Cognitive Linguistics: An Introduction

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  • Edition: 1st
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  • Copyright: 2006-03-03
  • Publisher: Routledge

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A general introduction to the area of theoretical linguistics known as cognitive linguistics, this textbook provides up-to-date coverage of all areas of the field, including recent developments within cognitive semantics (such as Primary Metaphor Theory, Conceptual Blending Theory, and Principled Polysemy), and cognitive approaches to grammar (such as Radical Construction Grammar and Embodied Construction Grammar). The authors offer clear, critical evaluations of competing formal approaches within theoretical linguistics. For example, cognitive linguistics is compared to Generative Grammar and Relevance Theory. In the selection of material and in the presentations, the authors have aimed for a balanced perspective. Part II, Cognitive Semantics, and Part III, Cognitive Approaches to Grammar, have been created to be read independently. The authors have kept in mind that different instructors and readers will need to use the book in different ways tailored to their own goals. The coverage is suitable for a number of courses. While all topics are presented in terms accessible to both undergraduate and graduate students of linguistics, cognitive linguistics, psycholinguistics, cognitive science, and modern languages, this work is sufficiently comprehensive and detailed to serve as a reference work for scholars who wish to gain a better understanding of cognitive linguistics.

Author Biography

Vyvyan Evans is a member of faculty in the Department of Linguistics and English Language, and the Centre for Research in Cognitive Science, at the University of Sussex

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xix
Acknowledgementsp. xxiii
Abbreviations, symbols and transcriptionp. xxv
Overview of the Cognitive Linguistics Enterprise
Introductionp. 3
What does it mean to know a language?p. 5
What is language for?p. 6
The symbolic function of languagep. 6
The interactive function of languagep. 6
The systematic structure of languagep. 11
Evidence for a systemp. 12
The systematic structure of thoughtp. 14
What do linguists do?p. 15
What?p. 15
Why?p. 16
How?p. 16
Speaker intuitionsp. 16
Converging evidencep. 17
What it means to know a languagep. 18
Summaryp. 20
Further readingp. 22
Exercisesp. 23
The nature of cognitive linguistics: assumptions and commitmentsp. 27
Two key commitmentsp. 27
The 'Generalisation Commitment'p. 28
The 'Cognitive Commitment'p. 40
The embodied mindp. 44
Embodied experiencep. 45
Embodied cognitionp. 46
Experiential realismp. 47
Cognitive semantics and cognitive approaches to grammarp. 48
Summaryp. 50
Further readingp. 50
Exercisesp. 52
Universals and variation in language, thought and experiencep. 54
Universals in thought and languagep. 55
Typological universalsp. 57
Universals in formal linguisticsp. 60
Universals in cognitive linguisticsp. 63
Cross-linguistic patterns in semantic systemsp. 68
Patterns in the conceptualisation of spacep. 68
Patterns in the conceptualisation of timep. 75
Cross-linguistic variation in semantic systemsp. 87
Variation in the conceptualisation of spacep. 87
Variation in the conceptualisation of timep. 92
Linguistic relativity and cognitive linguisticsp. 95
Whorf and the Linguistic Relativity Principlep. 96
Language as a shaper of thoughtp. 98
The cognitive linguistics positionp. 101
Summaryp. 101
Further readingp. 102
Exercisesp. 105
Language in use: knowledge of language, language change and language acquisitionp. 108
Language in usep. 109
A usage eventp. 109
The relationship between usage and linguistic structurep. 111
Comprehension and productionp. 112
Contextp. 112
Frequencyp. 114
Cognitive Grammarp. 114
Abstraction, schematisation and language usep. 115
Schemas and their instantiationsp. 115
Partial sanctionp. 116
The non-reductive nature of schemasp. 117
Frequency in schema formationp. 118
A usage-based approach to language changep. 120
Historical linguistics and language changep. 121
The Utterance Selection Theory of language changep. 123
The Generalised Theory of Selection and the Theory of Utterance Selectionp. 125
Causal mechanisms for language changep. 127
The usage-based approach to language acquisitionp. 133
Empirical findings in language acquisitionp. 134
The cognitive view: socio-cognitive mechanisms in language acquisitionp. 136
Comparing the generative view of language acquisitionp. 140
Summaryp. 146
Further readingp. 147
Exercisesp. 148
Cognitive Semantics
Introductionp. 153
What is cognitive semantics?p. 156
Guiding principlesp. 157
Conceptual structure is embodiedp. 157
Semantic structure is conceptual structurep. 158
Meaning representation is encyclopaedicp. 160
Meaning construction is conceptualisationp. 162
Phenomena investigated within cognitive semanticsp. 163
The bodily basis of meaningp. 163
Conceptual structurep. 165
Encyclopaedic semanticsp. 166
Mappingsp. 167
Categorisationp. 168
Word meaning and polysemyp. 169
Methodologyp. 170
Some comparisons with formal approaches to semanticsp. 171
Summaryp. 172
Further readingp. 173
Exercisesp. 174
Embodiment and conceptual structurep. 176
Image schemasp. 177
What is an image schema?p. 178
Properties of image schemasp. 179
Image schemas and linguistic meaningp. 189
A provisional list of image schemasp. 190
Image schemas and abstract thoughtp. 190
Conceptual structurep. 191
Semantic structurep. 192
Schematic systemsp. 194
Summaryp. 201
Further readingp. 201
Exercisesp. 202
The encyclopaedic view of meaningp. 206
Dictionaries versus encylopaediasp. 207
The dictionary viewp. 207
Problems with the dictionary viewp. 210
Word meaning versus sentence meaningp. 213
The encyclopaedic viewp. 215
Frame semanticsp. 222
What is a semantic frame?p. 222
Frames in cognitive psychologyp. 222
The Commercial Event framep. 225
Speech event framesp. 228
Consequences of adopting a frame-based modelp. 229
The theory of domainsp. 230
What is a domain?p. 230
Basic, image-schematic and abstract domainsp. 232
Other characteristics of domainsp. 235
Profile/base organisationp. 236
Active zonesp. 238
The perceptual basis of knowledge representationp. 240
Summaryp. 243
Further readingp. 244
Exercisesp. 245
Categorisation and idealised cognitive modelsp. 248
Categorisation and cognitive semanticsp. 249
The classical theoryp. 251
The definitional problemp. 252
The problem of conceptual fuzzinessp. 253
The problem of prototypicalityp. 254
Further problemsp. 254
Prototype theoryp. 255
Principles of categorisationp. 255
The categorisation systemp. 256
The vertical dimensionp. 256
The horizontal dimensionp. 264
Problems with prototype theoryp. 268
The theory of idealised cognitive modelsp. 269
Sources of typicality effectsp. 270
Radial categories as a further source of typicality effectsp. 275
Addressing the problems with prototype theoryp. 278
The structure of ICMsp. 279
Summaryp. 281
Further readingp. 282
Exercisesp. 283
Metaphor and metonymyp. 286
Literal versus figurative languagep. 287
Literal and figurative language as complex conceptsp. 287
Can the distinction be maintained?p. 289
What is metaphor?p. 293
Conceptual Metaphor Theoryp. 296
The unidirectionality of metaphorp. 296
Motivation for target and sourcep. 297
Metaphorical entailmentsp. 298
Metaphor systemsp. 299
Metaphors and image schemasp. 300
Invariancep. 301
The conceptual nature of metaphorp. 303
Hiding and highlightingp. 303
Primary Metaphor Theoryp. 304
Primary and compound metaphorsp. 304
Experiential correlationp. 305
Motivating primary metaphorsp. 306
Distinguishing primary and compound metaphorsp. 307
What is metonymy?p. 310
Conceptual metonymyp. 314
Metonymy as an access mechanismp. 315
Metonymy-producing relationshipsp. 316
Vehicles for metonymyp. 317
Metaphor-metonymy interactionp. 318
Summaryp. 321
Further readingp. 322
Exercisesp. 325
Word meaning and radial categoriesp. 328
Polysemy as a conceptual phenomenonp. 329
Words as radial categoriesp. 331
The full-specification approachp. 333
Image schema transformationsp. 337
Metaphorical extensionsp. 339
Problems with the full-specification approachp. 339
The Principled Polysemy approachp. 342
Distinguishing between sensesp. 342
Establishing the prototypical sensep. 344
Illustration of a radial category based on Principled Polysemyp. 347
Beyond prepositionsp. 348
The importance of context for polysemyp. 352
Usage context: subsensesp. 353
Sentential context: facetsp. 354
Knowledge context: ways of seeingp. 355
Summaryp. 355
Further readingp. 356
Exercisesp. 359
Meaning construction and mental spacesp. 363
Sentence meaning in formal semanticsp. 364
Meaning construction in cognitive semanticsp. 365
Towards a cognitive theory of meaning constructionp. 368
The architecture of mental space constructionp. 371
Space buildersp. 371
Elementsp. 371
Properties and relationsp. 372
Mental space latticesp. 374
Counterparts and connectorsp. 375
The Access Principlep. 376
Roles and valuesp. 381
An illustration of mental space constructionp. 382
The dynamic nature of meaning constructionp. 386
Tense and aspect in Englishp. 387
The tense-aspect system in Mental Spaces Theoryp. 389
Epistemic distancep. 394
Summaryp. 396
Further readingp. 397
Exercisesp. 397
Conceptual blendingp. 400
The origins of Blending Theoryp. 401
Towards a theory of conceptual integrationp. 403
The nature of blendingp. 407
The elements of conceptual blendingp. 408
Further linguistic examplesp. 410
Non-linguistic examplesp. 415
Vital relations and compressionsp. 418
Vital relationsp. 419
A taxonomy of vital relations and their compressionsp. 420
Disintegration and decompressionp. 425
A taxonomy of integration networksp. 426
Simplex networksp. 426
Mirror networksp. 426
Single-scope networksp. 427
Double-scope networksp. 429
Multiple blendingp. 431
Constraining Blending Theoryp. 433
Comparing Blending Theory with Conceptual Metaphor Theoryp. 435
Contrastsp. 435
When is a metaphor not a blend?p. 437
What Blending Theory adds to Conceptual Metaphor Theoryp. 437
Summaryp. 439
Further readingp. 440
Exercisesp. 441
Cognitive semantics in contextp. 445
Truth-conditional semanticsp. 446
Meaning, truth and realityp. 446
Object language versus metalanguagep. 446
The inconsistency of natural languagep. 447
Sentences and propositionsp. 448
Truth-conditional semantics and the generative enterprisep. 449
Compositionality of meaningp. 450
Translating natural language into a metalanguagep. 451
Semantic interpretation and matchingp. 452
Comparison with cognitive semanticsp. 455
Relevance Theoryp. 459
Ostensive communicationp. 459
Mutual cognitive environmentp. 459
Relevancep. 460
Explicature and implicaturep. 461
Metaphorp. 463
Comparison with cognitive semanticsp. 463
Summaryp. 465
Further readingp. 466
Exercisesp. 466
Cognitive Approaches to Grammar
Introductionp. 471
What is a cognitive approach to grammar?p. 475
Guiding assumptionsp. 476
The symbolic thesisp. 476
The usage-based thesisp. 478
The architecture of the modelp. 479
Distinct cognitive approaches to grammarp. 480
The 'Conceptual Structuring System Model'p. 480
Cognitive Grammarp. 480
Constructional approaches to grammarp. 481
Cognitive approaches to grammaticalisationp. 482
Grammatical terminologyp. 483
Grammarp. 483
Units of grammarp. 484
Word classesp. 486
Syntaxp. 492
Grammatical functionsp. 494
Agreement and casep. 498
Characteristics of the cognitive approach to grammarp. 500
Grammatical knowledge: a structured inventory of symbolic unitsp. 501
Features of the closed-class subsystemp. 502
Schemas and instancesp. 504
Sanctioning and grammaticalityp. 505
Summaryp. 506
Further readingp. 507
Exercisesp. 509
The conceptual basis of grammarp. 512
The grammatical subsystem: encoding semantic structurep. 513
Talmy's 'Conceptual Structuring System Model'p. 514
The configuration of Space and Timep. 515
Conceptual alternativityp. 516
Schematic systemsp. 517
The 'Configurational Structure System'p. 518
The 'Attentional System'p. 526
The 'Perspectival System'p. 528
The 'Force-Dynamics System'p. 531
Langacker's theory of Cognitive Grammarp. 533
The conceptual basis of word classesp. 533
Attentionp. 535
Force-dynamicsp. 544
Categorisation and polysemy in grammar: the network conceptionp. 545
Summaryp. 548
Further readingp. 549
Exercisesp. 550
Cognitive Grammar: word classesp. 553
Word classes: linguistic categorisationp. 554
Nominal predications: nounsp. 556
Boundingp. 557
Homogeneity versus heterogeneityp. 559
Expansibility and contractibility versus replicabilityp. 559
Abstractionsp. 560
Nominal versus relational predicationsp. 561
Temporal versus atemporal relationsp. 563
Temporal relations: verbsp. 564
Atemporal relationsp. 565
Class schemasp. 570
Nominal grounding predicationsp. 572
Determiners and quantifiersp. 572
Groundingp. 575
Summaryp. 577
Further readingp. 577
Exercisesp. 578
Cognitive Grammar: constructionsp. 581
Phrase structurep. 582
Valencep. 583
Correspondencep. 584
Profile determinacyp. 585
Conceptual autonomy versus conceptual dependencep. 585
Constituencyp. 588
The prototypical grammatical constructionp. 588
Word structurep. 589
Phonological autonomy and dependencep. 590
Semantic autonomy and dependencep. 590
Prototypical stems and affixesp. 591
Composite structurep. 591
Constructional schemasp. 592
Grammatical morphemes and agreementp. 593
Clausesp. 594
Valence at the clause levelp. 595
Grammatical functions and transitivityp. 601
Casep. 606
Marked coding: the passive constructionp. 609
Summaryp. 610
Further readingp. 611
Exercisesp. 612
Cognitive Grammar: tense, aspect, mood and voicep. 615
English verbs: form and functionp. 616
The clausal headp. 617
The passive construction: [be[subscript 2] [PERF[subscript 3] [V]]]p. 620
The progressive construction: [be[subscript 1] [-ing [V]]]p. 621
The perfect construction: [have [PERF[subscript 4] [V]]]p. 621
The grounding predication: mood and tensep. 624
Moodp. 625
Tensep. 626
The epistemic modelp. 627
Situation aspectp. 631
Situation typesp. 631
Perfective and imperfective PROCESSESp. 632
Aspect and the count/mass distinctionp. 634
Summaryp. 637
Further readingp. 638
Exercisesp. 638
Motivating a construction grammarp. 641
Constructions versus 'words and rules'p. 642
Exploring idiomatic expressionsp. 643
Typology of idiomatic expressionsp. 643
Case study I: the let alone constructionp. 648
Case study II: the what's X doing Y constructionp. 651
Construction Grammarp. 653
The Construction Grammar modelp. 653
Construction Grammar: a 'broadly generative' modelp. 659
Comparing Construction Grammar with Cognitive Grammarp. 660
The 'Generalisation Commitment'p. 661
Summaryp. 662
Further readingp. 662
Exercisesp. 663
The architecture of construction grammarsp. 666
Goldberg's construction grammarp. 667
Assumptionsp. 667
Advantages of a constructional approach to verb argument structurep. 669
The relationship between verbs and constructionsp. 671
Relationships between constructionsp. 680
Case studiesp. 684
Radical Construction Grammarp. 692
Taxonomy of constructionsp. 693
Emphasis on diversityp. 693
Five key features of RCGp. 693
Embodied Construction Grammarp. 697
Emphasis on language processingp. 697
Analysis and simulationp. 698
Comparing constructional approaches to grammarp. 699
Summaryp. 701
Further readingp. 702
Exercisesp. 703
Grammaticalisationp. 707
The nature of grammaticalisationp. 708
Form changep. 710
Meaning changep. 712
Metaphorical extension approachesp. 714
Case study: Object-to-Spacep. 718
Case study: Space-to-Possessionp. 719
Invited Inferencing Theoryp. 721
Case study: the evolution of mustp. 725
The subjectification approachp. 728
Case study: be going top. 730
Case study: the evolution of auxiliaries from verbs of motion or posturep. 730
Comparison of the three approaches: be going top. 732
Summaryp. 733
Further readingp. 734
Exercisesp. 736
Cognitive approaches to grammar in contextp. 741
Theories of grammar: assumptions, objectives, methodologyp. 741
Cognitive approaches to grammarp. 743
Generative approaches to grammarp. 743
Cognitive versus generative modelsp. 752
Functional-typological approaches to grammarp. 758
Core issues in grammar: comparing cognitive and generative accountsp. 761
Word classesp. 761
Constituency: heads and dependentsp. 763
The status of tree diagramsp. 763
Grammatical functions and casep. 765
The verb string: tense, aspect and moodp. 767
The passive constructionp. 769
Summaryp. 771
Further readingp. 771
Exercisesp. 773
Assessing the cognitive linguistics enterprisep. 777
Achievementsp. 777
Remaining challengesp. 779
Summaryp. 782
Tables and Figuresp. 783
Referencesp. 792
Indexp. 812
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