College Physics

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  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2005-02-28
  • Publisher: Brooks Cole
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COLLEGE PHYSICS provides students with a clear and logical presentation of the basic concepts and principles of physics. The authors include a broad range of contemporary applications to motivate students understanding of how physics works in the real world. In addition, new pedagogy, reflecting the findings of physics education research, has been added to help students improve their problem solving skills and conceptual understanding. The text's flexible, accessible, and focused presentation, coupled with extraordinary text/media integration through PhysicsNow, gives instructors and students the tools they need to succeed. This text, which covers the standard topics in classical physics and 20th century physics, is divided into six parts. Newtonian mechanics and the physics of fluids (Part I); heat and thermodynamics (Part II); wave motion and sound (Part III); electricity and magnetism (Part IV); properties of light and the field of geometric and wave optics (Part V); and an introduction to special relativity, quantum physics, and atomic and nuclear physics (Part VI).

Table of Contents

Introductionp. 1
Standards of Length, Mass, and Timep. 1
The Building Blocks of Matterp. 4
Dimensional Analysisp. 5
Uncertainty in Measurement and Significant Figuresp. 7
Conversion of Unitsp. 9
Estimates and Order-of-Magnitude Calculationsp. 11
Coordinate Systemsp. 13
Trigonometryp. 14
Problem-Solving Strategyp. 16
Summaryp. 17
Motion in One Dimensionp. 23
Displacementp. 24
Velocityp. 25
Accelerationp. 30
Motion Diagramsp. 33
One-Dimensional Motion with Constant Accelerationp. 35
Freely Falling Objectsp. 41
Summaryp. 45
Vectors and Two-Dimensional Motionp. 53
Vectors and Their Propertiesp. 53
Components of a Vectorp. 56
Displacement, Velocity, and Acceleration in Two Dimensionsp. 59
Motion in Two Dimensionsp. 60
Relative Velocityp. 68
Summaryp. 72
The Laws of Motionp. 81
Forcesp. 81
Newton's First Lawp. 83
Newton's Second Lawp. 84
Newton's Third Lawp. 90
Applications of Newton's Lawsp. 92
Forces of Frictionp. 100
Summaryp. 107
Energyp. 118
Workp. 118
Kinetic Energy and the Work-Energy Theoremp. 123
Gravitational Potential Energyp. 126
Spring Potential Energyp. 134
Systems and Energy Conservationp. 140
Powerp. 142
Work Done by a Varying Forcep. 146
Summaryp. 148
Momentum and Collisionsp. 160
Momentum and Impulsep. 160
Conservation of Momentump. 166
Collisionsp. 168
Glancing Collisionsp. 175
Rocket Propulsionp. 177
Summaryp. 180
Rotational Motion and the Law of Gravityp. 189
Angular Speed and Angular Accelerationp. 189
Rotational Motion Under Constant Angular Accelerationp. 193
Relations Between Angular and Linear Quantitiesp. 194
Centripetal Accelerationp. 198
Newtonian Gravitationp. 206
Kepler's Lawsp. 214
Summaryp. 217
Rotational Equilibrium and Rotational Dynamicsp. 226
Torquep. 227
Torque and the Two Conditions for Equilibriump. 230
The Center of Gravityp. 232
Examples of Objects in Equilibriump. 234
Relationship Between Torque and Angular Accelerationp. 237
Rotational Kinetic Energyp. 244
Angular Momentump. 247
Summaryp. 251
Solids and Fluidsp. 266
States of Matterp. 266
The Deformation of Solidsp. 268
Density and Pressurep. 274
Variation of Pressure with Depthp. 277
Pressure Measurementsp. 281
Buoyant Forces and Archimedes's Principlep. 282
Fluids in Motionp. 288
Other Applications of Fluid Dynamicsp. 294
Surface Tension, Capillary Action, and Viscous Fluid Flowp. 298
Transport Phenomenap. 305
Summaryp. 309
Thermal Physicsp. 321
Temperature and the Zeroth Law of Thermodynamicsp. 322
Thermometers and Temperature Scalesp. 323
Thermal Expansion of Solids and Liquidsp. 327
Macroscopic Description of an Ideal Gasp. 334
The Kinetic Theory of Gasesp. 339
Summaryp. 344
Energy in Thermal Processesp. 352
Heat and Internal Energyp. 352
Specific Heatp. 355
Calorimetryp. 357
Latent Heat and Phase Changep. 359
Energy Transferp. 365
Global Warming and Greenhouse Gasesp. 375
Summaryp. 377
The Laws of Thermodynamicsp. 386
Work in Thermodynamic Processesp. 386
The First Law of Thermodynamicsp. 389
Heat Engines and the Second Law of Thermodynamicsp. 399
Entropyp. 408
Human Metabolismp. 413
Summaryp. 416
Vibrations and Waves
Vibrations and Wavesp. 424
Hooke's Lawp. 424
Elastic Potential Energyp. 427
Comparing Simple Harmonic Motion with Uniform Circular Motionp. 432
Position, Velocity, and Acceleration as a Function of Timep. 435
Motion of a Pendulump. 438
Damped Oscillationsp. 441
Wavesp. 441
Frequency, Amplitude, and Wavelengthp. 444
The Speed of Waves on Stringsp. 446
Interference of Wavesp. 447
Reflection of Wavesp. 448
Summaryp. 449
Soundp. 458
Producing a Sound Wavep. 458
Characteristics of Sound Wavesp. 459
The Speed of Soundp. 461
Energy and Intensity of Sound Wavesp. 463
Spherical and Plane Wavesp. 465
The Doppler Effectp. 467
Interference of Sound Wavesp. 473
Standing Wavesp. 475
Forced Vibrations and Resonancep. 479
Standing Waves in Air Columnsp. 480
Beatsp. 484
Quality of Soundp. 486
The Earp. 487
Summaryp. 489
Electricity and Magnetism
Electric Forces and Electric Fieldsp. 497
Properties of Electric Chargesp. 497
Insulators and Conductorsp. 497
Coulomb's Lawp. 500
The Electric Fieldp. 505
Electric Field Linesp. 510
Conductors in Electrostatic Equilibriump. 512
The Millikan Oil-Drop Experimentp. 515
The Van de Graaff Generatorp. 516
Electric Flux and Gauss's Lawp. 517
Summaryp. 523
Electrical Energy and Capacitancep. 531
Potential Difference and Electric Potentialp. 531
Electric Potential and Potential Energy Due to Point Chargesp. 538
Potentials and Charged Conductorsp. 541
Equipotential Surfacesp. 542
Applicationsp. 543
Capacitancep. 545
The Parallel-Plate Capacitorp. 546
Combinations of Capacitorsp. 548
Energy Stored in a Charged Capacitorp. 554
Capacitors with Dielectricsp. 556
Summaryp. 561
Current and Resistancep. 568
Electric Currentp. 568
A Microscopic View: Current and Drift Speedp. 570
Current and Voltage Measurements in Circuitsp. 572
Resistance and Ohm's Lawp. 573
Resistivityp. 575
Temperature Variation of Resistancep. 577
Superconductorsp. 579
Electrical Energy and Powerp. 580
Electrical Activity in the Heartp. 583
Summaryp. 586
Direct Current Circuitsp. 592
Sources of emfp. 592
Resistors in Seriesp. 593
Resistors in Parallelp. 596
Kirchhoff's Rules and Complex DC Circuitsp. 601
RC Circuitsp. 605
Household Circuitsp. 609
Electrical Safetyp. 611
Conduction of Electrical Signals by Neuronsp. 612
Summaryp. 614
Magnetismp. 624
Magnetsp. 624
Earth's Magnetic Fieldp. 626
Magnetic Fieldsp. 628
Magnetic Force on a Current-Carrying Conductorp. 631
Torque on a Current Loop and Electric Motorsp. 634
Motion of a Charged Particle in a Magnetic Fieldp. 637
Magnetic Field of a Long, Straight Wire and Ampere's Lawp. 640
Magnetic Force Between Two Parallel Conductorsp. 643
Magnetic Fields of Current Loops and Solenoidsp. 644
Magnetic Domainsp. 648
Summaryp. 649
Induced Voltages and Inductancep. 660
Induced emf and Magnetic Fluxp. 660
Faraday's Law of Inductionp. 663
Motional emfp. 667
Lenz's Law Revisited (The Minus Sign in Faraday's Law)p. 670
Generatorsp. 673
Self-Inductancep. 677
RL Circuitsp. 680
Energy Stored in a Magnetic Fieldp. 682
Summaryp. 683
Alternating Current Circuits and Electromagnetic Wavesp. 693
Resistors in an AC Circuitp. 693
Capacitors in an AC Circuitp. 696
Inductors in an AC Circuitp. 697
The RLC Series Circuitp. 699
Power in an AC Circuitp. 702
Resonance in a Series RLC Circuitp. 704
The Transformerp. 705
Maxwell's Predictionsp. 707
Hertz's Confirmation of Maxwell's Predictionsp. 708
Production of Electromagnetic Waves by an Antennap. 709
Properties of Electromagnetic Wavesp. 710
The Spectrum of Electromagnetic Wavesp. 715
The Doppler Effect for Electromagnetic Wavesp. 718
Summaryp. 718
Light and Optics
Reflection and Refraction of Lightp. 726
The Nature of Lightp. 726
Reflection and Refractionp. 727
The Law of Refractionp. 732
Dispersion and Prismsp. 736
The Rainbowp. 738
Huygens' Principlep. 739
Total Internal Reflectionp. 742
Summaryp. 745
Mirrors and Lensesp. 754
Flat Mirrorsp. 754
Images Formed by Spherical Mirrorsp. 757
Convex Mirrors and Sign Conventionsp. 759
Images Formed by Refractionp. 765
Atmospheric Refractionp. 768
Thin Lensesp. 769
Lens and Mirror Aberrationsp. 777
Summaryp. 779
Wave Opticsp. 786
Conditions for Interferencep. 786
Young's Double-Slit Experimentp. 787
Change of Phase Due to Reflectionp. 791
Interference in Thin Filmsp. 792
Using Interference to Read CD's and DVD'sp. 796
Diffractionp. 797
Single-Slit Diffractionp. 798
The Diffraction Gratingp. 800
Polarization of Light Wavesp. 804
Summaryp. 811
Optical Instrumentsp. 819
The Camerap. 819
The Eyep. 820
The Simple Magnifierp. 825
The Compound Microscopep. 827
The Telescopep. 829
Resolution of Single-Slit and Circular Aperturesp. 831
The Michelson Interferometerp. 836
Summaryp. 837
Modern Physics
Relativityp. 843
Introductionp. 843
The Principle of Galilean Relativityp. 844
The Speed of Lightp. 845
The Michelson-Morley Experimentp. 846
Einstein's Principle of Relativityp. 849
Consequences of Special Relativityp. 850
Relativistic Momentump. 858
Relativistic Addition of Velocitiesp. 859
Relativistic Energy and the Equivalence of Mass and Energyp. 860
Pair Production and Annihilationp. 865
General Relativityp. 865
Summaryp. 868
Quantum Physicsp. 874
Blackbody Radiation and Planck's Hypothesisp. 874
The Photoelectric Effect and the Particle Theory of Lightp. 877
X-Raysp. 880
Diffraction of X-Rays by Crystalsp. 883
The Compton Effectp. 885
The Dual Nature of Light and Matterp. 887
The Wave Functionp. 890
The Uncertainty Principlep. 891
The Scanning Tunneling Microscopep. 894
Summaryp. 895
Atomic Physicsp. 903
Early Models of the Atomp. 903
Atomic Spectrap. 904
The Bohr Theory of Hydrogenp. 906
Modification of the Bohr Theoryp. 910
de Broglie Waves and the Hydrogen Atomp. 912
Quantum Mechanics and the Hydrogen Atomp. 913
The Spin Magnetic Quantum Numberp. 915
Electron Cloudsp. 916
The Exclusion Principle and the Periodic Tablep. 917
Characteristic X-Raysp. 920
Atomic Transitionsp. 921
Lasers and Holographyp. 922
Energy Bands in Solidsp. 924
Semiconductor Devicesp. 928
Summaryp. 931
Nuclear Physicsp. 939
Some Properties of Nucleip. 940
Binding Energyp. 943
Radioactivityp. 945
The Decay Processesp. 948
Natural Radioactivityp. 955
Nuclear Reactionsp. 955
Medical Applications of Radiationp. 959
Radiation Detectorsp. 963
Summaryp. 965
Nuclear Energy and Elementary Particlesp. 973
Nuclear Fissionp. 973
Nuclear Reactorsp. 976
Nuclear Fusionp. 980
Elementary Particlesp. 984
The Fundamental Forces of Naturep. 984
Positrons and Other Antiparticlesp. 985
Mesons and the Beginning of Particle Physicsp. 986
Classification of Particlesp. 988
Conservation Lawsp. 989
Strange Particles and Strangenessp. 991
The Eightfold Wayp. 992
Quarksp. 993
Colored Quarksp. 996
Electroweak Theory and the Standard Modelp. 997
The Cosmic Connectionp. 999
Problems and Perspectivesp. 1001
Summaryp. 1002
Mathematical Reviewp. 1
An Abbreviated Table of Isotopesp. 9
Some Useful Tablesp. 14
Sl Unitsp. 16
Answers to Quick Quizzes and Odd-numbered Conceptual Questions and Problemsp. 17
Indexp. 1
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