Cochlear Hearing Loss Physiological, Psychological and Technical Issues

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2007-11-28
  • Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


The book offers an understanding of the changes in perception that take place when a person has cochlear hearing loss. It interrelates physiological and perceptual data and presents both this and basic concepts in an integrated manner.

Author Biography

Brian C. J. Moore is in the Department of Experimental Psychology, University of Cambridge, England.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Physiological Aspects of Cochlear Hearing Lossp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Linear and Nonlinear Systemsp. 1
Structure and Function of the Outer and Middle Earp. 6
Structure and Function of the Normal Cochleap. 9
The cochlea, the basilar membrane and the organ of Cortip. 9
Tuning on the basilar membranep. 12
The nonlinearity of input-output functions on the basilar membranep. 16
Two-tone suppressionp. 18
Combination tone generationp. 18
Responses of the basilar membrane to complex soundsp. 19
Otoacoustic emissionsp. 20
Neural Responses in the Normal Auditory Nervep. 21
Spontaneous firing rates and thresholdsp. 22
Tuning curves and iso-rate contoursp. 22
Rate-versus-level functionsp. 23
Two-tone suppressionp. 25
Phase lockingp. 26
Types of Hearing Lossp. 28
Physiology of the Damaged Cochleap. 29
Basilar membrane responsesp. 29
Neural responsesp. 31
Structure-function correlationp. 32
Otoacoustic emissionsp. 35
Phase lockingp. 35
Conclusionsp. 36
Absolute Thresholdsp. 39
Introductionp. 39
Measures of Absolute Thresholdp. 39
Minimum audible pressure (MAP)p. 39
Minimum audible field (MAF)p. 39
Comparison of MAP and MAFp. 40
The audiogramp. 41
Descriptions of the Severity of Hearing Lossp. 42
Causes of Hearing Loss Due to Cochlear Damagep. 43
Perceptual Consequences of Elevated Absolute Thresholdsp. 44
Masking, Frequency Selectivity and Basilar Membrane Nonlinearityp. 45
Introductionp. 45
The Measurement of Frequency Selectivity Using Maskingp. 46
Introductionp. 46
The power-spectrum modelp. 46
Estimating the shape of a filterp. 47
Estimating Frequency Selectivity from Masking Experimentsp. 48
Psychophysical tuning curvesp. 48
The notched-noise methodp. 51
Characteristics of the Auditory Filter in Normal Hearingp. 54
Variation with centre frequencyp. 54
Variation with levelp. 56
Summaryp. 59
Masking Patterns and Excitation Patternsp. 59
Masking patternsp. 59
Relationship of the auditory filter to the excitation patternp. 61
Changes in excitation patterns with levelp. 62
Possible effects of suppressionp. 63
Non-Simultaneous Maskingp. 64
Basic properties of non-simultaneous maskingp. 64
Evidence for suppression from non-simultaneous maskingp. 67
The enhancement of frequency selectivity revealed in non-simultaneous maskingp. 69
Relation between the growth of forward masking and the basilar membrane input-output functionp. 70
The Audibility of Partials in Complex Tonesp. 73
Effects of Cochlear Damage on Frequency Selectivity in Simultaneous Maskingp. 75
Complicating factorsp. 75
Psychophysical tuning curvesp. 76
Auditory filter shapes measured with notched noisep. 79
The Use of Masking to Diagnose Dead Regionsp. 83
The threshold-equalizing noise (TEN) testp. 83
The TEN(HL) testp. 85
Prevalence of dead regions assessed using the TEN(HL) testp. 86
Effects of Cochlear Damage on Forward Masking and Suppressionp. 86
Effects of Cochlear Hearing Loss on BM Input-output Functions 88 XII Perceptual Consequences of Reduced Frequency Selectivity, Dead Regions, Loss of Suppression and Steeper BM Input-output Functionsp. 90
Susceptibility to maskingp. 90
Timbre perceptionp. 90
Perceptual consequences of dead regionsp. 91
Loudness Perception and Intensity Resolutionp. 93
Introductionp. 93
Loudness Perception for Normally Hearing Peoplep. 93
Equal-loudness contours and loudness levelp. 93
The scaling of loudnessp. 94
The detection of intensity changesp. 96
Effects of Cochlear Hearing Loss on Loudness Perceptionp. 97
A Model of Normal Loudness Perceptionp. 101
A Model of Loudness Perception Applied to Cochlear Hearing Lossp. 104
Introductionp. 104
Elevation of absolute thresholdp. 105
Reduced compressive nonlinearityp. 105
Reduced inner hair cell/neural functionp. 106
Reduced frequency selectivityp. 107
Complete loss of functioning IHCs or neurones (dead regions)p. 108
Using the model to account for loudness recruitmentp. 109
Effects of Bandwidth on Loudnessp. 110
Normal hearingp. 110
Impaired hearingp. 111
Effects of Cochlear Hearing Loss on Intensity Resolutionp. 113
Perceptual Consequences of Altered Loudness Perceptionp. 114
Consequences of loudness recruitment and reduced dynamic rangep. 114
Perceptual consequences of reduced loudness summationp. 114
Perceptual consequences of altered intensity discriminationp. 115
Temporal Resolution and Temporal Integrationp. 117
Introductionp. 117
Modelling Within-Channel Temporal Resolution in Normal Hearingp. 118
Bandpass filteringp. 118
The nonlinearityp. 119
The sliding temporal integratorp. 120
The decision devicep. 122
Characterizing the nonlinear device and the sliding temporal integratorp. 122
Temporal Resolution in Normal Hearingp. 124
The effect of centre frequency on gap detectionp. 124
Temporal modulation transfer functionsp. 125
The rate of recovery from forward maskingp. 126
Temporal Resolution in People with Cochlear Damagep. 128
The influence of sound level on gap detection and the rate of decay of forward maskingp. 128
The influence of audible bandwidth on temporal modulation transfer functions and gap detectionp. 130
The influence of changes in the compressive nonlinearityp. 131
Temporal Integration at Thresholdp. 135
Temporal integration in normally hearing peoplep. 135
Temporal integration in people with cochlear hearing lossp. 136
Explanations for reduced temporal integration in people with cochlear hearing lossp. 137
Temporal Integration at Suprathreshold Levelsp. 138
Perceptual Consequences of Abnormal Temporal Processing in People with Cochlear Hearing Lossp. 140
Consequences of abnormal temporal resolutionp. 140
Consequences of reduced temporal integrationp. 141
Pitch Perception and Frequency Discriminationp. 143
Introductionp. 143
Theories of Pitch Perceptionp. 144
The Perception of the Pitch of Pure Tones by Normally Hearing Peoplep. 144
The frequency discrimination of pure tonesp. 144
The perception of musical intervalsp. 148
The effect of level on pitchp. 149
Frequency Discrimination of Pure Tones by People with Cochlear Hearing Lossp. 150
Difference limens for frequency (DLFs)p. 150
Frequency modulation detection limens (FMDLs)p. 152
The Perception of Pure-Tone Pitch for Frequencies Falling in a Dead Regionp. 155
Pitch Anomalies in the Perception of Pure Tonesp. 157
The Pitch Perception of Complex Tones by Normally Hearing Peoplep. 159
The phenomenon of the missing fundamentalp. 159
Discrimination of the repetition rate of complex tonesp. 159
Theories of Pitch Perception for Complex Tonesp. 160
The representation of a complex tone in the peripheral auditory systemp. 160
Spectro-temporal pitch theoriesp. 162
The relative importance of envelope and temporal fine structurep. 164
Pitch Perception of Complex Tones by People with Cochlear Hearing Lossp. 167
Theoretical considerationsp. 167
Experimental studiesp. 169
Perceptual Consequences of Altered Frequency Discrimination and Pitch Perceptionp. 170
Effects on speech perceptionp. 170
Effects on music perceptionp. 172
Spatial Hearing and Advantages of Binaural Hearingp. 173
Introductionp. 173
The Localization of Sinusoidsp. 174
Cues for localizationp. 174
Performance of normally hearing people in localization and lateralizationp. 177
Performance of hearing-impaired people in localization and lateralizationp. 178
The Localization of Complex Soundsp. 179
The role of transients and across-frequency comparisonsp. 179
Performance of normally hearing peoplep. 179
Performance of people with cochlear hearing lossp. 180
Reasons for large interaural time difference and interaural level difference thresholds in people with cochlear hearing lossp. 183
The Cone of Confusion, Head Movements and Pinna Cuesp. 184
The cone of confusionp. 184
The role of head movementsp. 185
Information provided by the pinnaep. 185
Localization using pinna cues by normally hearing and hearing-impaired peoplep. 186
General Conclusions on Sound Localizationp. 186
The Precedence Effectp. 187
The precedence effect for normal hearingp. 187
The precedence effect for impaired hearingp. 188
Binaural Masking Level Differences (MLDs)p. 189
MLDs for normally hearing peoplep. 189
Mechanisms underlying MLDsp. 192
MLDs for people with cochlear hearing lossp. 192
Possible reasons for smaller MLDs in people with cochlear damagep. 193
Head-Shadow Effectsp. 194
Benefits of head shadow for normally hearing peoplep. 194
Benefits of head shadow for hearing-impaired peoplep. 195
Release from Informational Maskingp. 196
Diotic Advantagesp. 198
Perceptual Consequences of Abnormal Binaural and Spatial Hearing in People with Cochlear Damagep. 199
Speech Perceptionp. 201
Introductionp. 201
The Magnitude of the Noise Problemp. 201
The Role of Audibilityp. 203
The Articulation Index (AI) and Speech Intelligibility Index (SII)p. 203
Use of the AI or SII to predict speech intelligibility for the hearing impairedp. 204
The intelligibility of speech in noise at high overall levelsp. 205
Comparison of detection and recognition for speech in noisep. 206
The intelligibility of speech in quiet at high overall levelsp. 207
Simulation of hearing loss by selective filtering (frequency-dependent attenuation)p. 207
Simulation of hearing loss by maskingp. 208
Conclusions on the role of audibilityp. 209
Influence of Dead Regions on Speech Perceptionp. 209
Correlation Between Psychoacoustic Abilities and Speech Perceptionp. 212
Assessing the Effects of Frequency Selectivity on Vowel and Consonant Perceptionp. 214
Consonant perceptionp. 214
Vowel perceptionp. 215
Influence of Loss of Sensitivity to Temporal Fine Structurep. 219
The Use of Simulations to Assess the Importance of Psychoacoustic Factors in Speech Perceptionp. 221
Simulations of loudness recruitment combined with threshold elevationp. 222
Simulations of reduced frequency selectivityp. 226
Simulation of the combined effects of threshold elevation, recruitment and reduced frequency selectivityp. 229
Simulation of reduced temporal resolutionp. 230
Conclusionsp. 232
Hearing Aidsp. 233
Introductionp. 233
Linear Amplificationp. 233
The difficulty of restoring audibility using linear aidsp. 233
Prescriptive fitting rules for linear hearing aidsp. 234
Compression Amplificationp. 236
Basic characteristics of automatic gain control systemsp. 236
Varieties of automatic gain control systemsp. 241
Rationales for the use of multi-band compression (and noise reduction)p. 241
Research on the effectiveness of multi-band syllabic compressionp. 242
Methods for initial fitting of hearing aids with multi-band compressionp. 244
Methods for fine tuning hearing aids with multi-band compressionp. 252
Slow-acting automatic gain control systemsp. 253
Comparisons of slow-acting and fast-acting systemsp. 255
General conclusions about compressionp. 257
Some General Problems with Hearing Aidsp. 257
Inadequate gain at high frequenciesp. 257
Acoustic feedbackp. 258
Peakiness of frequency responsep. 259
The occlusion effectp. 260
Time delaysp. 261
Methods for Improving the Speech-to-Noise Ratiop. 262
Multi-channel noise reductionp. 262
Directional microphonesp. 262
Binaural processing algorithmsp. 263
Transposition Aids for Severe and Profound Hearing Lossp. 264
Cochlear Implantsp. 266
Concluding Remarksp. 267
Glossaryp. 269
Referencesp. 287
Indexp. 327
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