco Routers 436

        Potential Routing Performance Issues 436

        Cisco Router Fast Switching and CEF 436

Configuring Connected Routes 437

    Connected Routes and the ip address Command 438

    Routing Between Subnets on VLANs 439

        Configuring Routing to VLANs using 802.1Q on Routers 440

        Configuring Routing to VLANs Using a Layer 3 Switch 444

    Secondary IP Addressing 446

    Supporting Connected Routes to Subnet Zero 448

Configuring Static Routes 449

    Static Route Configuration 449

    Static Default Routes 451

Exam Preparation Tasks 454

Chapter 17 Learning IPv4 Routes with OSPFv2 459

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 459

Foundation Topics 462

Comparing Dynamic Routing Protocol Features 462

    Routing Protocol Functions 462

    Interior and Exterior Routing Protocols 464

    Comparing IGPs 465

        IGP Routing Protocol Algorithms 465

        Metrics 466

        Other IGP Comparisons 467

    Administrative Distance 468

Understanding the OSPF Link-State Routing Protocol 469

    Building the LSDB and Creating IP Routes 470

        Topology Information and LSAs 470

        Applying Dijkstra SPF Math to Find the Best Routes 471

    Using OSPF Neighbor Relationships 472

        The Basics of OSPF Neighbors 472

        Meeting Neighbors and Learning Their Router ID 472

    Scaling OSPF Through Hierarchical Design 474

OSPF Configuration 476

    OSPF Single-Area Configuration 477

        Matching with the OSPF network Command 478

        Verifying OSPF 480

    Configuring the OSPF Router ID 483

    Miscellaneous OSPF Configuration Settings 484

        OSPF Passive Interfaces 484

        OSPF Default Routes 486

Exam Preparation Tasks 488

Chapter 18 Configuring and Verifying Host Connectivity 493

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 493

Foundation Topics 496

Configuring Routers to Support DHCP 496

    DHCP Protocol Messages and Addresses 496

    Supporting DHCP for Remote Subnets with DHCP Relay 498

    Information Stored at the DHCP Server 500

    DHCP Server Configuration and Verification on Routers 501

        IOS DHCP Server Configuration 501

        IOS DHCP Server Verification 503

        Detecting Conflicts with Offered Versus Used Addresses 504

Verifying Host IPv4 Settings 505

    IP Address and Mask Configuration 505

    Name Resolution with DNS 507

    Default Routers 508

Testing Connectivity with ping, traceroute, and telnet 511

    The ping Command 511

        Testing IP Routes with ping on a Router 512

        Controlling the Source IP Address with Extended ping 513

    The traceroute Command 515

        How the traceroute Command Works 516

        traceroute and Similar Commands 518

    Telnet and Suspend 519

Exam Preparation Tasks 523

Part IV Review 526

Part V: Advanced IPv4 Addressing Concepts 530

Chapter 19 Subnet Design 533

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 533

Foundation Topics 536

Choosing the Mask(s) to Meet Requirements 536

    Review: Choosing the Minimum Number of Subnet and Host Bits 536

    No Masks Meet Requirements 537

    One Mask Meets Requirements 538

    Multiple Masks Meet Requirements 539

        Finding All the Masks: Concepts 539

        Finding All the Masks: Math 541

        Choosing the Best Mask 541

    The Formal Process 542

    Practice Choosing Subnet Masks 542

        Practice Problems for Choosing a Subnet Mask 543

        Additional Practice for Choosing the Subnet Mask 543

Finding All Subnet IDs 543

    First Subnet ID: The Zero Subnet 544

    Finding the Pattern Using the Magic Number 544

    A Formal Process with Less Than 8 Subnet Bits 545

        Example 1: Network, Mask 547

        Example 2: Network, Mask 548

    Finding All Subnets with Exactly 8 Subnet Bits 550

    Finding All Subnets with More Than 8 Subnet Bits 550

        Process with 9—16 Subnet Bits 550

        Process with 17 or More Subnet Bits 552

    Practice Finding All Subnet IDs 553

        Practice Problems for Finding All Subnet IDs 554

        Additional Practice for Finding All Subnet IDs 554

Exam Preparation Tasks 555

Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 556

Chapter 20 Variable-Length Subnet Masks 561

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 561

Foundation Topics 563

VLSM Concepts and Configuration 563

    Classless and Classful Routing Protocols 564

    VLSM Configuration and Verification 564

Finding VLSM Overlaps 566

    An Example of Finding a VLSM Overlap 566

    Practice Finding VLSM Overlaps 568

Adding a New Subnet to an Existing VLSM Design 569

    An Example of Adding a New VLSM Subnet 569

    Practice Adding New VLSM Subnets 571

Exam Preparation Tasks 572

Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 573

Chapter 21 Route Summarization 577

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 577

Foundation Topics 579

Manual Route Summarization Concepts 579

    Route Summarization Basics 579

    Route Summarization and the IPv4 Subnetting Plan 580

    Verifying Manually Summarized Routes 581

Choosing the Best Summary Routes 582

    The Process to Find the Best Summary Route 583

    Sample “Best” Summary on Router R3 584

    Sample “Best” Summary on Router R2 585

    Practice Choosing the Best Summary Routes 586

Exam Preparation Tasks 587

Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 588

Part V Review 592

Part VI: IPv4 Services 596

Chapter 22 Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists 599

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 599

Foundation Topics 602

IPv4 Access Control List Basics 602

    ACL Location and Direction 602

    Matching Packets 603

    Taking Action When a Match Occurs 604

    Types of IP ACLs 604

Standard Numbered IPv4 ACLs 605

    List Logic with IP ACLs 605

    Matching Logic and Command Syntax 607

        Matching the Exact IP Address 607

        Matching a Subset of the Address with Wildcards 607

        Binary Wildcard Masks 609

        Finding the Right Wildcard Mask to Match a Subnet 610

        Matching Any/All Addresses 610

    Implementing Standard IP ACLs 610

        Standard Numbered ACL Example 1 611

        Standard Numbered ACL Example 2 613

    Troubleshooting and Verification Tips 614

Practice Applying Standard IP ACLs 616

    Practice Building access-list Commands 616

    Reverse Engineering from ACL to Address Range 617

Exam Preparation Tasks 619

Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 621

Chapter 23 Advanced IPv4 ACLs and Device Security 623

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 623

Foundation Topics 626

Extended Numbered IP Access Control Lists 626

    Matching the Protocol, Source IP, and Destination IP 626

    Matching TCP and UDP Port Numbers 628

    Extended IP ACL Configuration 631

        Extended IP Access Lists: Example 1 631

        Extended IP Access Lists: Example 2 633

    Practice Building access-list Commands 634

Named ACLs and ACL Editing 635

    Named IP Access Lists 635

    Editing ACLs Using Sequence Numbers 637

    Numbered ACL Configuration Versus Named ACL Configuration 640

Router and Switch Security 641

    Review: Password Protections for the CLI 641

    Disable Services 642

    Controlling Telnet and SSH Access with ACLs 643

    ACL Implementation Considerations 644

    Network Time Protocol 645

Exam Preparation Tasks 648

Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 651

Chapter 24 Network Address Translation 653

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 653

Foundation Topics 656

Perspectives on IPv4 Address Scalability 656

    CIDR 656

        Route Aggregation for Shorter Routing Tables 657

        IPv4 Address Conservation 658

    Private Addressing 658

Network Address Translation Concepts 659

    Static NAT 659

    Dynamic NAT 662

    Overloading NAT with Port Address Translation (PAT) 663

    NAT Overload (PAT) on Consumer Routers 665

NAT Configuration and Troubleshooting 666

    Static NAT Configuration 666

    Dynamic NAT Configuration 668

    Dynamic NAT Verification 670

    NAT Overload (PAT) Configuration 673

    NAT Troubleshooting 676

Exam Preparation Tasks 678

Part VI Review 680

Part VII: IP Version 6 684

Chapter 25 Fundamentals of IP Version 6 687

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 687

Foundation Topics 690

Introduction to IPv6 690

    The Historical Reasons for IPv6 690

    The IPv6 Protocols 692

    IPv6 Routing 693

    IPv6 Routing Protocols 695

IPv6 Addressing Formats and Conventions 696

    Representing Full (Unabbreviated) IPv6 Addresses 697

    Abbreviating and Expanding IPv6 Addresses 697

        Abbreviating IPv6 Addresses 698

        Expanding Abbreviated IPv6 Addresses 699

    Representing the Prefix Length of an Address 700

    Calculating the IPv6 Prefix (Subnet ID) 700

        Finding the IPv6 Prefix 700

        Working with More Difficult IPv6 Prefix Lengths 702

Exam Preparation Tasks 704

Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 705

Chapter 26 IPv6 Addressing and Subnetting 709

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 709

Foundation Topics 712

Global Unicast Addressing Concepts 712

    A Brief Review of Public and Private IPv4 Addresses 712

        Review of Public IPv4 Addressing Concepts 712

        Review of Private IPv4 Addressing Concepts 714

        Public and Private IPv6 Addresses 715

    The IPv6 Global Routing Prefix 716

    Address Ranges for Global Unicast Addresses 718

    IPv6 Subnetting Using Global Unicast Addresses 718

        Deciding Where IPv6 Subnets Are Needed 719

        The Mechanics of Subnetting IPv6 Global Unicast Addresses 719

        Listing the IPv6 Subnet Identifier 722

        List All IPv6 Subnets 722

        Assign Subnets to the Internetwork Topology 723

    Assigning Addresses to Hosts in a Subnet 723

Unique Local Unicast Addresses 724

    Subnetting with Unique Local IPv6 Addresses 725

    The Need for Globally Unique Local Addresses 726

Exam Preparation Tasks 728

Chapter 27 Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers 731

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 731

Foundation Topics 734

Implementing Unicast IPv6 Addresses on Routers 734

    Static Unicast Address Configuration 735

        Configuring the Full 128-Bit Address 735

        Enabling IPv6 Routing 736

        Verifying the IPv6 Address Configuration 737

        Generating a Unique Interface ID Using EUI-64 739

    Dynamic Unicast Address Configuration 742

Special Addresses Used by Routers 743

    Link-Local Addresses 744

        Link-Local Address Concepts 744

        Creating Link-Local Addresses on Routers 745

    IPv6 Multicast Addresses 746

        Broadcasts Versus Multicasts 746

        Common Local Scope Multicast Addresses 747

        Solicited-Node Multicast Addresses 748

    Miscellaneous IPv6 Addresses 749

Exam Preparation Tasks 751

Answers to Earlier Practice Problems 753

Chapter 28 Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Hosts 755

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 755

Foundation Topics 758

The Neighbor Discovery Protocol 758

    Discovering Routers with NDP RS and RA 759

    Discovering Addressing Info for SLAAC with NDP RS and RA 760

    Discovering Neighbor Link Addresses with NDP NS and NA 760

    Discovering Duplicate Addresses Using NDP NS and NA 762

    NDP Summary 763

Dynamic Configuration of Host IPv6 Settings 763

    Dynamic Configuration Using Stateful DHCP and NDP 763

        Differences Between DHCPv6 and DHCPv4 764

        DHCPv6 Relay Agents 765

    Using Stateless Address Autoconfiguration 767

        Building an IPv6 Address Using SLAAC 767

        Combining SLAAC with NDP and Stateless DHCP 768

Verification of Host IPv6 Connectivity 769

    Verifying Host IPv6 Connectivity from Hosts 769

    Verifying Host Connectivity from Nearby Routers 772

Exam Preparation Tasks 776

Chapter 29 Implementing IPv6 Routing 779

“Do I Know This Already?” Quiz 779

Foundation Topics 782

Connected and Local IPv6 Routes 782

    Rules for Connected and Local Routes 782

    Example of Connected IPv6 Routes 783

    Examples of Local IPv6 Routes 785

Static IPv6 Routes 785

    Static Routes Using the Outgoing Interface 786

    Static Routes Using Next-Hop IPv6 Address 787

        Example Static Route with a Global Unicast Next-Hop Address 788

        Example Static Route with a Link-Local Next-Hop Address 788

    Static Default Routes 790

Dynamic Routes with OSPFv3 791

    Comparing OSPF for IPv4 and IPv6 791

        OSPF Routing Protocol Versions and Protocols 791

        Comparing OSPFv2 and OSPFv3 793

    Configuring Single-Area OSPFv3 794

        OSPFv3 Single-Area Configuration Example 796

        OSPFv3 Passive Interfaces 798

    Verifying OSPFv3 Status and Routes 798

        Verifying OSPFv3 Configuration Settings 799

        Verifying OSPFv3 Neighbors 801

        Examining the OSPFv3 Database 803

        Examining IPv6 Routes Learned by OSPFv3 803

Exam Preparation Tasks 805

Part VII Review 808

Part VIII: Final Review 812

Chapter 30 Final Review 815

Advice About the Exam Event 815

    Learn the Question Types Using the Cisco Certification Exam Tutorial 815

    Think About Your Time Budget Versus Numbers of Questions 816

    A Suggested Time-Check Method 817

    Miscellaneous Pre-Exam Suggestions 818

    Exam-Day Advice 818

Exam Review 819

    Practice Subnetting and Other Math-Related Skills 819

    Take Practice Exams 821

        Practicing Taking the ICND1 Exam 822

        Practicing Taking the CCNA Exam 823

        Advice on How to Answer Exam Questions 824

        Taking Other Practice Exams 825

    Find Knowledge Gaps Through Question Review 826

    Practice Hands-On CLI Skills 829

        Review Mind Maps from Part Review 829

        Do Labs 829

    Other Study Tasks 830

    Final Thoughts 831

Part IX: Appendixes 832

Appendix A Numeric Reference Tables 835

Appendix B ICND1 Exam Upd ates 841

Glossary 843

DVD-only Appendixes

Appendix C: Answers to the “Do I Know This Already?” Quizzes

Appendix D: Practice for Chapter 12: Analyzing Classful IPv4 Networks

Appendix E: Practice for Chapter 13: Analyzing Subnet Masks

Appendix F: Practice for Chapter 14: Analyzing Existing Subnets

Appendix G: Practice for Chapter 19: Subnet Design

Appendix H: Practice for Chapter 20: Variable-Length Subnet Masks

Appendix I: Practice for Chapter 21: Route Summarization

Appendix J: Practice for Chapter 22: Basic IPv4 Access Control Lists

Appendix K: Practice for Chapter 25: Fundamentals of IP Version 6

Appendix L: Practice for Chapter 27: Implementing IPv6 Addressing on Routers

Appendix M: Memory Tables

Appendix N: Memory Tables Answer Key

Appendix O: Mind Map Solutions

Appendix P: Study Planner



9781587143854   TOC   3/21/2013


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