Clinical Psychology: A Modern Health Profession

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  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2011-02-25
  • Publisher: Psychology Pres

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Introduces students#xA0;to Clinical Psychology by portraying the field as a health profession that uses cognition, emotion and somatic principles to help understand, assess and modify health showcasing the field in its reality. #xA0; For undergraduate sophomore/junior level Clinical Psychology courses. #xA0; The authors approached the task as beginning with an appreciation for the problems that the profession needs to solve which makes it easy to relate to them as #x18;real#x19;.#xA0;This book is distinct because it Has a fresh approach to learning, encouraging problem solving rather than lecturing Offers an international perspective Views clinical psychology as an integrative health care profession and not just a mental health care field Integrates social and biological bases of behavior Presents material pertaining to the realities of being a clinical psychologist.

Author Biography

Author #1:

Wolfgang Linden is a Full Professor in Clinical Psychology whose work has centered on psychological factors in the etiology, prevention, and treatment of cardiovascular disorders and cancer. He has taught ‘Introduction to Clinical Psychology’ as a 2-semester, 4th year undergraduate course for over 20 years at the University of British Columbia. His course is organized as a co-op environment such that students spend an additional half-day per week in a clinical or clinical research placement to gather hands-on experience. This teaching model is so appealing to students that the available spots in the course usually fill within 24 hours of open registration. Dr. Linden received clinical training and accumulated clinical experience over three decades, in three countries, and in two languages. He maintains a private practice, has twice served as Director of Clinical Training in UBC’s APA/CPA accredited training program, and volunteered a great deal of time for improvements in mental health care delivery. He takes pride in having developed a research program that bridges experimental research in the laboratory with descriptive and intervention studies in clinical populations. Dr. Linden’s work has appeared in 6 books and roughly 130 peer-reviewed journal publications and book chapters.


Author #2:

Dr. Paul L. Hewitt is a Full Professor of Psychology in the Department of Psychology at the University of British Columbia and a practicing Clinical Psychologist in the Vancouver, British Columbia metropolitan area. He received his Ph.D. from the University of Saskatchewan in 1988 and completed his clinical residency at the University of Washington Health Sciences Center in Seattle, Washington. He has been conducting research on perfectionism and psychopathology since his undergraduate training and has published over 130 refereed journal articles, 17 chapters, and 3 books. His research and writing focuses extensively on perfectionism and maladaptive outcomes such as suicide, depression, and interpersonal problems, although he also publishes in the suicide and eating disorder literatures. Dr. Hewitt’s clinical work tends to focus on individuals experiencing difficulties from perfectionism and conducts workshops, training seminars, symposia, and educational media presentations regarding perfectionism and clinical psychology more generally. He is asked regularly to speak at national and international conferences and meetings on his perfectionism research and treatment. Lastly, Dr. Hewitt’s teaching involves courses on clinical psychology, psychopathology, assessment, and psychotherapy. He has specific interests in the training of psychotherapists but also enjoys teaching introductory psychology courses.

Table of Contents

  • Chapter 1

    Chapter Organization

    Describing the profession

    The challenges and responsibilities of four different psychologists
    A Clinical Psychology student
    Clinical Psychologist A - working in a general hospital setting
    Clinical Psychologist B - working in a private practice setting

    Clinical Psychologist C - working in an academic setting

    Practice realities in Clinical Psychology


    • Chapter 2

    Chapter objective

    Considerations for career planning

    Concrete planning steps

    Maximizing your academic preparation and building the best

    Possible application package for graduate training

    Application Forms

    Grade Point Averages

    Graduate Record Examination (GRE)

    The statement of interest

    Letters of reference

    Research or clinical experience?

    Timing Issues

    Surviving graduate school

    Getting licensed

    Getting the most of graduate school

    Post-doctoral training

    Getting licensed


    • Chapter 3

    Chapter Objective

    Chapter Organization

    Properties of psychological tests



    How should tests be described with respect to their

    reliability and validity?

    Measuring change in therapy

    Methods used to learn about therapy outcome:

    Case studies

    Therapy outcome research

    Qualitative research

    Program Evaluation

    • Chapter 4


    Setting the tone

    Defining what ethical behavior is

    Our Profession’s Commitment to Ethical Standards of Practice

    Legal facts and Ethics

    Practice Guidelines/Codes of Conduct

    Custody and Access Reports: necessary and contentious

    Codes of Ethics

    General Principles


    • Chapter 5

    Objective of This Chapter

    Vignettes 1-4

    Psychological Problems that Clinical Psychologists Focus On

    Defining Psychological Problems

    Statistical or Normative Approach

    Subjective Interpretation (psychological pain)

    Judgments of Maladaptive Functioning

    Issues in Defining Psychological Problems

    Some Concepts in Defining Psychological Problems




    Mental Disorder

    Psychological Problems: What processes are affected?

    Emotions and Emotional Regulation

    Thoughts/Cognitions, Intellectual Functioning, Information Processing


    Interpersonal Processes

    Regulatory or Coping Behavior



    Conceptualizations of Psychological Problems

    Philosophical underpinnings of Orientations to Psychopathology

    Symptom as Focus

    Underlying Cause as Focus

    Current Conceptualizations of Psychopathology

    Diagnostic Classification Systems




    Theory Development



    Insurance and Reimbursement

    Epidemiological Information

    Specific Current Classification Systems

    International Classification of Diseases — 10

    Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders 4th Ed Text Revision

    The Psychodynamic Diagnostic Manual

    The Operationalized Psychodynamic Diagnostics


    Ongoing Considerations

    Key Terms Learned

    Thinking Questions

    • Chapter 6

    Objective of This Chapter

    Vignettes 1-3

    What is Psychological Assessment?

    Psychological Testing versus Psychological Assessment

    Psychological Assessment in Practice and Training

    Purpose of Assessment

    The Tools of Psychological Assessment

    Types of Psychological Assessment

    Psychodiagnostic Assessment







    Goals of Assessment

    Problem Explication



    Treatment Issues and Recommendations

    Provision of Therapeutic Context

    Communication of Findings


    Importance of Context

    Interpretation, Decision Making, and Prediction

    Qualitative or Actuarial Approach

    Clinical Judgment or Subjective Approach

    Clinical Decision Making and Errors in Judgment

    Base Rate Issue

    Barnum Effect

    Illusory Correlation

    Preconceived Ideas and Confirmatory Bias

    Inappropriate Use of Heuristics


    Ongoing Considerations

    Key Words Learned

    Thinking Questions

    • Chapter 7

    Objective of This Chapter

    Psychodiagnostic Assessment

    What are the tests and tools used in psychodiagnostic assessment?

    Clinical Interviews

    Unstructured Interviews

    Pros of Unstructured Interviews

    Cons of Unstructured Interviews

    Structured Interviews

    Pros of Structured Interviews

    Cons of Unstructured Interviews

    Objective Tests: Self-Report Inventories

    Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) and MMPI-2

    Validity Scales

    Clinical Scales


    Reliability and Validity

    Pros of MMPI-2

    Cons of MMPI-2


    Millon Clinical Multiaxial Inventories

    Pros of the MCMI-III

    Cons of the MCMI-III

    Personality Assessment Inventory (PAI)

    Rating Scales


    Rorschach Inkblot Technique

    Reliability and Validity

    Pros of the RIT

    Cons of the RIT

    Thematic Apperception Test (Technique)

    Reliability and Validity

    Pros of the TAT

    Cons of the TAT

    Drawing Tasks

    Reliability and Validity

    Pros of the Drawing Tasks

    Cons of the Drawing Tasks


    Key Terms Learned

    Ongoing Considerations

    Thinking Questions

    • Chapter 8

    Intellectual Assessment

    Purpose of Intellectual Assessment

    Domains Assessed in Intellectual Assessment

    G Model or the Psychometric Approach

    Multiple Intelligences

    Gardner’s Theory of Multiple Intelligences

    What is IQ?

    Intelligence Tests

    Stanford-Binet Scale

    Stanford-Binet 5 (SB-5)

    Wechsler Scales of Intelligence

    Wechsler Adult Intelligence Scale-IV (WAIS-IV)

    Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children-IV (WISC-IV)

    Wechsler Preschool and Primary Scale of Intelligence-III (WPPSII-II)

    Interpreting and Using Intelligence Test Scores

    Clinical Neuropsychology and Neuropsychological Evaluations

    Purposes of Neuropsychological Assessment

    Assumptions Underlying Neuropsychological Assessment

    Domains Important to Assess

    How is a Neuropsychological Evaluation Done?

    Neuropsychological Tests: Fixed Batteries

    Halstead Reitan

    Pros of the Halstead Reitan

    Cons of the Halstead Reitan

    Luria Nebraska

    NEPSY-III: A Developmental Neuropsychological Assessment

    Neuropsychological Testing: Process Approach


    Key Terms Learned

    Ongoing Considerations

    Thought Questions


    • Chapter 9

    Chapter objectives

    Behavioral Assessment

    Rationale and basic principles

    Validity and ethics in implementation and interpretation

    What can be done to maximize the usefulness of observations? Tips for strengthening observational methods



    Biological Assessment

    Physiological systems

    Measurement of physiological activity
    Reliability and validity




    • Chapter 10


    Defining Psychotherapy

    The Therapy Environment

    Homework assignments

    Therapy length

    Multi-client therapy

    Elements in the process of therapy

    The Client

    The Therapist

    The Technique

    The Alliance

    Typical presenting problems

    The therapeutic relationship

    Cultural competence in clinical psychology


    • Chapter 11

    Objective of this chapter



    How Common is Psychoanalysis or Psychodynamic Treatment?

    General Principles of the Theoretical Models Underlying Psychoanalytic Treatment

    Primary Assumptions and Principles of Psychoanalytic Treatment

    Evolution of Psychoanalytic Theory

    Phases of Classical Psychoanalysis

    Ego Psychology

    Object Relations Theory

    Self Psychology Theory

    Short Term Dynamic Psychotherapies

    Goals of Psychoanalysis and Psychoanalytic Psychotherapy

    Psychoanalytic Treatment

    Vehicles for Behavior Change in Psychoanalytic Treatment

    New Issues in the Field

    Person Centered Therapy


    Person-centered psychotherapy


    Unconditional Positive Regard


    Systems Therapies


    Specific Systems Therapy Approaches


    Ongoing controversies

    Key terms learned

    Thinking questions

    • Chapter 12

    Behavior therapy

    Roots and underlying theory

    Ethical considerations



    Concluding observations

    Cognitive therapy

    Two major proponents: Ellis and Beck

    Cognitive-behavioral therapy

    Biofeedback/Relaxation/Stress management


    Relaxation/Self-regulation methods

    Summary & conclusion

    Stress management

    A model of the stress process: Major components & moderating variables


    Emotion-focused therapy

    Motivational interviewing

    Dialectical behavior therapy

    • Chapter 13

    Chapter objective
    A brief history of therapy outcome research

    What questions are meta-analytic reviews trying to answer?
    What has been learned from existing meta-analyses?
    Cost effectiveness of psychological therapies
    Controversies around knowledge translation from therapy outcome research

    • Chapter 14

    Chapter objective
    Defining treatment specificity
    Description and rationale
    Hypnotic susceptibility
    Understanding and measuring hypnotic trance
    The method
    Treatment outcome
    Summary of hypnosis

    Eye Movement Desensitization and Reprocessing (EMDR)
    Description, rationale & method
    Treatment outcome
    Summary of EMDR
    Acceptance and commitment therapy
    Description, rationale & method
    Treatment outcome
    Summary of ACT
    Mindfulness meditation (MM)
    Roots, rationale & procedure
    The method
    Treatment outcome
    Summary of MM
    Revisiting claims of uniqueness and specificity


    • Chapter 15

    Chapter objectives

    Developmental stages and childhood psychopathology

    Ethical challenges

    Impact of development on assessment


    Behavior Therapy

    Play Therapy

    Systems Therapy

    Overview of Treatment Outcome

    The example of Attention Deficit/Hyperactivity Disorder (ADHD)

    • Chapter 16

    Objective of this chapter

    What is Forensic Psychology?

    Forensic Psychology Today

    The Clinical Forensic Psychologist

    Police Psychology

    Crime and Delinquency


    Correctional Psychology

    Psychology and Law or Legal Psychology

    Differences between Traditional Clinical Psychology and Forensic Psychology Practice

    Tasks of the Clinical Forensic Psychologist


    Forensic Assessment Tools

    Forensically Relevant Assessment Tools

    Clinical Measures and Assessment Techniques


    Treatment of Perpetrators of Crime

    Treatment of Victims of Crime

    Treatment of Workers in the Field

    Consultation and Opinions

    Lie Detection


    Ongoing controversies

    Key terms learned

    Thinking questions

    • Chapter 17

    Chapter objective

    Understanding Health and the Causation of Diseases

    Early Life Influences and Health

    Prevention and Management of Chronic Disease



    Working with Cardiovascular Disease Patients


    Chronic Heart Failure

    Heart Transplantation


    Working with Cancer Patients


    • Chapter 18

    Chapter objectives
    A clinical case scenario

    The language of pharmacology: Important concepts
    Frequently used terms and abbreviations
    Types of psychopharmacological medication and areas of application
    How arrival of the Internet has changed clinical practice
    Some sobering, real-world considerations
    Should psychologists have drug prescription privileges?

    • Chapter 19

    Chapter objective

    Changes in health care

    Clinical Training

    Prescription privileges

    Clinical Psychology, computers and the web

    Research in Clinical Psychology

    Positive psychology and spirituality


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