The Color of Justice Race, Ethnicity, and Crime in America

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-08-07
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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Preface. 1. Race, Ethnicity, and Crime: The Present Crisis. 2. Victims and Offenders: Myths and Realities About Crime. 3. Race, Ethnicity, Social Structure, and Crime. 4. Justice on the Street? The Police and Minorities. 5. The Courts: A Quest for Justice During the Pre-Trial Process. 6. Justice on the Bench? Trial and Adjudication in Adult and Juvenile Court. 7. Race and Sentencing: In Search of Fairness and Justice. 8. The Color of Death: Race and the Death Penalty. 9. Corrections: A Picture in Black and White. 10. Minority Youth and the Criminal Justice System. 11. The Color of Justice. Selected Bibliography. Index.

Table of Contents

Forewordp. xiii
Prefacep. xvi
Race, Ethnicity, and Crime: The Present Crisisp. 1
The Scope of This Bookp. 3
Objectives of the Bookp. 4
Goals of the Chapterp. 5
The Colors of America: Racial and Ethnic Categoriesp. 5
Racial and Ethnic Categoriesp. 6
The Politics of Racial and Ethnic Labelsp. 12
The Quality of Criminal Justice Data on Race and Ethnicityp. 14
The Geography of Racial and Ethnic Justicep. 16
Disparity versus Discriminationp. 18
The Law of Discriminationp. 20
The Discrimination-Disparity Continuump. 20
A Theoretical Perspective on Race, Ethnicity, and Crimep. 22
Alternative Theoriesp. 23
Conclusionp. 24
Discussion Questionsp. 24
Notesp. 25
Victims and Offenders: Myths and Realities About Crimep. 29
Goals of the Chapterp. 30
A Broader Picture of the Crime Victimp. 31
The National Crime Victimization Surveyp. 31
Household Victimizationp. 33
Personal Victimizationp. 36
Trends in Household and Personal Victimizationp. 40
Lifetime Likelihood of Victimizationp. 41
Homicide Victimizationp. 43
Summary: A More Comprehensive Picture of the Crime Victimp. 44
Picture of the Typical Offenderp. 45
Official Arrest Statisticsp. 46
Perceptions of Offenders by Victimsp. 52
Self-Report Surveysp. 55
Summary: A Picture of the Typical Criminal Offenderp. 58
Crime as an Intraracial Eventp. 58
National Crime Victimization Surveyp. 59
Uniform Crime Report Homicide Reportsp. 59
Summaryp. 59
Crime as an Interracial (Hate) Eventp. 60
Ethnic Youth Gangsp. 64
Gang Myths and Realitiesp. 64
Varieties of Ethnic Gangsp. 66
Conclusionp. 69
Discussion Questionsp. 70
Notesp. 71
Race, Ethnicity, Social Structure, and Crimep. 77
The Images from Hurricane Katrinap. 77
Two Societies?p. 77
Goals of the Chapterp. 78
Economic Inequalityp. 79
Incomep. 19
Wealthp. 80
Unemploymentp. 81
Poverty Statusp. 82
Insurance Coveragep. 83
Social Capital and Cultural Capitalp. 83
Progress, Stagnation, or Regression? The Debate over the Status of African Americansp. 85
The Debate over the Underclassp. 87
Community Social Structurep. 88
Residential Segregationp. 89
Theoretical Perspectives on Inequality and Crimep. 92
Social Strain Theoryp. 92
Differential Association Theoryp. 93
Social Disorganization Theoryp. 94
Culture Conflict Theoryp. 94
Conflict Theoryp. 95
Routine Activity Theoryp. 96
The Limits of Current Theoriesp. 97
Inequality and Social Reformp. 97
The Impact of the Civil Rights Movementp. 98
The Attack on Economic Inequalityp. 100
Conclusionp. 102
Discussion Questionsp. 102
Notesp. 102
Justice on the Street? The Police and Racial and Ethnic Minoritiesp. 106
Unequal Justice?p. 106
Complex and Ambiguous Evidencep. 108
Goals of the Chapterp. 108
A Contextual Approachp. 108
A Long History of Conflictp. 110
The Police and a Changing Americap. 111
Public Attitudes About the Policep. 111
The Impact of Police Officer Conductp. 113
Policing Racial and Ethnic Minority Communitiesp. 114
The African American Communityp. 114
The Hispanic Communityp. 114
The Native American Communityp. 115
The Middle Eastern Communityp. 116
Police Use of Deadly Forcep. 118
Disparity versus Discrimination in Police Shootingsp. 119
Controlling Police Shootingsp. 119
"Police Brutality": Police Use of Physical Forcep. 120
Discrimination in Arrests?p. 123
Zero-Tolerance Policingp. 125
Traffic Stops: Racial Profilingp. 125
The Use of Race in Law Enforcementp. 127
Profiling Contextsp. 127
The Data on Traffic Stopsp. 128
Interpreting Traffic Stop Datap. 129
Eliminating Bias in Traffic Enforcementp. 130
The PERF Policy on Traffic Enforcementp. 131
A Success Story: The Customs Bureaup. 133
Street Stops and Frisksp. 133
Special Issue: Stereotyping and Routine Police Workp. 134
Verbal Abusep. 135
Police Officer Attitudes and Behaviorp. 136
Police Corruption and People of Colorp. 138
Police-Community Relations Programsp. 138
Special Unitsp. 138
Community Policingp. 139
Responding to Specific Community Concernsp. 140
Reduce Officer Misconductp. 141
Ensuring Cultural Competencep. 142
Citizen Complaints Against the Policep. 142
Citizen Oversight of the Policep. 144
Police Employment Practicesp. 145
Trends in African American and Hispanic Employmentp. 145
The Law of Employment Discriminationp. 147
Discrimination in Assignmentp. 149
The Impact of Diversityp. 149
People of Color as Supervisors and Chief Executivesp. 152
Conclusionp. 153
Discussion Questionsp. 154
Notesp. 154
The Courts: A Quest for Justice During the Pretrial Processp. 163
The Situation Todayp. 165
Goals of the Chapterp. 167
Decisions Regarding Counsel and Bailp. 167
Racial Minorities and the Right to Counselp. 168
Racial Minorities and Bail Decisionmakingp. 174
Charging and Plea Bargaining Decisionsp. 184
Prosecutors' Charging Decisionsp. 184
Race and Plea Bargaining Decisionsp. 192
Conclusionp. 193
Discussion Questionsp. 194
Notesp. 195
Justice on the Bench? Trial and Adjudication in Criminal Courtp. 201
Goals of the Chapterp. 203
Selection of the Jury Poolp. 203
Techniques for Increasing Racial Diversityp. 207
The Peremptory Challenge: Racial Profiling in the Courtroom?p. 208
The Supreme Court and the Peremptory Challenge: From Swain to Batsonp. 210
Playing the "Race Card" in a Criminal Trialp. 219
Race-Conscious Jury Nullification: Black Power in the Courtroom?p. 220
Conclusionp. 225
Discussion Questionsp. 226
Notesp. 227
Race and Sentencing: In Search of Fairness and Justicep. 231
Goals of the Chapterp. 233
Racial Disparity in Sentencingp. 233
Four Explanations for Racial Disparities in Sentencingp. 234
Empirical Research on Race and Sentencingp. 235
Reviews of Recent Researchp. 236
When Does Race/Ethnicity Matter?p. 240
Race/Ethnicity and Sentencing: Direct and Indirect Effectsp. 241
Race/Ethnicity, Gender, Age, and Employment: A Volatile Combination?p. 244
Differential Treatment of Interracial and Intraracial Sexual Assaultp. 248
The Effect of Race on Sentencing for Various Types of Crimesp. 253
Sentencing and the War on Drugsp. 257
Sentencing Reform: The Quest for a "Just" Punishment Systemp. 271
Challenges to the Indeterminate Sentencep. 271
Race/Ethnicity and the Federal Sentencing Guidelinesp. 273
Race/Ethnicity and State Sentencing Reformsp. 276
Have Sentencing Guidelines Increased the Likelihood of Racial Discrimination?p. 278
Conclusionp. 279
Discussion Questionsp. 280
Notesp. 281
The Color of Death: Race and the Death Penaltyp. 290
Goals of the Chapterp. 291
The Constitutionality of the Death Penaltyp. 292
Furman v. Georgiap. 292
Post-Furman Decisionsp. 293
Attitudes Toward Capital Punishmentp. 295
Race and the Death Penalty: The Empirical Evidencep. 298
Statistical Evidence of Racial Disparityp. 298
Pre-Furman Studiesp. 303
Post-Gregg Studiesp. 307
Race and the Federal Capital Sentencing Processp. 314
Explanations for Disparate Treatmentp. 317
McCleskey v. Kemp: The Supreme Court and Racial
Discrimination in the Application of the Death Penaltyp. 319
The Aftermath of McCleskey: Calls for Reform or Abolition of the Death Penaltyp. 323
The Death Penalty in the 21st Centuryp. 325
The Movement to Reform the Death Penaltyp. 328
The Movement to Abolish the Death Penaltyp. 329
Conclusionp. 332
Discussion Questionsp. 332
Notesp. 333
Corrections in America: A Colorful Portrait: Corrections vs. College: Minorities in Societyp. 341
Goals of the Chapterp. 342
The Incarcerated: Prison and Jail Populationsp. 342
Minority Overrepresentationp. 342
Race, Ethnicity, and Recidivismp. 347
Historical Trendsp. 348
Impact of the War on Drugsp. 348
Incarceration Ratesp. 349
Jails and Minoritiesp. 351
The Role of Jailp. 351
Minority Overrepresentationp. 352
Community Correctionsp. 352
Parole: Early Release from Prisonp. 353
Success and Failure on Parolep. 354
Probation: A Case of Sentencing Discrimination?p. 355
Community Corrections: A Native American Examplep. 356
Theoretical Perspectives on the Racial Distribution of Correctional Populationsp. 358
Adjustment to Prisonp. 361
Prison Gangsp. 365
Women in Prisonp. 368
Conclusionp. 368
Discussion Questionsp. 369
Notesp. 369
Minority Youth and Crime: Minority Youth in Courtp. 375
Goals of the Chapterp. 376
Young Racial Minorities as Victims and Offendersp. 376
Juveniles as Victims of Crimep. 376
Juveniles as Offendersp. 381
Juveniles of Color and the Policep. 386
Race/Ethnicity and the Juvenile Justice Systemp. 390
Race/Ethnicity and Juvenile Court Outcomes in Five Jurisdictionsp. 396
Transfer of Juveniles to Criminal Courtp. 405
Explaining Disparate Treatment of Juvenile Offendersp. 407
Juveniles Under Correctional Supervisionp. 409
Conclusionp. 411
Discussion Questionsp. 412
Notesp. 413
The Color of Justicep. 418
Race, Crime, and Justicep. 419
Notesp. 423
Selected Bibliographyp. 424
Indexp. 445
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