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9780831131364

Cnc Programming Handbook

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780831131364

  • ISBN10:

    0831131365

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2000-03-01
  • Publisher: Industrial Pr

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

A broad reference for CNC programmers, covering the full range of subjects encountered by professionals on a daily basis. Includes more than 1,000 tables, formulas, tips, shortcuts, illustrations and examples. Flexible enough to be used by programmers, engineers and supervisors at any level of training. DLC: Machine tools--Numerical control--Handbooks, manuals, etc.

Table of Contents

Numerical Control
1(6)
Definition of Numerical Control
1(1)
NC and CNC Technology
1(1)
Conventional and CNC Machining
2(1)
Numerical Control Advantages
2(2)
Setup Time Reduction
3(1)
Lead Time Reduction
3(1)
Accuracy and Repeatability
3(1)
Contouring of Complex Shapes
3(1)
Simplified Tooling and Work Holding
3(1)
Cutting Time and Productivity Increase
4(1)
Types of CNC Machine Tools
4(1)
Mills and Machining Centers
4(1)
Lathes and Turning Centers
5(1)
Personnel for CNC
5(1)
CNC Programmer
5(1)
CNC Machine Operator
6(1)
Safety Related to CNC Work
6(1)
CNC Milling
7(4)
CNC Machines - Milling
7(4)
Types of Milling Machines
7(1)
Machine Axes
8(1)
Vertical Machining Centers
8(1)
Horizontal Machining Centers
9(1)
Horizontal Boring Mill
10(1)
Typical Specifications
10(1)
CNC Turning
11(4)
CNC Machines - Turning
11(1)
Types of CNC Lathes
11(1)
Number of Axes
11(1)
Axes Designation
11(2)
Two-axis Lathe
12(1)
Three-axis Lathe
12(1)
Four-axis Lathe
13(1)
Six-axis Lathe
13(1)
Features and Specifications
13(2)
Typical Machine Specifications
13(1)
Control Features
14(1)
Coordinate Geometry
15(4)
Real Number System
15(1)
Rectangular Coordinate System
15(2)
Axes and Planes
16(1)
Point of Origin
16(1)
Quadrants
16(1)
Right Hand Coordinate System
17(1)
Machine Geometry
17(2)
Axis Orientation - Milling
17(1)
Axis Orientation - Turning
18(1)
Additional Axes
18(1)
Control System
19(12)
General Description
20(2)
Operation Panel
20(1)
Screen Display and Keyboard
21(1)
Handle
22(1)
System Features
22(3)
Parameter Settings
22(1)
System Defaults
23(1)
Memory Capacity
24(1)
Manual Program Interruption
25(1)
Single Block Operation
25(1)
Feedhold
25(1)
Emergency Stop
25(1)
Manual Data Input - MDI
26(1)
Program Data Override
26(3)
Rapid Motion Override
26(1)
Spindle Speed Override
27(1)
Feedrate Override
27(1)
Dry Run Operation
27(1)
Z Axis Neglect
28(1)
Manual Absolute Setting
28(1)
Sequence Return
28(1)
Auxiliary Functions Lock
28(1)
Machine Lock
28(1)
Practical Applications
29(1)
System Options
29(2)
Graphic Display
29(1)
In-Process Gauging
30(1)
Stored Stroke Limits
30(1)
Drawing Dimensions Input
30(1)
Machining Cycles
30(1)
Cutting Tool Animation
30(1)
Connection to External Devices
30(1)
Program Planning
31(10)
Steps in Program Planning
31(1)
Initial Information
31(1)
Machine Tools Features
31(1)
Machine Type and Size
31(1)
Control System
31(1)
Part Complexity
32(1)
Manual Programming
32(1)
Disadvantages
32(1)
Advantages
32(1)
CAD/CAM and CNC
32(1)
Integration
33(1)
Future of Manual Programming
33(1)
Typical Programming Procedure
33(1)
Part Drawing
34(2)
Title Block
34(1)
Dimensioning
34(1)
Tolerances
35(1)
Surface Finish
35(1)
Drawing Revisions
36(1)
Special Instructions
36(1)
Methods Sheet
36(1)
Material Specifications
36(1)
Material Uniformity
36(1)
Machinability Rating
37(1)
Machining Sequence
37(1)
Tooling Selection
38(1)
Part Setup
38(1)
Setup Sheet
38(1)
Technological Decisions
38(2)
Cutter Path
38(1)
Machine Power Rating
39(1)
Coolants and Lubricants
39(1)
Work Sketch And Calculations
40(1)
Identification Methods
40(1)
Quality in CNC Programming
40(1)
Part Program Structure
41(6)
Basic Programming Terms
41(1)
Character
41(1)
Word
41(1)
Block
41(1)
Program
42(1)
Programming Formats
42(1)
Word Address Format
42(1)
Format Notation
43(2)
Short Forms
43(1)
Milling System Format
43(1)
Turning System Format
44(1)
Multiple Word Addresses
45(1)
Symbols in Programming
45(1)
Plus and Minus Sign
45(1)
Program Header
45(1)
Typical Program Structure
46(1)
Preparatory Commands
47(6)
Description and Purpose
47(1)
Applications for Milling
47(2)
Applications for Turning
49(1)
G Codes In A Program Block
50(1)
Modality of G-commands
50(1)
Conflicting Commands in a Block
50(1)
Word Order in a Block
51(1)
Grouping of Commands
51(1)
Group Numbers
51(1)
G Code Types
52(1)
G Codes and Decimal Point
52(1)
Miscellaneous Functions
53(8)
Description And Purpose
53(1)
Machine Related Functions
53(1)
Program Related Functions
53(1)
Typical Applications
54(1)
Applications for Milling
54(1)
Applications for Turning
54(1)
Special MDI Functions
54(1)
Application Groups
54(1)
M Functions In A Block
55(1)
Startup of M Functions
56(1)
Duration of M Functions
56(1)
Program Functions
56(2)
Program Stop
56(1)
Optional Program Stop
57(1)
Program End
58(1)
Subprogram End
58(1)
Machine Functions
58(3)
Coolant Functions
58(1)
Spindle Functions
59(1)
Gear Range Selection
60(1)
Machine Accessories
60(1)
Sequence Block
61(8)
Block Structure
61(1)
Building the Block Structure
61(1)
Block Structure for Milling
61(1)
Program Identification
62(1)
Program Number
62(1)
Program Name
62(1)
Sequence Numbers
63(1)
Sequence Number Command
63(1)
Sequence Block Format
63(1)
Numbering Increment
64(1)
Long Programs and Block Numbers
64(1)
End of Block Character
64(1)
Startup Block or Safe Block
65(1)
Program Comments
66(1)
Conflicting Words In A Block
66(1)
Modal Programming Values
67(1)
Execution Priority
68(1)
Input Of Dimensions
69(8)
English And Metric Units
69(1)
Comparable Unit Values
70(1)
Absolute and Incremental Modes
70(3)
Preparatory Commands G90 and G91
71(1)
Absolute Data Input - G90
72(1)
Incremental Data Input - G91
72(1)
Combinations in a Single Block
72(1)
Diameter Programming
73(1)
Minimum Motion Increment
73(1)
Format of Dimensional Input
73(3)
Full Address Format
74(1)
Zero Suppression
74(1)
Decimal Point Programming
75(1)
Input Comparison
76(1)
Calculator Type Input
76(1)
Spindle Control
77(10)
Spindle Function
77(1)
Spindle Speed Input
77(1)
Direction Of Spindle Rotation
77(3)
Direction for Milling
78(1)
Direction for Turning
78(1)
Direction Specification
79(1)
Spindle Startup
79(1)
Spindle Stop
80(1)
Spindle Orientation
80(1)
Spindle Speed - R/Min
81(1)
Spindle Speed - Surface
81(1)
Material Machinability
81(1)
Spindle Speed - English Units
82(1)
Spindle Speed - Metric Units
82(1)
Constant Surface Speed
82(5)
Maximum Spindle Speed Setting
84(1)
Part Diameter Calculation in CSS
85(2)
Feedrate Control
87(6)
Feedrate Control
87(1)
Feedrate Function
87(1)
Feedrate per Minute
87(1)
Feedrate per Revolution
88(1)
Feedrate Selection
88(1)
Acceleration And Deceleration
88(2)
Exact Stop Command
89(1)
Exact Stop Mode Command
89(1)
Automatic Corner Override
89(1)
Tapping Mode
89(1)
Cutting Mode
90(1)
Constant Feedrate
90(1)
Circular Motion Feedrates
90(1)
Maximum Feedrate
91(1)
Maximum Feedrate Considerations
91(1)
Feedhold and Override
91(1)
Feedhold Switch
91(1)
Feedrate Override Switch
91(1)
Feedrate Override Functions
92(1)
E Address In Threading
92(1)
Tool Function
93(14)
T Function For Machining Centers
93(2)
Tool Storage Magazine
93(1)
Fixed Tool Selection
94(1)
Random Memory Tool Selection
94(1)
Registering Tool Numbers
94(1)
Programming Format
95(1)
Empty Tool or Dummy Tool
95(1)
Tool Change Function - M06
95(1)
Conditions for Tool Change
95(1)
Automatic Tool Changer - ATC
96(2)
Typical ATC System
96(1)
Maximum Tool Diameter
97(1)
Maximum Tool Length
97(1)
Maximum Tool Weight
97(1)
ATC Cycle
98(1)
MDI Operation
98(1)
Programming The ATC
98(5)
Single Tool Work
98(1)
Programming Several Tools
99(1)
Keeping Track of Tools
99(1)
Any Tool in Spindle - Not the First
99(1)
First Tool in the Spindle
100(1)
No Tool in the Spindle
101(1)
First Tool in the Spindle with Manual Change
101(1)
No Tool in the Spindle with Manual Change
102(1)
First Tool in the Spindle and an Oversize Tool
102(1)
No Tool in the Spindle and an Oversize Tool
102(1)
T Function for Lathes
103(1)
Lathe Tool Station
103(1)
Tool Indexing
103(1)
Tool Offset Registers
104(3)
Geometry Offset
104(1)
Wear Offset
105(1)
Wear Offset Adjustment
106(1)
The R and T Settings
106(1)
Reference Points
107(6)
Reference Point Groups
107(1)
Reference Point Groups Relationship
108(1)
Machine Reference Point
108(1)
Return to Machine Zero
109(1)
Part Reference Point
109(3)
Program Zero Selection
109(1)
Program Zero - Machining Centers
110(2)
Program Zero - Lathes
112(1)
Tool Reference Point
112(1)
Register Commands
113(6)
Position Register Command
113(1)
Position Register Definition
113(1)
Programming Format
113(1)
Tool Position Setting
114(1)
Machining Centers Application
114(1)
Tool Set at Machine Zero
114(1)
Tool Set Away from Machine Zero
114(1)
Position Register in Z Axis
115(1)
Programming Example
115(1)
Lathe Application
115(4)
Tool Setup
116(1)
Three-Tool Setup Groups
116(1)
Center Line Tools Setup
116(1)
External Tools Setup
117(1)
Internal Tool Setup
117(1)
Corner Tip Detail
117(1)
Programming Example
117(2)
Position Compensation
119(4)
Description
119(4)
Programming Commands
119(1)
Programming Format
119(1)
Incremental Mode
120(1)
Motion Length Calculation
120(2)
Position Compensation Along the Z axis
122(1)
Using G47 and G48
122(1)
Face Milling
122(1)
Work Offsets
123(8)
Work Areas Available
123(1)
Additional Work Offsets
124(1)
Work Offset Default And Startup
124(3)
Work Offset Change
125(1)
Z Axis Application
126(1)
Horizontal Machine Application
127(1)
External Work Offsets
128(1)
Lathe Applications
128(1)
Types of Offsets
128(1)
Geometry Offset
128(1)
Wear Offset
129(1)
Tool and Offset Numbers
129(1)
Tool Setup
129(2)
Center Line Tools
129(1)
Turning Tools
130(1)
Boring Tools
130(1)
Command Point and Tool Work Offset
130(1)
Tool Length Offset
131(12)
General Principles
131(1)
Actual Tool Length
131(1)
Gauge Line
131(1)
Table Top Face
132(1)
Tool Length Offset Commands
132(1)
Distance-To-Go in Z Axis
132(1)
Tool Length Setup
133(1)
On-Machine Tool Length Setting
133(1)
Off-Machine Tool Length Setting
134(1)
Tool Length Offset Value Register
134(1)
Z Axis Relationships
134(3)
Preset Tool Length
135(1)
Tool Length by Touch Off
135(1)
Using a Master Tool Length
136(1)
G43-G44 Difference
136(1)
Programming Formats
137(3)
Tool Length Offset not Available
137(1)
Tool Length Offset and G92
138(1)
Tool Length Offset and G54-G59
139(1)
Tool Length Offset and Multiple Tools
139(1)
Changing Tool Length Offset
140(1)
Horizontal Machine Application
141(1)
Tool Length Offset Cancel
141(2)
Rapid Positioning
143(6)
Rapid Traverse Motion
143(1)
G00 Command
143(1)
Rapid Motion Tool Path
144(2)
Single Axis Motion
144(1)
Multiaxis Motion
144(2)
Straight Angular Motion
146(1)
Reverse Rapid Motion
146(1)
Type of Motion & Time Comparison
146(1)
Reduction of Rapid Motion Rate
147(1)
Rapid Motion Formuls
147(1)
Approach to the Part
148(1)
Machine Zero Return
149(10)
Machine Reference Position
149(2)
Machining Centers
149(1)
Lathes
150(1)
Setting the Machine Axes
150(1)
Program Commands
151(1)
Command Group
151(1)
Return to Primary Machine Zero
151(5)
Intermediate Point
151(1)
Absolute and Incremental Mode
152(1)
Return from the Z Depth Position
153(2)
Axes Return Required for the ATC
155(1)
Zero Return for CNC Lathes
155(1)
Return Position Check Command
156(1)
Return From Machine Zero Point
157(1)
Return to Secondary Machine Zero
158(1)
Linear Interpolation
159(4)
Linear Command
159(1)
Start and End of the Linear Motion
159(1)
Single Axis Linear Interpolation
159(1)
Two Axes Linear Interpolation
160(1)
Three Axis Linear Interpolation
160(1)
Programming Format
160(1)
Linear Feedrate
161(1)
Feedrate Range
161(1)
Individual Axis Feedrate
161(1)
Programming Example
162(1)
Block Skip Function
163(8)
Typical Applications
163(1)
Block Skip Symbol
163(1)
Control Unit Setting
163(1)
Block Skip And Modal Commands
164(1)
Programming Examples
165(6)
Variable Stock Removal
165(1)
Machining Pattern Change
166(2)
Trial Cut for Measuring
168(1)
Program Proving
169(1)
Barfeeder Application
170(1)
Numbered Block Skip
170(1)
Dwell Command
171(6)
Programming Applications
171(1)
Applications for Cutting
171(1)
Applications for Accessories
171(1)
Dwell Command
171(1)
Dwell Command Structure
172(1)
Dwell Time Selection
172(1)
Setting Mode and Dwell
173(1)
Time Setting
173(1)
Number of Revolutions Setting
173(1)
Minimum Dwell
173(1)
Number of Revolutions
174(1)
System Setting
174(1)
Time Equivalent
174(1)
Long Dwell Time
175(1)
Machine Warm-Up
175(1)
X Axis is the Dwelling Axis
176(1)
Safety and Dwell
176(1)
Fixed Cycles And Dwell
176(1)
Fixed Cycles
177(14)
Point-To-Point Machining
177(1)
Single Tool Motions vs. Fixed Cycles
178(1)
Fixed Cycle Selection
178(1)
Programming Format
179(1)
General Rules
180(1)
Absolute and Incremental Values
180(1)
Initial Level Selection
181(1)
R Level Selection
181(1)
Z Depth Calculations
182(1)
Description Of Fixed Cycles
183(6)
G81 - Drilling Cycle
183(1)
G82 - Spot-Drilling Cycle
183(1)
G83 - Deep Hole Drilling Cycle - Standard
184(1)
G73 - Deep Hole Drilling Cycle - High Speed
184(2)
G84 - Tapping Cycle - Standard
186(1)
G74 - Tapping Cycle - Reverse
186(1)
G85 - Boring Cycle
187(1)
G86 - Boring Cycle
187(1)
G87 - Backboring Cycle
187(1)
G88 - Boring Cycle
188(1)
G89 - Boring Cycle
188(1)
G76 - Precision Boring Cycle
189(1)
Fixed Cycle Cancellation
189(1)
Fixed Cycle Repetition
189(2)
The L or K Address
190(1)
LO or KO in a Cycle
190(1)
Machining Holes
191(26)
Single Hole Evaluation
191(3)
Tooling Selection and Applications
191(3)
Program Data
194(1)
Drilling Operations
194(5)
Types of Drilling Operations
194(1)
Types of Drills
194(1)
Programming Considerations
195(1)
Nominal Drill Diameter
195(1)
Effective Drill Diameter
195(1)
Drill Point Length
195(1)
Center Drilling
196(1)
Through Hole Drilling
196(1)
Blind Hole Drilling
197(1)
Flat Bottom Drilling
197(1)
Indexable Insert Drilling
198(1)
Peck Drilling
199(2)
Typical Peck Drilling Application
199(1)
Calculating the Number of Pecks
199(1)
Selecting the Number of Pecks
200(1)
Controlling Breakthrough Depth
200(1)
Reaming
201(1)
Reamer Design
201(1)
Spindle Speeds for Reaming
201(1)
Feedrates for Reaming
201(1)
Stock Allowance
202(1)
Other Reaming Considerations
202(1)
Single Point Boring
202(1)
Single Point Boring Tool
202(1)
Spindle Orientation
203(1)
Block Tools
203(1)
Boring with A Tool Shift
203(2)
Precision Boring Cycle G76
203(1)
Backboring Cycle G87
204(1)
Programming Example
204(1)
Precautions in Programming and Setup
205(1)
Enlarging Holes
205(2)
Countersinking
205(1)
Counterboring
206(1)
Spotfacing
207(1)
Multilevel Drilling
207(1)
Web Drilling
208(1)
Tapping
209(3)
Tap Geometry
210(1)
Tapping Speed and Feedrate
210(1)
Pipe Taps
211(1)
Tapping Check List
212(1)
Hole Operations On A Lathe
212(5)
Tool Approach Motion
213(1)
Tool Return Motion
213(1)
Drilling and Reaming on Lathes
214(1)
Peck Drilling Cycle - G74
214(1)
Tapping on Lathes
215(1)
Other Operations
216(1)
Pattern of Holes
217(10)
Typical Hole Patterns
217(1)
Random Hole Pattern
217(1)
Straight Row Hole Pattern
218(1)
Angular Row Hole Pattern
218(2)
Pattern Defined by Coordinates
218(1)
Pattern Defined by Angle
219(1)
Corner Pattern
220(1)
Grid Pattern
220(2)
Angular Grid Pattern
221(1)
ARC Hole Pattern
222(1)
Bolt Hole Circle Pattern
223(2)
Bolt Circle Formula
224(1)
Pattern Orientation
224(1)
Polar Coordinate System
225(2)
Plane Selection
226(1)
Order of Machining
226(1)
Face Milling
227(8)
Cutter Selection
227(1)
Basic Selection Criteria
227(1)
Face Mill Diameter
227(1)
Insert Geometry
228(1)
Cutting Considerations
228(2)
Angle of Entry
229(1)
Milling Mode
229(1)
Number of Cutting Inserts
230(1)
Programming Techniques
230(3)
Single Face Mill Cut
231(1)
Multiple Face Mill Cuts
232(1)
Using Position Compensation
233(2)
Circular Interpolation
235(12)
Elements Of A Circle
235(1)
Radius and Diameter
235(1)
Circle Area and Circumference
236(1)
Quadrants
236(1)
Quadrant Points
236(1)
Programming Format
237(3)
Arc Cutting Direction
237(1)
Circular Interpolation Block
237(1)
Arc Start and End Points
238(1)
Arc Center and Radius
238(1)
Arc Center Vectors
238(1)
Arc in Planes
239(1)
Radius Programming
240(1)
Blend Radius
240(1)
Partial Radius
240(1)
Full Circle Programming
240(5)
Boss Milling
242(1)
Internal Circle Cutting - Linear Start
243(1)
Internal Circle Cutting - Circular Start
243(1)
Circle Cutting Cycle
244(1)
Arc Programming
245(1)
Feedrate for Circular Motion
245(2)
Feedrate for Outside Arcs
246(1)
Feedrate for Inside Arcs
246(1)
Cutter Radius Offset
247(22)
Manual Calculations
247(3)
Tool Path Center Points
248(1)
Cutter Radius
249(1)
Center Points Calculation
249(1)
Compensated Cutter Path
250(1)
Types of Cutter Radius Offset
250(1)
Definition and Applications
250(1)
Programming Techniques
250(4)
Direction of Cutting Motion
251(1)
Left or Right - not CW or CCW
251(1)
Offset Commands
251(1)
Radius of the Cutter
252(1)
History of Offset Types
252(1)
Programming Format
253(1)
Address H or D?
253(1)
Geometry and Wear Offsets
254(1)
Applying Cutter Radius Offset
254(2)
Startup Methods
254(2)
Offset Cancellation
256(1)
Cutter Direction Change
256(1)
How The Radius Offset Works
256(5)
Look-Ahead Offset Type
257(1)
Rules for Look-Ahead Cutter Radius Offset
257(1)
Radius of the Cutter
258(1)
Radius Offset Interference
259(1)
Single vs. Multiaxis Startup
260(1)
Overview Of General Rules
261(1)
Practical Example - Milling
262(4)
Part Tolerances
262(1)
Measured Part Size
262(1)
Programmed Offsets
263(1)
D Offset Amount - General Setting
263(1)
Offset Adjustment
264(1)
Offset for External Cutting
264(1)
Offset for Internal Cutting
265(1)
One Offset or Multiple Offsets?
265(1)
Preventing a Scrap
265(1)
Program Data - Nominal or Middle?
266(1)
Tool Nose Radius Offset
266(3)
Tool Nose Tip
266(1)
Radius Offset Commands
266(1)
Tool Tip Orientation
266(1)
Effect of Tool Nose Radius Offset
267(1)
Sample Program
267(1)
Minimum Clearance Required
268(1)
Change of Motion Direction
268(1)
Plane Selection
269(6)
What Is A Plane?
269(1)
Machining In Planes
269(2)
Mathematical Planes
269(1)
Machine Tool Planes
270(1)
Program Commands for Planes Definition
270(1)
Default Control Status
271(1)
Straight Motion In Planes
271(1)
Circular Interpolation In Planes
271(2)
G17-G18-G19 as Modal Commands
272(1)
Absence of Axis Data in a Block
272(1)
Cutter Radius Offset in Planes
273(1)
Practical Example
273(1)
Fixed Cycles In Planes
274(1)
Peripheral Milling
275(6)
End Mills
275(2)
High Speed Steel End Mills
276(1)
Solid Carbide End Mills
276(1)
Indexable Insert End Mills
276(1)
Relief Angles
276(1)
End Mill Size
276(1)
Number of Flutes
277(1)
Speeds and Feeds
277(2)
Coolants and Lubricants
278(1)
Tool Chatter
278(1)
Stock Removal
279(2)
Plunge Infeed
279(1)
In and Out Ramping
279(1)
Direction of Cut
279(1)
Width and Depth of Cut
280(1)
Slots And Pockets
281(12)
Open and Closed Boundary
281(1)
Open Boundary
281(1)
Closed Boundary
281(1)
Programming Slots
281(3)
Open Slot Example
281(2)
Closed Slot Example
283(1)
Pocket Milling
284(1)
General Principles
284(1)
Pocket Types
285(1)
Rectangular Pockets
285(4)
Stock Amount
286(1)
Stepover Amount
286(1)
Length of Cut
287(1)
Semifinishing Motions
287(1)
Finishing Tool Path
287(1)
Rectangular Pocket Program Example
288(1)
Circular Pockets
289(3)
Minimum Cutter Diameter
289(1)
Method of Entry
289(1)
Linear Approach
289(1)
Linear and Circular Approach
290(1)
Roughing a Circular Pocket
291(1)
Circular Pocket Cycles
292(1)
Turning And Boring
293(14)
Tool Function - Turning
293(1)
T Address
293(1)
Lathe Offsets
294(1)
Offset Entry
294(1)
Independent Tool Offset
294(1)
Tool Offset with Motion
295(1)
Offset Change
295(1)
Multiple Offsets
295(3)
General Approach
296(1)
Diameter Tolerances
296(1)
Shoulder Tolerances
297(1)
Diameter and Shoulder Tolerances
297(1)
Offset Setting
298(1)
Functions for Gear Ranges
298(1)
Automatic Corner Break
299(3)
Chamfering at 45 Degrees
299(2)
Blend Radius at 90 Degrees
301(1)
Programming Conditions
301(1)
Programming Example
301(1)
Rough and Finished Shape
302(2)
Rough Operations
302(1)
Finish Operations
303(1)
Stock and Stock Allowance
303(1)
Programming A Recess
304(1)
Spindle Speed in CSS Mode
305(1)
Lathe Program Format
306(1)
Program Format - Templates
306(1)
General Program Format
306(1)
Approach to the Part
306(1)
Lathe Cycles
307(16)
Stock Removal On Lathes
307(1)
Simple Cycles
307(1)
Complex Cycles
307(1)
Principles Of Lathe Cycles
307(1)
G90 - Straight Cutting Cycle
308(4)
Cycle Format
308(1)
Straight Turning Example
309(1)
Taper Cutting Example
309(2)
Straight and Taper Cutting Example
311(1)
G94 - Face Cutting Cycle
312(1)
Cycle Format
312(1)
Multiple Repetitive Cycles
313(1)
General Description
313(1)
Cycle Format Types
313(1)
Cutting Cycles and Part Contour
313(1)
Chipbreaking Cycles
313(1)
Contour Cutting Cycles
314(1)
Boundary Definition
314(1)
Start Point and the Points P and O
314(1)
Type I and Type II Cycles
315(1)
Programming Type I and Type II Cycles
315(1)
Cycle Formatting
315(1)
G71 - Stock Removal In Turning
315(2)
G71 Cycle Format - 10T/11T/15T
316(1)
G71 Cycle Format - 0T/16T/18T/20T/21T
316(1)
G71 for External Roughing
316(1)
G71 for Internal Roughing
317(1)
Direction of Cutting in G71
317(1)
G72 - Stock Removal In Facing
317(1)
G72 Cycle Format - 10T/11T/15T
317(1)
G72 Cycle Format - 0T/16T/18T/20T/21T
318(1)
G73 - Pattern Repeating Cycle
318(2)
G73 Cycle Format - 10T/11T/15T
318(1)
G73 Cycle Format - 0T/16T/18T/20T/21T
319(1)
G73 Example of Pattern Repeating
319(1)
G70 - Contour Finishing Cycle
320(1)
G70 Cycle Format - All Controls
320(1)
Basic Rules For G70-G73 Cycles
321(1)
G74 - Peck Drilling Cycle
321(1)
G74 Cycle Format - 10T/11T/15T
321(1)
G74 Cycle Format - 0T/16T/18T/20T/21T
321(1)
G75 - Groove Cutting Cycle
322(1)
G75 Cycle Format - 10T/11T/15T
322(1)
G75 Cycle Format - 0T/16T/18T/20T/21T
322(1)
Basic Rules for G74 and G75 Cycles
322(1)
Grooving on Lathes
323(12)
Grooving Operations
323(1)
Main Grooving Applications
323(1)
Grooving Criteria
323(1)
Groove Shape
323(1)
Nominal Insert Size
324(1)
Insert Modification
324(1)
Groove Location
324(1)
Groove Dimensions
324(1)
Groove Position
325(1)
Groove Depth
325(1)
Simple Groove Programming
325(1)
Precision Grooving Techniques
326(4)
Groove Width Selection
327(1)
Machining Method
327(1)
Finishing Allowances
328(1)
Groove Tolerances
329(1)
Groove Surface Finish
330(1)
Multiple Grooves
330(1)
Face Grooves
330(2)
Radial Clearance
331(1)
Face Grooving Program Example
331(1)
Corner Grooves/Neck Grooves
332(1)
Grooving Cycles
332(1)
G75 Cycle Applications
332(1)
Single Groove with G75
333(1)
Multiple Grooves with G75
333(1)
Special Grooves
333(1)
Grooves and Subprograms
334(1)
Part-Off
335(4)
Part-Off Procedure
335(4)
Parting Tool Description
335(1)
Tool Approach Motion
336(1)
Stock Allowance
337(1)
Tool Return Motion
337(1)
Part-off with a Chamfer
337(1)
Preventing Damage to the Part
338(1)
Single Point Threading
339(28)
Threading On CNC Lathes
339(1)
Form of a Thread
339(1)
Threading Operations
340(1)
Terminology of Threading
340(1)
Threading Process
341(3)
Steps in Threading
341(1)
Thread Start Position
342(1)
Thread Cutting Diameter and Depth
342(1)
Thread Cutting Motion
343(1)
Retract from Thread
344(1)
Return to Start Position
344(1)
Threading Feed and Spindle Speed
344(4)
Threading Feedrate Selection
345(1)
Spindle Speed Selection
345(1)
Maximum Threading Feedrate
346(1)
Lead Error
347(1)
Tool Reference Point
348(1)
Block-By-Block Threading
348(1)
Basic Threading Cycle - G92
349(1)
Multiple Repetitive Cycle - G76
350(3)
G76 Cycle Format - 10T/11T/15T
350(1)
G76 Cycle Format - 0T/16T/18T
351(1)
Programming Example
351(1)
First Thread Calculation
352(1)
Thread Infeed Methods
353(2)
Radial Infeed
353(1)
Compound Infeed
353(1)
Thread Insert Angle - Parameter A
354(1)
Thread Cutting Type - Parameter P
354(1)
One-Block Method Calculations
355(2)
Initial Considerations
355(1)
Z Axis Start Position Calculation
355(2)
Thread Retract Motion
357(1)
Thread Pullout Functions
357(1)
Single Axis Pullout
357(1)
Two-Axis Pullout
357(1)
Hand Of Thread
358(1)
Threading To A Shoulder
358(2)
Insert Modification
358(2)
Program Testing
360(1)
Other Thread Forms
360(1)
Thread Depth
360(1)
Tapered Thread
361(3)
Depth and Clearances
361(1)
Taper Calculation
361(1)
Block by Block Taper Thread
362(1)
Tapered Thread Using a Simple Cycle
363(1)
Tapered Thread and a Multi Repetitive Cycle
363(1)
Multistart Thread
364(2)
Threading Feedrate Calculation
364(1)
Shift Amount
365(1)
Application Example
366(1)
Thread Recutting
366(1)
Subprograms
367(14)
Main Program and Subprograms
367(1)
Subprogram Benefits
367(1)
Identification of Subprograms
368(1)
Subprogram Functions
368(3)
Subprogram Call Function
368(1)
Subprogram End Function
368(1)
Block Number to Return to
369(1)
Number of Subprogram Repetitions
369(1)
L0 in a Subprogram Call
370(1)
Subprogram Numbering
371(2)
Organized Approach
372(1)
Protected Subprograms
373(1)
Subprogram Development
373(3)
Repeating Pattern Recognition
373(1)
Tool Motion and Subprograms
374(1)
Modal Values and Subprograms
375(1)
Multi Level Nesting
376(2)
One Level Nesting
376(1)
Two Level Nesting
376(1)
Three Level Nesting
377(1)
Four Level Nesting
377(1)
Nesting Applications
377(1)
Contouring with a Subprogram
378(1)
Tool Change Subprogram
379(1)
100 000 000 Hole Grid
379(2)
Datum Shift
381(12)
Datum Shift With G92 Or G50
381(2)
Program Zero Shift
381(2)
Local Coordinate System
383(1)
G52 Command
384(1)
Machine Coordinate System
384(2)
Data Setting
386(1)
Data Setting Command
386(1)
Coordinate Mode
386(1)
Work Offsets
386(1)
Standard Work Offset Input
386(1)
Additional Work Offset Input
387(1)
External Work Offset Input
387(1)
Tool Length Offsets
387(1)
Valid Input Range
388(1)
Cutter Radius Offsets
388(1)
Lathe Offsets
388(1)
MDI Data Setting
389(1)
Programmable Parameter Entry
389(4)
Modal G10 Command
389(1)
Parameters Notation
390(1)
Program Portability
390(1)
Bit Type Parameter
391(1)
Effect of Block Numbers
392(1)
Mirror Image
393(6)
Basic Rules of Mirror Image
393(2)
Tool Path Direction
393(1)
Original Tool Path
394(1)
Mirror Axis
394(1)
Sign of Coordinates
394(1)
Milling Direction
395(1)
Arc Motion Direction
395(1)
Program Start and End
395(1)
Mirror Image by Setting
395(1)
Control Setting
395(1)
Programming-Manual Mirror Setting
396(1)
Programmable Mirror Image
396(2)
Mirror Image Functions
396(1)
Simple Mirror Image Example
397(1)
Complete Mirror Image Example
398(1)
Mirror Image on CNC Lathes
398(1)
Coordinate Rotation
399(6)
Rotation Commands
399(2)
Center of Rotation
399(1)
Radius of Rotation
399(2)
Coordinate Rotation Cancel
401(1)
Common Applications
401(1)
Practical Application
401(4)
Scaling Function
405(4)
Description
405(1)
Scaling Function Usage
405(1)
Programming Format
405(2)
Scaling Center
406(1)
Scaling Factor
406(1)
Rounding Errors in Scaling
407(1)
Program Examples
407(2)
CNC Lathe Accessories
409(8)
Chuck Control
409(1)
Chuck Functions
409(1)
Chucking Pressure
410(1)
Chuck Jaws
410(1)
Tailstock and Quill
410(2)
Tailstock Body
410(1)
Quill
411(1)
Center
411(1)
Quill Functions
411(1)
Programmable Tailstock
411(1)
Safety Concerns
411(1)
Bi-Directional Turret Indexing
412(1)
Programming Example
412(1)
Barfeeder Attachment
413(1)
Bar Stopper
413(1)
Additional Options
414(1)
Part Catcher or Part Unloader
414(1)
Continuous Operation
414(1)
Parts Counter
415(1)
Pull-Out Finger
415(1)
Programming Example
415(2)
Helical Milling
417(12)
Helical Milling Operation
417(1)
Helical Interpolation
417(1)
Programming Format
417(1)
Arc Modifiers for Helical Interpolation
418(1)
Applications and Usage
418(1)
Thread Milling
418(1)
Applying Thread Milling
418(1)
Conditions for Thread Milling
418(1)
Thread Milling Tool
419(1)
Premachining Requirements
419(1)
Clearance Radius
419(1)
Productivity of Thread Milling
419(1)
The Helix
419(2)
Thread Milling Example
421(5)
Straight Thread
421(1)
Initial Calculations
421(1)
Starting Position
422(1)
Motion Rotation and Direction
422(1)
Lead-In Motions
423(1)
Thread Rise Calculation
424(1)
Milling the Thread
424(1)
Lead-Out Motions
425(1)
Complete Program
425(1)
External Thread Milling
425(1)
Tapered Thread Milling
425(1)
Further Considerations
426(1)
Thread Milling Simulation Method
426(1)
Helical Ramping
427(2)
Horizontal Machining
429(12)
Indexing and Rotary Axes
429(1)
Indexing Table (B Axis)
429(2)
Units of Increment
429(1)
Direction of Indexing
430(1)
Table Clamp and Unclamp Functions
430(1)
Indexing in Absolute and Incremental Mode
430(1)
B Axis and Offsets
431(3)
Work Offset and B Axis
431(1)
Tool Length Offset and B Axis
432(2)
Return to Machine Zero
434(1)
Indexing and a Subprogram
434(2)
Complete Program Example
436(1)
Automatic Pallet Changer - APC
437(2)
Working Environment
438(1)
Types of Pallets
438(1)
Programming Commands
439(1)
Pallet Changing Program Structure
439(1)
Horizontal Boring Mill
439(2)
Writing a CNC Program
441(6)
Program Writing
441(2)
Legibility of Handwriting
442(1)
Programming Forms
442(1)
Confusing Characters
442(1)
Program Output Formatting
443(2)
Long Programs
445(2)
Program Length Reduction
445(1)
Memory Mode and Tape Mode
446(1)
Program Documents
447(6)
Data Files
447(1)
Program Documentation
448(1)
External Documentation
448(1)
Internal Documentation
448(1)
Program Description
449(1)
Setup and Tooling Sheets
449(2)
Setup Sheet
450(1)
Tooling Sheet
450(1)
Coordinate Sheet
451(1)
Documentation File Folder
451(2)
Identification Methods
451(1)
Operator's Suggestions
452(1)
Filing and Storage
452(1)
Program Verification
453(4)
Detection of Errors
453(1)
Preventive Measures
453(1)
Corrective Measures
453(1)
Graphic Verification
454(1)
Avoiding Errors
454(2)
Syntax Errors
455(1)
Logical Errors
455(1)
Common Programming Errors
456(1)
Program Input Errors
456(1)
Calculation Errors
456(1)
Hardware Errors
456(1)
Miscellaneous Errors
456(1)
CNC Machining
457(8)
Machining a New Part
457(2)
Setup Integrity
458(1)
Program Integrity
458(1)
Running the First Part
459(1)
Program Changes
460(1)
Program Upgrading
460(1)
Program Updating
461(1)
Documentation Change
461(1)
Alternate Machine Selection
461(1)
Machine Warm Up Program
462(1)
CNC Machining and Safety
462(1)
Shutting Down a CNC Machine
463(1)
Emergency Stop Switch
463(1)
Parking Machine Slides
464(1)
Setting the Control System
464(1)
Turning the Power Off
464(1)
Equipment Maintenance
464(1)
Interfacing to Devices
465(6)
RS-232C Interface
465(1)
Punched Tape
466(2)
Tape Reader and Puncher
466(2)
Leader and Trailer
468(1)
Tape Identification
468(1)
Non-printable Characters
468(1)
Storage and Handling
468(1)
Distributed Numerical Control
468(1)
Terminology of Communications
469(1)
Baud Rate
469(1)
Parity
469(1)
Data Bits
469(1)
Start and Stop Bits
469(1)
Data Setting
469(1)
Connecting Cables
470(1)
Null Modem
470(1)
Cabling for Fanuc and PC
470(1)
Math in CNC Programming
471(12)
Basic Elements
471(1)
Arithmetic and Algebra
471(1)
Order of Calculations
471(1)
Geometry
472(2)
Circle
472(1)
PI Constant
473(1)
Circumference of a Circle
473(1)
Length of Arc
473(1)
Quadrants
473(1)
Polygons
474(1)
Tapers
475(2)
Taper Definition
475(1)
Taper Per Foot
476(1)
Taper Ratio
476(1)
Taper Calculations - English Units
476(1)
Taper Calculations - Metric Units
476(1)
Calculations of Triangles
477(5)
Types of Angles and Triangles
477(1)
Right Triangles
478(1)
Similar Triangles
478(1)
Sine - Cosine - Tangent
479(1)
Inverse Trigonometric Functions
480(1)
Degrees and Decimal Degrees
480(1)
Pythagorean Theorem
480(1)
Solving Right Triangles
481(1)
Advanced Calculations
482(1)
Conclusion
482(1)
CNC and CAD/CAM
483(8)
Programming Manually?
483(1)
CAM Software
483(1)
Desktop Computer Programming
483(1)
Tool Path Geometry Development
484(1)
Tool Path Generation
484(1)
Complete Environment
484(4)
Multi Machine Support
485(1)
Associative Operations
485(1)
Job Setup
485(1)
Tooling List and Job Comments
485(1)
Connection Between Computers
485(1)
Program Text Editor
486(1)
Printing Capabilities
486(1)
Pen Plotting
486(1)
CAD Software Access
486(1)
Support for Solids
486(1)
Software Specifications
487(1)
Hardware Specifications
487(1)
Typical Hardware Requirements
488(1)
Utilities and Special Features
488(1)
Post Processors
488(1)
Customizing Post Processor
488(1)
Important Features
489(1)
Input from User
489(1)
Machining Cycles
489(1)
User Interface
489(1)
CAD Interface
489(1)
Support and Management
489(1)
Training
490(1)
System Management
490(1)
Technical Support
490(1)
The End and the Beginning
490(1)
A REFERENCE TABLES 491(6)
Decimal Equivalents
491(3)
English Threads - UNC/UNF
494(1)
Straight Pipe Taps NPS
494(1)
Taper Pipe Taps NPT
495(1)
Metric Coarse Threads
495(1)
Metric Fine Threads
495(2)
Index 497

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