Citizen Engineer A Handbook for Socially Responsible Engineering

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-08-28
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall

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"Itrs"s terrific. This new book does an outstanding job of filling in the knowledge of topics that simply arenrs"t touched upon. . . . This is exactly the sort of book that engineers should read and discuss." John L. Hennessy,president, Stanford University "Citizen Engineeris the bible for the new era of socially responsible engineering. All engineers concerned with the impact of their work must read this book." Hal Abelson,professor of computer science and engineering, MIT "This accessible and brilliant book should be required of every citizen, and especially, the new citizen lawmakers we call engineers." Lawrence Lessig,professor, Stanford Law School, and founder, Creative Commons Being an engineer today means being far more than an engineer. You need to consider not only the design requirements of your projects but the full impact of your workfrom an ecological perspective, an intellectual property perspective, a business perspective, and a sociological perspective. And you must coordinate your efforts with many other engineers, sometimes hundreds of them. In short, wers"ve entered an age that demands socially responsible engineering on a whole new scale: The era of the Citizen Engineer. This engaging and thought-provoking book, written by computer industry luminaries Greg Papadopoulos and David Douglas, focuses on two topics that are becoming vitally important in the day-to-day work of engineers today: eco engineering and intellectual property (IP).Citizen Engineeralso examines how and why the world of engineering has changed, and provides practical advice to help engineers of all types master the new era of engineering and start thinking like Citizen Engineers.

Author Biography

David Douglas is senior vice president of Cloud Computing and chief sustainability officer at Sun Microsystems. Greg Papadopoulos is chief technology officer and executive vice president of Research and Development at Sun Microsystems and directs the company's approximate two billion dollar RD portfolio with a passion around innovation, openness, and eco responsibility. John Boutelle has been a freelance writer for more than twenty years and has worked with and interviewed hundreds of engineers and executives from a diverse range of enterprises worldwide.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xv
Acknowledgmentsp. xix
About the Authorsp. xxi
Introduction: While You Were Busy Debugging ...p. xxiii
Advent of the Citizen Engineerp. 1
"Citizen Engineer" Definedp. 5
Responsibilities of the Citizen Engineerp. 7
Knowledge Base of the Citizen Engineerp. 8
Technologyp. 9
Ecologyp. 9
Intellectual Propertyp. 9
Businessp. 10
Public Policyp. 10
Collaborationp. 11
How Engineering Got Its Paradigm Shiftedp. 13
Changes in the Nature of Engineeringp. 13
Engineering on a Whole New Scalep. 13
Pervasive Collaborationp. 16
Broader Influence for Engineersp. 17
Externally Driven Changes in Engineeringp. 19
The Green Explosionp. 19
Corporate Social Responsibilityp. 20
Security and Privacy Concernsp. 21
Rise of Digital Goodsp. 22
New Laws, Tighter Controlsp. 23
Perspectives on an Engineering Transformationp. 24
Summary, and What's Nextp. 25
Environmental Responsibilityp. 27
Environmental Impact: The Big Picturep. 31
Eco-Responsible Engineering: An Enormous Opportunityp. 32
Core Challenges of Eco-Engineeringp. 34
Beyond the Black Cloud: Looking at Lifecyclesp. 37
The "Cradle to Cradle" Visionp. 40
A Pragmatic Approach to Lifecycle Analysisp. 45
A Basic Lifecycle Modelp. 45
Additional Lifecycle Considerationsp. 46
Supply Chainsp. 47
"Mini Lifecycles" of Consumablesp. 48
Hidden Impactsp. 49
Servicesp. 49
Design and Prototypesp. 50
Embodied Energy and Embodied Carbonp. 52
Lifecycle Assessment Toolsp. 53
Starting a Top-Level Assessmentp. 56
Deciding When to Stop Assessingp. 58
Setting Priorities, Requirements, and Goalsp. 61
Knowing the Lawp. 62
Business Requirements and Opportunitiesp. 64
Areas of Greatest Impactp. 65
Quick Wins and Low-Hanging Fruitp. 66
Energy and Emissionsp. 69
Common Sources of Energyp. 70
Calculating Energy and Powerp. 73
Energy Impacts: Finding the Cleanest Source of Powerp. 75
Energy and GHG Emissionsp. 76
Greenhouse Gas Primerp. 76
CO2 Equivalents and Conversionsp. 77
Calculating GHG Emissionsp. 78
Putting a Value on Carbon (Dioxide!)p. 80
Heat, Noise, Light, and Radio Emissionsp. 81
Process-Related GHG Emissionsp. 82
Energy Efficiency in Product Designp. 83
Core Efficiencyp. 83
Energy Transmission and Conversionp. 83
Power Statesp. 84
Standby Powerp. 85
Batteriesp. 85
Tracking Lost Energyp. 86
An Example: Energy Efficiency in Data Centersp. 86
Where Energy Goes in Data Centersp. 87
Making Data Centers More Efficientp. 88
Example Resultsp. 90
Chemicals, Materials, and Wastep. 93
Chemistry and the Lawp. 93
Packaging and Documentationp. 96
Waste and Renewalp. 98
Disassemblyp. 99
Reuse/Recyclingp. 99
Take-Backp. 101
Water and Other Natural Resourcesp. 105
Social Considerationsp. 105
Business Considerationsp. 106
Calculating the Water Footprintp. 106
Trading Virtual Waterp. 107
Other Natural Resourcesp. 108
An Example of Eco-Engineering: Interface, Inc.p. 111
An Aggressive Initiative with Very Specific Goalsp. 111
Eco-Engineering: The Grass Is Always Greenerp. 117
Carbon Neutrality: Good Start but Not Enoughp. 117
Greenwashing and Green Noisep. 120
Measure and Labelp. 120
Read "The Six Sins of Greenwashing"p. 122
Measuring and Sharing with OpenEcop. 123
Summary, and What's Nextp. 125
Intellectual Responsibilityp. 127
Intellectual Property Law Fundamentalsp. 131
IP 101: Core Conceptsp. 131
Patentsp. 134
A Closer Look: Why Get a Patent (and Why Not)?p. 135
When to Get a Patentp. 136
Applying the Standard of Noveltyp. 138
Do Patents Stifle Innovation?p. 138
Common Mistakes to Avoidp. 139
Copyrightp. 141
Copyright Using Creative Commons Licensesp. 144
Additional Concepts: Copyleft and FairSharep. 146
Trademarksp. 147
Trade Secretsp. 148
Nondisclosure Agreementsp. 150
Employment Contracts and IP Ownershipp. 151
Previous Inventionsp. 154
Participation in Open Source Projectsp. 155
Tip Sheet: Inbound and Outbound IPp. 157
How to Protect Your IP in Emerging Marketsp. 159
Back to Patent Protection: The Good, the Bad, and the Uglyp. 161
Open Source Software: Licenses and Leveragep. 165
"Free" Software Licensesp. 166
Nonfree but Free-Sounding Software Licensesp. 169
A Closer Look at the GPLp. 169
Contributor Agreementsp. 171
What Does the CA Do?p. 172
Do I Lose the Rights to My Contribution by Signing a CA?p. 173
Will I Receive Credit for My Contributions?p. 174
Can I Contribute the Same Works to Other Projects?p. 174
When Should I Sign a CA?p. 174
What if I'm Working for a Company but Contributing as an Individual?p. 175
Software Indemnityp. 175
Creativity and Controlp. 179
Maximizing the Cycle of Innovationp. 179
How We Got Herep. 181
Control over Interfacesp. 184
Innovation Commonsp. 186
The Economics of Open Sourcep. 187
Beyond Softwarep. 189
Goldcorpp. 189
TCHO Chocolatesp. 190
The Open Prosthetics Projectp. 191
Wikipediap. 192
OpenSPARCp. 193
Building an Open Source Community: Practical Advice from a Prop. 194
Protecting Digital Rightsp. 199
Digital Rights Managementp. 199
Is "Open DRM" an Oxymoron?p. 201
Fair Use and Other Concepts for Reducing Restrictionsp. 202
Summary, and What's Nextp. 204
Bringing It to Lifep. 205
Education of the Citizen Engineerp. 207
Updating Engineering Curriculap. 208
Advice for Engineering Studentsp. 211
Advice for Engineering New Hiresp. 212
Citizen Engineers in Actionp. 215
Appendixp. 219
Lifecycle Phase Checklistsp. 219
The "Make" Phasep. 220
The "Use" Phasep. 221
The "Renew" Phasep. 222
Required Reading for Citizen Engineersp. 223
Notesp. 225
Photo Creditsp. 233
Indexp. 235
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