The Color of Justice Race, Ethnicity, and Crime in America

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1999-08-17
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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Comprehensive and balanced, THE COLOR OF JUSTICE is the definitive book on current research and theories of racial, ethnic, and gender discrimination within America's criminal justice system. The authors synthesize the best and the most recent research on patterns of criminal behavior and victimization, police practices, court processing and sentencing, the death penalty, and correctional programs giving your students the facts and theoretical foundation they need to make their own informed decisions about discrimination in the system. Uniquely unbiased, THE COLOR OF JUSTICE makes every effort to incorporate discussion of all major race groups found in the United States.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Race, Ethnicity, and Crime: The Present Crisisp. 1
The Scope of This Bookp. 2
Goals of the Chapterp. 4
The Colors of America: Racial and Ethnic Categoriesp. 5
Racial and Ethnic Categoriesp. 5
Focus on an Issue: The Bell Curve Controversy: Race and IQp. 7
Focus on an Issue: The Impact of a "Multicultural" Categoryp. 8
The Politics of Racial and Ethnic Labelsp. 10
The Quality of Criminal Justice Data on Race and Ethnicityp. 12
The Geography of Racial and Ethnic Justicep. 13
Disparity Versus Discriminationp. 15
The Discrimination-Disparity Continuump. 17
A Theoretical Perspective on Race, Ethnicity, and Crimep. 18
Alternative Theoriesp. 20
Summaryp. 20
Discussion Questionsp. 20
Notesp. 21
Victims and Offenders: Myths and Realities about Crimep. 24
Goals of the Chapterp. 25
Picture of the Typical Victimp. 25
The National Crime Victimization Surveyp. 26
Household Victimizationp. 27
Personal Victimizationp. 29
Trends in Household and Personal Victimizationp. 31
Lifetime Likelihood of Victimizationp. 32
Homicide Victimization Ratesp. 32
Summary: A Picture of the Typical Crime Victimp. 33
Picture of the Typical Offenderp. 33
Official Arrest Statisticsp. 34
Focus on an Issue: The Creation of Victims and Offenders of Colorp. 35
Focus on an Issue: A Proposal to Eliminate Race From UCR Reportsp. 36
Perceptions of Offenders by Victimsp. 41
Self-Report Surveysp. 43
Summary: A Picture of the Typical Criminal Offenderp. 46
Crime as an Intraracial Eventp. 46
The National Crime Victimization Surveyp. 47
UCR Homicide Reportsp. 47
Summaryp. 47
Focus on an Issue: The Politicization of Interracial Crimep. 48
Focus on an Issue: Politicizing Black-On-Black Crimep. 48
Crime as an Interracial (Hate) Eventp. 49
Ethnic Youth Gangsp. 50
Gang Myths and Realitiesp. 50
Varieties of Ethnic Gangsp. 52
Conclusionp. 54
Discussion Questionsp. 55
Notesp. 56
Race, Ethnicity, Social Structure, and Crimep. 60
Goals of the Chapterp. 60
Economic Inequalityp. 61
Incomep. 62
Wealthp. 63
Unemploymentp. 64
Poverty Statusp. 65
Human and Social Capitalp. 65
Progress, Stagnation, or Regression? The Debate over the Status of African Americap. 66
The Debate over the Underclassp. 68
Community Social Structurep. 70
Residential Segregationp. 70
Theoretical Perspectives on Inequality and Crimep. 73
Social Strain Theoryp. 73
Differential Association Theoryp. 74
Social Disorganization Theoryp. 75
Culture Conflict Theoryp. 76
Conflict Theoryp. 76
Routine Activity Theoryp. 77
The Limits of Current Theoriesp. 78
Inequality and Social Reformp. 78
The Impact of the Civil Rights Movementp. 79
The Attack on Economic Inequalityp. 81
Conclusionp. 83
Discussion Questionsp. 83
Notesp. 84
Justice on the Street?: the Police and Minoritiesp. 87
Unequal Justice?p. 87
Goals of the Chapterp. 88
A Contextual Approachp. 88
A Long History of Conflictp. 89
The Police and a Changing Americap. 90
Public Attitudes About the Policep. 90
Policing Minority Neighborhoodsp. 92
Variations Among Minorities and the Policep. 92
Focus on an Issue: Too Much or Too Little Policing?p. 94
Police Use of Deadly Forcep. 95
Reducing Disparities in Shootingsp. 95
Disparity Versus Discrimination in Shootingsp. 96
"Police Brutality": Police Use of Physical Forcep. 97
Discrimination in Arrests?p. 99
Focus on an Issue: Police and the War on Drugsp. 101
Quality of Life Policingp. 101
Stopping, Questioning, and Friskingp. 102
Stereotyping, Racial Prejudice, and Routine Police Workp. 103
Focus on an Issue: "Driving While Black"p. 104
Verbal Abusep. 105
Police Officer Attitudes and Behaviorp. 106
Minorities and Police Corruptionp. 107
Police-Community Relations Programsp. 108
Citizen Complaints Against the Policep. 109
Citizen Review of the Policep. 110
Police Employment Practicesp. 110
Trends in Racial Minority Employmentp. 110
Focus on an Issue: Would It Make a Difference? Assigning African American Officers to African American Neighborhoodsp. 111
The Law of Employment Discriminationp. 113
Discrimination in Assignmentp. 114
The Impact of Diversityp. 115
Minorities as Supervisors and Chief Executivesp. 116
Conclusionp. 116
Discussion Questionsp. 117
Notesp. 118
The Courts: a Quest for Justice During the Pretrial Processp. 124
The Situation Todayp. 126
Goals of the Chapterp. 128
Decisions Regarding Counsel and Bailp. 128
Racial Minorities and the Right to Counselp. 128
Racial Minorities and Bail Decision Makingp. 133
Charging and Plea Bargaining Decisionsp. 139
Prosecutors' Charging Decisionsp. 140
Race and Plea Bargaining Decisionsp. 146
Conclusionp. 148
Discussion Questionsp. 149
Notesp. 149
Justice on the Bench?: Trial and Adjudication in Adult and Juvenile Courtp. 154
Goals of the Chapterp. 155
Selection of the Jury Poolp. 155
Use of Peremptory Challengesp. 158
Playing the "Race Card" in a Criminal Trialp. 161
Focus on an Issue: Should We Eliminate the Peremptory Challenge?p. 162
Race-Conscious Jury Nullification: Black Power in the Courtroom?p. 165
Race/Ethnicity and the Juvenile Justice Systemp. 167
Race/Ethnicity and Juvenile Court Outcomes in Three Jurisdictionsp. 169
Transfer of Juveniles to Criminal Courtp. 171
Explaining Disparate Treatment of Juvenile Offendersp. 173
Conclusionp. 175
Discussion Questionsp. 176
Notesp. 177
Race and Sentencing: In Search of Fairness and Justicep. 181
Goals of the Chapterp. 182
Racial Disparity in Sentencingp. 183
Three Explanations for Racial Disparities in Sentencingp. 183
Empirical Research on Race and Sentencingp. 186
Discriminatory Sentencing in Three Urban Jurisdictionsp. 186
Direct and Indirect Race Effects in Two Texas Countiesp. 189
Racial Equity in Sentencing in Pennsylvaniap. 190
More Lenient Sentences for Nonwhite Drug Offendersp. 193
When Does Race Matter?p. 194
Differential Treatment of Interracial and Intraracial Crimep. 195
Race, Unemployment, and Punishmentp. 200
The Effect of Race on Sentencing for Various Types of Crimesp. 202
Sentencing and the War on Drugsp. 205
Focus on an Issue: Penalties for Crack and Powder Cocainep. 209
The Effect of Race on Sentencing for Male and Female Offendersp. 210
Focus on an Issue: Does It Make a Difference? A Comparison of the Sentencing Decisions of African American, Hispanic, and White Judgesp. 211
Sentencing Reform: The Quest for a "Just" Punishment Systemp. 214
Sentence Reform and Sentence Disparityp. 215
Conclusionp. 218
Discussion Questionsp. 219
Notesp. 219
The Color of Death: Race and the Death Penaltyp. 225
Goals of the Chapterp. 225
The Constitutionality of the Death Penaltyp. 226
Furman v. Georgiap. 226
Post-Furman Decisionsp. 228
Attitudes Toward Capital Punishmentp. 228
Race and the Death Penalty: The Empirical Evidencep. 231
Statistical Evidence of Racial Disparityp. 231
Pre-Furman Studiesp. 235
Post-Furman Studiesp. 240
Explanations for Disparate Treatmentp. 245
Focus on an Issue: The Death Penalty and Wrongful Convictionsp. 246
McCleskey v. Kemp: The Supreme Court and Racial Discrimination in the Application of the Death Penaltyp. 248
Focus on an Issue: The Case of the Martinsville Sevenp. 249
The Execution of Warren McCleskeyp. 251
The Aftermath of McCleskeyp. 252
Conclusionp. 254
Discussion Questionsp. 255
Notesp. 255
Corrections: a Picture in Black and Whitep. 260
Prison Versus College: Minorities in Societyp. 260
Goals of the Chapterp. 260
The Incarcerated: Prison and Jail Populationsp. 261
Minority Overrepresentationp. 261
Racial and Ethnic Female Prisonersp. 263
Historical Trendsp. 263
Impact of the War on Drugsp. 264
Focus on an Issue: Correctional Personnel: Similarities and Differences on the Basis of Racep. 265
Incarceration Ratesp. 265
Jails and Minoritiesp. 266
The Role of Jailp. 266
Minority Overrepresentationp. 267
Parole: Early Release from Prisonp. 267
Success and Failure on Parolep. 269
Probation: A Case of Sentencing Discrimination?p. 270
Perspectives on the Racial Distribution of Correctional Populationsp. 270
Adjustment to Prisonp. 274
Focus on an Issue: Life in Prison: Segregation: By Law or Choice?p. 275
Race and Religionp. 276
Focus on an Issue: Indigenous Justice Paradigmp. 278
Prison Gangsp. 278
Focus on an Issue: Civil Rights of Convicted Felonsp. 279
Women in Prisonp. 280
Juveniles Under Correctional Supervisionp. 280
Conclusionp. 281
Discussion Questionsp. 282
Notesp. 282
The Color of Justicep. 286
Race, Crime, and Justicep. 287
Notesp. 290
Selected Bibliographyp. 291
Indexp. 299
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