9780072862942

Communicating about Health : Current Issues and Perspectives

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780072862942

  • ISBN10:

    0072862947

  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2004-05-05
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Humanities/Social Sciences/Languages

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

This text provides a research-based thorough overview of health communication, balancing theory with practical advice and examples that encourage students to further develop their own communication skills. In a broad survey of the field, approached from the perspectives of both caregiver and patient, it offers solid coverage of the history of health care, an examination of culture's role in health and healing, and a look at current issues and challenges facing health care. The new edition includes expanded coverage of diversity among patients and of the impact of technology on health care communication today.

Table of Contents

Preface xxi
Part One. ESTABLISHING A CONTEXT FOR HEALTH COMMUNICATION 1(54)
CHAPTER 1. Introduction
3(22)
WHAT IS HEALTH COMMUNICATION?
5(5)
Defining Communication
5(3)
Process
5(1)
Personal Goals
6(1)
Interdependence
7(1)
Sensitivity
7(1)
Shared Meaning
8(1)
Defining Health Communication
8(2)
Implications
10(1)
MEDICAL MODELS
10(2)
Biomedical Model
10(1)
Biopsychosocial Model
11(1)
Implications
12(1)
IMPORTANCE OF HEALTH COMMUNICATION
12(3)
Six Important Issues
12(3)
Implications
15(1)
CURRENT ISSUES IN HEALTH COMMUNICATION
15(7)
Medical Cost-Cutting
15(3)
Prevention
18(1)
Patient Empowerment
18(1)
Global Health Needs
19(2)
Changing Populations
21(1)
Technology
21(1)
Implications
22(1)
SUMMARY
22(1)
KEY TERMS
23(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
23(1)
CLASS ACTIVITY: Review Your Own Experiences
24
BOXES: Box 1.1 Perspectives: True Stories About Health Communication Experiences
6(19)
Box 1.2 Theoretical Foundations: The Basis for Health Communication
9(4)
Box 1.3 Perspectives: A Memorable Hospital Experience
13(3)
Box 1.4 Ethical Considerations: An Essential Component of Health Communication
16(4)
Box 1.5 Resources: Opportunities for Further Exploration
20(5)
CHAPTER 2. History and Current Issues
25(30)
MEDICINE IN ANCIENT TIMES
25(3)
Imhotep
25(1)
Hippocrates
26(2)
Implications
28(1)
MEDIEVAL RELIGION AND HEALTH CARE
28(2)
Medical Spiritualism
28(1)
Barber Surgeons
29(1)
Science and Magic
29(1)
End of an Era
30(1)
Implications
30(1)
RENAISSANCE PHILOSOPHY AND HEALTH CARE
30(3)
Principle of Verification
31(1)
Cartesian Dualism
31(2)
Implications
33(1)
HEALTH CARE IN THE NEW WORLD
33(2)
Health Conditions
33(1)
Hippocrates' Influence
34(1)
Women's Role
34(1)
Implications
34(1)
THE RISE OF ORTHODOX MEDICINE
35(3)
Population Shifts
35(1)
Germ Theory
35(1)
Research and Technology
36(1)
Campaign of Orthodox Medicine
36(1)
Flexner Report
37(1)
Decline of Sectarian Medicine
37(1)
Implications
38(1)
TWENTIETH CENTURY HEALTH CARE
38(1)
Specialization
38(1)
Medicine and Free Enterprise
39(1)
Implications
39(1)
ADVENT OF MANAGED CARE
39(11)
Health and Wealth
40(1)
Problems
40(1)
Reform Efforts
41(1)
Managed Care
41(9)
Consumers' Perspective
44(2)
Caregiver's Perspective
46(1)
Organization's Perspective
47(1)
Pros and Cons
48(2)
Implications
50(1)
SUMMARY
50(2)
KEY TERMS
52(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
53(1)
CLASS ACTIVITY: Health in the News
53
BOXES: Box 2.1 The Hippocratic Oath
27(30)
Box 2.2 Perspectives: Sick in the Head?
32(10)
Box 2.3 Theoretical Foundations: Kaleidoscope Model of Health Communication
42(4)
Box 2.4 Resources: More About Managed Care
46(2)
Box 2.5 Managed Care at a Glance
48(3)
Box 2.6 Ethical Considerations: Classroom Debate on Managed Care
51(4)
Part Two. THE ROLES OF PATIENTS AND CAREGIVERS 55(85)
CHAPTER 3. Patient-Caregiver Communication
57(27)
PHYSICIAN-CENTERED COMMUNICATION
58(8)
Assertive Behavior
59(1)
Questions and Directives
60(1)
Blocking
60(1)
Patronizing Behavior
61(2)
Power Difference
63(1)
Criticism of Physician-Centeredness
63(3)
Implications
66(1)
COLLABORATIVE COMMUNICATION
66(6)
Climate for Change
68(1)
Communication Skill Builders: Cultivating Dialogue
69(2)
Nonverbal Encouragement
69(1)
Verbal Encouragement
70(1)
Implications
71(1)
ENVIRONMENTAL RESTRUCTURING
72(4)
Mobility and Involvement
74(1)
Soothing Surroundings
75(1)
Implications
76(1)
COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY: TELEMEDICINE
76(4)
Advantages to Consumers
77(1)
Advantages for Caregivers
78(1)
Disadvantages
78(1)
Implications
79(1)
COMMUNICATION SKILL BUILDERS: TIPS FOR PATIENTS
80(1)
SUMMARY
81(1)
KEY TERMS
82(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
82(1)
CLASS ACTIVITY: Redesigning the Doctor's Office or Hospital
83
BOXES: Box 3.1 Stepping Over the Line
62(22)
Box 3.2 Ethical Considerations: Therapeutic Privilege
64(3)
Box 3.3 Theoretical Foundations: Communication as Collaborative Interpretation
67(5)
Box 3.4 Perspectives: A Mother's Experience at the Dentist
72(2)
Box 3.5 Doorknob Disclosures
74(2)
Box 3.6 Resources: More About the Planetree Model
76(4)
Box 3.7 Resources: Health Communication Journals
80(4)
CHAPTER 4. Caregiver Perspective
84(31)
MEDICAL SOCIALIZATION 85
Theory of Socialization
85(3)
Selection
88(1)
Curriculum
89(2)
Nursing
89(1)
Dentistry
89(1)
Diverse Caregivers
90(1)
Physicians
90(1)
Socialization Process
91(3)
Loss of Identity
92(1)
Privileged Status
92(1)
Overwhelming Responsibilities
93(1)
Withdrawal and Resentment
93(1)
Effects of Socialization
94(1)
Medical School Reform
94(1)
Implications
95(1)
PROFESSIONAL INFLUENCES ON CAREGIVERS
96(3)
Time Constraints
96(1)
Competition
97(1)
Loss of Autonomy
97(1)
Implications
98(1)
PSYCHOLOGICAL INFLUENCES ON CAREGIVERS
99(6)
Maturity
99(4)
Self-Doubt
103(1)
Satisfaction
103(2)
Implications
105(1)
STRESS AND BURNOUT
105(6)
Causes
107(2)
Conflict
107(1)
Emotions
108(1)
Communication Deficits
108(1)
Workload
109(1)
Other Factors
109(1)
Effects
109(1)
Communication Skill Builders: Tips for Avoiding Burnout
109(1)
Implications
110(1)
COMMUNICATION TECHNOLOGY: KNOWLEDGE COUPLING
111(1)
Implications
111(1)
SUMMARY
112(1)
KEY TERMS
113(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
113(1)
CLASS ACTIVITY: Doctors in the Movies
114
BOXES: Box 4.1 Theoretical Foundations: Talking Like a Doctor
86(29)
Box 4.2 Resources: More on Communication Training for Caregivers
91(9)
Box 4.3 Ethical Considerations: Privacy Regulations Incite Controversy
100(4)
Box 4.4 Managing Medical Mistakes
104(2)
Box 4.5 Perspectives: Blowing the Whistle on an Impaired Physician
106(9)
CHAPTER 5. Patient Perspective
115(56)
PATIENT SOCIALIZATION
115(4)
Voice of Lifeworld
116(3)
Feelings Versus Evidence
118(1)
Specific Versus Diffuse
118(1)
Implications
119(1)
PATIENT CHARACTERISTICS
119(3)
Nature of the Illness
120(1)
Patient Disposition
120(1)
Communication Skills
121(1)
Implications
121(1)
SATISFACTION
122(2)
Attentiveness
122(1)
Information
123(1)
Convenience
123(1)
Moderation
123(1)
Implications
124(1)
COOPERATION AND CONSENT
124(6)
Reasons for Noncompliance
125(1)
Caregivers' Investment
126(1)
Informed Consent
126(4)
Implications
130(1)
ILLNESS AND PERSONAL IDENTITY
130(6)
Reactions to Illness
132(1)
Narratives
132(4)
Implications
136(1)
SUMMARY
136(1)
KEY TERMS
137(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
137(1)
CLASS ACTIVITY: Informed Consent in Current Events
138
BOXES: Box 5.1 Perspectives: The Agony of Uncertainty
116(24)
Box 5.2 Resources: More About Patient Communication Skills Training
122(5)
Box 5.3 Cash for Cooperation?
127(1)
Box 5.4 Ethical Considerations: Patients' Right to Informed Consent
128(6)
Box 5.5 Theoretical Foundations: Integrative Health Model
134(6)
CHAPTER 6. Diversity Among Patients 140(31)
STATUS DIFFERENCES
140(3)
Misunderstandings
140(1)
Health Literacy
141(2)
Communication Skill Builders: Surmounting Status Barriers
143(1)
GENDER DIFFERENCES
143(1)
SEXUAL ORIENTATION
144(2)
RACE
146(3)
Different Care and Outcomes
146(1)
Explanations
147(8)
Distrust
147(1)
High Risk, Low Knowledge
147(1)
Access
148(1)
Patient-Caregiver Communication
148(1)
LANGUAGE DIFFERENCES
149(6)
DISABILITIES
155(3)
Communication Skill Builders: Interacting With Persons Who Have Disabilities
156(2)
AGE
158(8)
Children
158(1)
Communication Skill Builders: Talking With Children About Illness
159(1)
Older Adults
159(6)
Effects of Ageism
161(1)
Communication Patterns
161(3)
Promising Options
164(1)
Communication Technology and Older Adults
164(1)
Communication Skill Builders: Reaching Marginalized Populations
165(1)
SUMMARY
166(2)
KEY TERMS
168(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
168(1)
CLASS ACTIVITY: Overcoming the Self-Consciousness of a Disability
169
BOXES: Box 6.1 Resources: More About the Health Literacy Initiative
143(30)
Box 6.2 Ethical Considerations: Who Gets What Care?
150(2)
Box 6.3 Perspectives: Language Barriers in a Health Care Emergency
152(5)
Box 6.4 Perspectives: "My Disability Doesn't Show"
157(5)
Box 6.5 Theoretical Foundations: Communication Accommodation
162(3)
Box 6.6 Resources: Health Communication and Older Adults
165(1)
Box 6.7 Resources: More on Serving Marginalized Communities
166(5)
Part Three. SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ISSUES 171(64)
CHAPTER 7. Social Support
173(30)
CONCEPTUAL OVERVIEW
174(2)
Coping
174(1)
Crisis
175(1)
Normalcy
176(1)
COPING STRATEGIES AND SOCIAL SUPPORT
176(8)
Action-Facilitating Support
177(1)
Nurturing Support
177(4)
Esteem Support
177(1)
Communication Skill Builders: Supportive Listening
178(1)
Emotional Support
178(1)
Communication Skill Builders: Allowing Emotions
178(1)
Social Network Support
179(1)
Communication Skill Builders: Keeping Social Networks Active
180(1)
Support Groups
181(1)
Communication Technology: Virtual Communities
182(1)
Implications
183(1)
LAY CAREGIVING
184(4)
Lay Caregivers' New Role
184(1)
Profile of the Lay Caregiver
185(1)
Stress and Burnout
185(3)
Caring for Caregivers
188(1)
DEATH AND DYING EXPERIENCES
188(7)
Life at All Costs
189(1)
Death With Dignity
190(1)
Advance-Care Directives
191(1)
Coping With Death
191(3)
Communication Skill Builders: Coping With Death
194(1)
Implications
195(1)
OVERSUPPORTING
195(4)
Overhelping
196(1)
Overinforming
196(2)
Overempathizing
198(1)
Implications
199(1)
SUMMARY
199(1)
KEY TERMS
200(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
201(1)
CLASS ACTIVITY: Comforting a Friend
201
BOXES: Box 7.1 Resources: More About Coping and Social Support
184(19)
Box 7.2 Perspectives: A Long Goodbye to Grandmother
186(6)
Box 7.3 Ethical Considerations: Do People Have a Right to Die?
192(4)
Box 7.4 Resources: Insight About Dying Experiences
196(1)
Box 7.5 Theoretical Foundations: Theory of Problematic Integration
197(6)
CHAPTER 8. Cultural Conceptions of Health and Illness
203(32)
WHY CONSIDER CULTURE?
204(4)
Implications
207(1)
THE NATURE OF HEALTH AND ILLNESS
208(4)
Health as Organic
208(2)
Health as Harmony
210(1)
Implications
211(1)
SOCIAL IMPLICATIONS OF DISEASE
212(7)
Disease as a Curse
213(4)
Stigma of Disease
217(1)
The Morality of Prevention
218(1)
Victimization
218(1)
Implications
219(1)
PATIENT AND CAREGIVER ROLES
219(9)
Mechanics and Machines
222(1)
Parents and Children
223(1)
Spiritualists and Believers
223(3)
Providers and Consumers
226(1)
Partners
227(1)
Implications
228(1)
CULTURAL COMPETENCE
228(1)
COMMUNICATION SKILL BUILDERS: DEVELOPING CULTURAL COMPETENCE
229(1)
SUMMARY
230(1)
KEY TERMS
231(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
231(1)
CLASS ACTIVITY: How It Was-How It Could Be
231
BOXES: Box 8.1 Perspectives: Zackie Achmat Fights for AIDS Care in Africa
206(31)
Box 8.2 Resources: More About Culture and Health
209(5)
Box 8.3 Theoretical Foundations: Theory of Health as Expanded Consciousness
214(6)
Box 8.4 Perspectives: Thai Customs and a Son's Duty
220(4)
Box 8.5 Ethical Considerations: Physician as Parent or Partner?
224(11)
Part Four. COMMUNICATION IN HEALTH ORGANIZATIONS 235(68)
CHAPTER 9. Culture and Diversity in Health Organizations
237(33)
ORGANIZATIONAL CULTURE
238(8)
Cultural Integration
239(1)
Advantages of Diversity
239(6)
Implications
245(1)
HISTORICAL PATTERNS OF ACCEPTANCE
246(6)
Female Physicians
246(1)
Building Equity
247(1)
Communication Styles
248(1)
Minorities in Medicine
248(3)
History
248(1)
Current Representation
249(1)
Communication Effects
249(2)
Implications
251(1)
DIVERSE TYPES OF HEALTH CARE
252(3)
Nurses
252(2)
Nursing Shortage
252(2)
Nurse Practitioners and Physician Assistants
254(1)
Implications
254(1)
ALTERNATIVE AND COMPLEMENTARY CARE
255(4)
Definitions
255(2)
Popularity
257(1)
Advantages
257(1)
Drawbacks
258(1)
Implications
259(1)
MANAGING CONFLICT
259(6)
Definitions
260(1)
Conflict of Interest
261(1)
Violent Conflict
262(1)
Communication Skill Builders: Defusing Violent Situations
263(1)
Nurses' Role Conflict
263(2)
Implications
265(1)
COMMUNICATION SKILL BUILDERS: INTEGRATING DIVERSE EMPLOYEES
265(1)
SUMMARY
266(1)
KEY TERMS
267(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
268(1)
CLASS ACTIVITY: Inventory of Personal Beliefs
268
BOXES: Box 9.1 Perspectives: Cultural Transformation at Delnor Hospital
240(30)
Box 9.2 Theoretical Foundations: Model of Multiculturalism
244(6)
Box 9.3 Ethical Considerations: Is Affirmative Action Justified or Not?
250(6)
Box 9.4 Alternative and Complementary Medicine at a Glance
256(7)
Box 9.5 Resources: More on Conflict Management
263(7)
CHAPTER 10. Leadership and Teamwork
270(33)
CURRENT ISSUES
271(7)
Consolidation
271(3)
Competition
274(2)
Consumerism
276(2)
Staffing Shortages 278 Implications
278(1)
CHALLENGING THE BUREAUCRACY
278(10)
Hierarchies or Partnerships?
279(3)
Advantages
279(1)
Disadvantages
280(1)
Opportunities for Change
280(1)
Communication Skill Builders: Training New Leaders
281(1)
Authority Rule or Multilevel Input?
282(2)
Advantages
282(1)
Disadvantages
283(1)
Opportunities for Change
283(1)
Communication Skills Builders: Managing by Collaboration
284(1)
Specialized Jobs or Mission-Centered Expectations?
284(2)
Advantages
285(1)
Disadvantages
285(1)
Opportunities for Change
285(1)
Communication Skill Builders: Promoting a Shared Vision
285(1)
Strictly by the Rules . . . or Not?
286(2)
Advantages
286(1)
Disadvantages
287(1)
Communication Skill Builders: Evaluating the Rules
287(1)
Implications
288(1)
TEAMWORK
288(5)
Advantages
289(2)
Difficulties and Drawbacks
291(1)
Communication Skill Builders: Working on Teams
292(1)
Implications
292(1)
ROLE OF COMMUNICATION SPECIALISTS
293(6)
Reducing Uncertainty
293(1)
Bridging Boundaries
293(1)
Providing Social Support
294(1)
Building Skills
294(1)
Working With the Media
295(1)
Managing Crises
296(1)
Communication Skill Builders: Crisis Management
296(1)
Promoting Community Outreach and Health Education
296(1)
Marketing
297(1)
Advocating for Patients
297(1)
Researching Health Communication
298(1)
Implications
298(1)
SUMMARY
299(1)
KEY TERMS
299(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
300(1)
CLASS ACTIVITY: Mending a Breach of Trust
300
BOXES: Box 10.1 Perspectives: Leaders Communicate With Purpose
272(33)
Box 10.2 Ethical Considerations: Should Health Organizations Advertise?
276(2)
Box 10.3 Resources: More About Adapting to Changes in Health Care
278(12)
Box 10.4 Theoretical Foundations: A Model for Innovative Leadership
290(9)
Box 10.5 Resources: More About Careers in Health Communication
299(4)
Part Five. HEALTH IN THE MEDIA 303
CHAPTER 11. Health Images in the Media
305(33)
ADVERTISING
306(8)
Nutrition
307(1)
Obesity
307(1)
Effects on Children
308(1)
Activity Levels
308(1)
Alcohol
308(4)
Source of Knowledge
309(1)
Glamorized Images
309(3)
Programming Content
312(1)
Body Images
312(2)
Health Effects
313(1)
Eternal Hope
313(1)
Implications
314(1)
NEWS COVERAGE
314(10)
Accuracy
315(3)
Sensationalism
318(2)
Advantages
320(1)
Communication Skill Builders: Presenting Health News
320(1)
Communication Technology: Interactive Health Information
321(2)
Advantages
322(1)
Drawbacks
322(1)
Communication Skill Builders: Using the Internet
323(1)
Implications
324(1)
ENTERTAINMENT
324(8)
Portrayals of Health-Related Behaviors
324(3)
Mental Illness
324(1)
Disabilities
325(1)
Sex
325(1)
Violence
326(1)
Portrayals of Health Care Situations
327(1)
Medical Miracles
327(1)
Entertainment and Commercialism
327(2)
Entertainomercials
327(1)
Product Placement
328(1)
Pro-Social Programming
329(1)
Impact of Persuasive Entertainment
330(2)
Implications
332(1)
MEDIA LITERACY
332(2)
Teaching Media Literacy
333(1)
Implications
334(1)
SUMMARY
334(1)
KEY TERMS
335(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
336(1)
CLASS ACTIVITY: Building Media Literacy
336
BOXES: Box 11.1 Theoretical Foundations: Cultivation Theory and Social Comparison Theory
310(28)
Box 11.2 Resources: More About Media Effects on Children
314(2)
Box 11.3 Perspectives: Media Relations at the CDC
316(5)
Box 11.4 Resources: Learning Opportunities for Health Journalists
321(9)
Box 11.5 Ethical Considerations: Is the Entertainment Industry Responsible for Health Images?
330(8)
CHAPTER 12. Planning Health Promotion Campaigns
338(27)
BACKGROUND ON HEALTH CAMPAIGNS
339(6)
Motivating Factors
339(3)
Exemplary Campaigns
342(2)
Go to the Audience
342(1)
Take Action
343(1)
Measure Your Success
343(1)
Encourage Social Support
344(1)
Implications
344(1)
PLANNING A HEALTH CAMPAIGN
345(17)
Step 1: Defining the Situation and Potential Benefits
345(2)
Benefits
345(1)
Current Situation
346(1)
Diverse Motivations
346(1)
Step 2: Analyzing and Segmenting the Audience
347(9)
Data Collection
347(3)
Segmenting the Audience
350(2)
Audience Profiles
352(4)
Step 3: Establishing Campaign Goals and Objectives
356(2)
Step 4: Selecting Channels of Communication
358
Channel Characteristics
358(1)
Communication Technology: Using Computers to Narrow Messages
359(1)
Multichannel Campaigns
360(2)
SUMMARY
362(1)
KEY TERMS
362(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
363(1)
CLASS ACTIVITY: Focus Group Exercise
364
BOXES: Box 12.1 Perspectives: Gross! Wash Your Hands
340(25)
Box 12.2 Resources: Careers in Health Education and Promotion
350(4)
Box 12.3 Ethical Considerations: The Politics of Prevention-Who Should Pay?
354(3)
Box 12.4 Theoretical Foundations: The Knowledge Gap Hypothesis
357(4)
Box 12.5 Resources: More on Tailored Health Communication
361(4)
CHAPTER 13. Designing and Implementing Health Campaigns
365
THEORIES OF BEHAVIOR CHANGE
367(10)
Health Belief Model
367(4)
Social Cognitive Theory
371(1)
Embedded Behaviors Model
372(1)
Theory of Reasoned Action
373(1)
Transtheoretical Model
373(2)
Implications
375(2)
DESIGNING AND IMPLEMENTING A CAMPAIGN
377(11)
Step 5: Designing Campaign Messages
377(7)
Choosing a Voice
377(4)
Designing the Message
381(3)
Step 6: Piloting and Implementing the Campaign
384(2)
Step 7: Evaluating and Maintaining the Campaign
386
Evaluation
386(1)
Maintenance
387(1)
SUMMARY
388(1)
KEY TERMS
389(1)
REVIEW QUESTIONS
389(1)
CLASS ACTIVITY: Evaluating Messages
390
BOXES: Box 13.1 Perspectives: Unselling Drugs with Madison Avenue Know-How
368
Box 13.2 Theoretical Foundations: Synopsis of Behavior Change Theories
376(2)
Box 13.3 Ethical Considerations: Three Issues for Health Promoters to Keep in Mind
378(7)
Box 13.4: Resources: More About Designing Health Campaigns
385(3)
Box 13.5 Resources: More About Assessing the Impact of Health Campaigns
388
References R-1
Credits C-0
Author Index I-1
Subject Index I-10

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