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9780205267699

Communication and Human Behavior

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780205267699

  • ISBN10:

    0205267696

  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1998-01-01
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
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Summary

Now in its fourth edition, Communication and Human Behavior continues to offer students a broad introduction to the study of communication which is expansive yet integrated, that links theory to practice, and that is rigorous yet readable. Neither a watered-down treatment of the subject nor a how-to text, this volume presumes that the study of communication in human affairs is a complex phenomenon with important and far-reaching effects. Employing a thorough description of a variety of approaches and using the cohering insights of systems theory, the text presents to students the broad and colorful landscape of the field, outlines the history of communication study, and focuses on communication as a basic life process. Further, it develops an awareness of verbal and nonverbal codes used in sending and receiving messages, and examines the role of media in multiple contexts of human life.

Table of Contents

Preface xv
1 COMMUNICATION--DEFINITIONS AND THEORIES
1(17)
Why Study Communication?
1(8)
Communication Is Fundamental to Our Lives
1(1)
Communication Is Complex
2(1)
Communication Is Vital to Occupational Effectiveness
3(4)
A Good Education Does Not Assure Good Communication Competence
7(1)
Communication Is a Popular and Vibrant Field of Study
8(1)
Theories: Guides for Analysis and Action
9(3)
Personal Theories
9(1)
Scholarly Theories
10(1)
Combining Personal and Scholarly Theories
11(1)
Understanding Communication
12(2)
Level of Observation
13(1)
The Question of Intent
13(1)
Point of View
13(1)
The Issue of Outcomes
14(1)
Fundamentals of Communication
14(2)
Communication Is a Process
14(1)
Communication Is Essential for Individuals, Relationships, Groups, Organizations, and Societies
14(1)
Communication Involves Responding to and Creating Messages
15(1)
Communication Involves Adapting to People and the Environment
15(1)
Communication: A Definition
16(1)
Goals of Communication and Human Behavior
16(2)
2 DEVELOPMENT OF COMMUNICATION STUDY
18(28)
Early Communication Study
19(4)
Rhetoric and Speech
20(3)
Journalism
23(1)
The 1900s-1930s: Development of Speech and Journalism
23(1)
The 1940s and 1950s: Interdisciplinary Growth
24(6)
Lasswell's View of Communication
25(1)
Shannon and Weaver's Model
25(2)
Schramm's Models
27(1)
Katz and Lazarsfeld's Model
28(1)
Westley and MacLean's Model
28(2)
The 1960s: Integration
30(4)
Dance's Model
31(1)
Watzlawick, Beavin, and Jackson's Model
31(1)
Thayer's Model of Communication
32(2)
The 1970s and Early 1980s: Growth and Specialization
34(1)
The Popularity of Communication
34(1)
The Late 1980s and 1990s: The Information Age
35(3)
Information as a Commodity
36(1)
New and Converging Media
36(1)
Economic and Marketplace Influences
36(1)
Communication as a Process
37(1)
Strengthening Interdisciplinary Connections
37(1)
Reflections on the Evolution of Communication Theory
38(2)
Paradigms and Anomalies
38(2)
Communication Theory Today
40(1)
The Evolution of the Discipline
40(3)
Ancient and Newly Emergent
40(2)
Interdisciplinary Heritage
42(1)
Field of Study, Activity, and Profession
42(1)
Traditions of Science, Arts, and Humanities
42(1)
The Role of Media
42(1)
Implications and Applications
43(1)
Summary
43(3)
3 COMMUNICATION--A BASIC LIFE PROCESS
46(16)
Communication Processes in Animals and Humans
47(1)
Communication Modes
48(4)
Visual Messages
48(1)
Tactile Messages
49(1)
Olfactory and Gustatory Messages
50(1)
Auditory Messages
51(1)
Basic Functions of Communication
52(7)
Courtship and Mating
52(2)
Reproduction
54(1)
Parent-Offspring Relations and Socialization
54(1)
Navigation
55(2)
Self-Defense
57(1)
Territoriality
58(1)
Beyond S XXX M XXX R = E: The Adaptation Perspective
59(1)
Implications and Applications
60(1)
Summary
61(1)
4 FUNDAMENTALS OF HUMAN COMMUNICATION
62(22)
The Communication Iceberg
63(2)
The Visibility and Invisibility of Human Communication
63(2)
Visible Aspects of Communication
65(5)
People
65(1)
Symbols
65(4)
Media
69(1)
Invisible Aspects of Communication
70(11)
Meaning
71(2)
Learning
73(3)
Subjectivity
76(1)
Negotiation
77(1)
Culture
77(1)
Interacting Contexts and Levels
78(1)
Self-Reference
78(1)
Self-Reflexivity
79(1)
Ethics
79(1)
Inevitability
80(1)
Implications and Applications
81(1)
Summary
82(2)
5 MESSAGE RECEPTION
84(32)
Selection
88(2)
Interpretation
90(2)
Retention-Memory
92(3)
Short-Term and Long-Term Memory
93(1)
Episodic and Semantic Memory
94(1)
Receiver Influences
95(6)
Needs
96(1)
Attitudes, Beliefs, and Values
97(1)
Goals
97(3)
Capability
100(1)
Use
100(1)
Communication Style
100(1)
Experience and Habit
101(1)
Message Influences
101(4)
Origin
101(3)
Mode
104(1)
Physical Character
104(1)
Organization
105(1)
Novelty
105(1)
Source Influences
105(5)
Proximity
106(2)
Physical and Social Attraction and Similarity
108(1)
Credibility and Authoritativeness
108(1)
Motivation and Intent
109(1)
Delivery
109(1)
Status, Power, and Authority
109(1)
Media and Environmental Influences
110(2)
The Medium
110(1)
The Environment
111(1)
An Active and Complex Process
112(1)
Implications and Applications
113(1)
Summary
113(3)
6 VERBAL CODES
116(30)
Message Production
117(2)
An Illustration
117(2)
Encoding and Decoding
119(1)
Process- versus Meaning-Centered Models of Communication
119(1)
The Nature of Language
120(2)
Physiological Factors
120(1)
Cognitive Factors
121(1)
Language Acquisition
122(2)
Representation
124(7)
Language and Reality
124(5)
Limitations of Language for Representation
129(2)
Conversation
131(9)
Negotiation of Meanings
131(2)
Rules and Rituals
133(3)
Language and Gender
136(1)
Content and Relationship
137(2)
Metacommunication
139(1)
Social and Public Communication
140(1)
Production and Distribution of Social Realities
140(1)
Implications and Applications
140(2)
Summary
142(4)
7 NONVERBAL CODES
146(40)
Similarities between Verbal and Nonverbal Codes
149(1)
Rule-Governed
149(1)
Intentionality
150(1)
Common Message Functions
150(1)
Differences between Verbal and Nonverbal Codes
150(2)
Awareness and Attention
150(1)
Overt and Covert Rules
151(1)
Control
151(1)
Public versus Private Status
151(1)
Hemispheric Specialization
152(1)
Paralanguage
152(4)
Vocalic Forms
152(3)
Written Forms
155(1)
The Face
156(6)
Hair
158(1)
Eye Gaze
158(3)
Pupil Dilation
161(1)
The Body
162(3)
Physique
162(1)
Dress and Adornment
163(2)
Artifacts
165(1)
Gestures--Kinesics
165(5)
Inherited, Discovered, Imitated, and Trained Actions
166(1)
Origins of Gestures
167(1)
Types of Gestures
167(3)
Touch--Haptics
170(9)
Space--Proxemics
173(2)
The Physical Environment
175(4)
Time--Chronemics
179(1)
Timing
179(1)
Timeliness
179(1)
Messages and Meanings: MS XXX MR
180(1)
Implications and Applications
181(1)
Summary
182(4)
8 MEDIA
186(30)
The Tool-Making Animal
188(1)
Media and Their Functions
189(1)
Production and Distribution
189(1)
Reception, Storage, and Retrieval
189(1)
Types of Media
190(2)
Evolution of Communication Media: From Smoke Signals to the Internet
192(3)
Impact of Media on Contemporary Life
195(2)
Technological Convergence
197(7)
Increasing Number of Messages and Media
200(1)
Substituting Communication for Transportation
201(1)
Evolving Concepts of Office and Home
202(1)
Increasing Value of Information as a Commodity
202(1)
Increasing Availability of Synthetic Experience
203(1)
The International Scene
204(5)
Media Characteristics
205(1)
Asynchronous-Synchronous
205(1)
Low Interactivity-High Interactivity
206(2)
Low Social Presence-High Social Presence
208(1)
Mediated Communication: A Mixed Blessing
209(2)
Limited Communication Modes
209(1)
Decreased Control
210(1)
Anonymity and Depersonalization
210(1)
Decreased Responsibility and Accountability
211(1)
Media and the Quality of Life
211(2)
Media Forms
211(1)
Media Functions
212(1)
Implications and Applications
213(1)
Summary
213(3)
9 THE INDIVIDUAL
216(30)
Reaction, Action, and Interaction
217(1)
Interpretation
218(3)
Cognitive Development
221(10)
Learning
222(3)
Mediated Communication and Development
225(1)
Characteristics of Personal Representations
225(6)
Self-Development
231(5)
Stress and Growth
232(4)
Self-Expression
236(4)
Nonverbal Codes: Emblems and Artifacts
238(2)
Self Awareness
240(2)
Self-Reflexiveness and Self-Monitoring
240(2)
Self-Talk
242(1)
Implications and Applications
242(1)
Summary
243(3)
10 RELATIONSHIPS
246(30)
Interpersonal Communication and Relationships
248(2)
Types of Relationships
250(8)
Dyadic and Triadic Relationships
251(1)
Task and Social Relationships
252(2)
Short- and Long-Term Relationships
254(1)
Casual and Intimate Relationships
255(3)
Dating, Love, and Marital Relationships
258(1)
The Evolution of Relationships
258(7)
Stage One: Initiation
259(1)
Stage Two: Exploration
260(1)
Stage Three: Intensification
261(1)
Stage Four: Formalization
261(2)
Stage Five: Redefinition
263(1)
Stage Six: Deterioration
264(1)
Relational Patterns
265(4)
Supportive and Defensive Climates
265(1)
Dependencies and Counterdependencies
266(1)
Progressive and Regressive Spirals
267(1)
Self-Fulfilling and Self-Defeating Prophecies
268(1)
Factors That Influence Patterns
269(2)
Stage of Relationship and Context
269(1)
Interpersonal Needs and Styles
269(1)
Power
270(1)
Conflict
271(1)
Implications and Applications
271(1)
Summary
272(4)
11 GROUPS
276(24)
Groups: Fiction and Fact
278(1)
Why People Join Groups
279(1)
Types of Groups
279(2)
Task and Social Dimensions: Productivity and Morale
279(2)
Contrived and Emergent Groups
281(1)
Group Development
281(2)
Group Communication Networks
281(1)
Stages of Development
282(1)
Group Culture: Symbols, Rules, and Codes
283(2)
Decision Making
285(2)
Consensus
285(1)
Compromise
286(1)
Majority Vote
286(1)
Decision by Leader
286(1)
Arbitration
286(1)
Roles and Responsibilities
287(2)
Task-Oriented Roles
287(1)
Group-Building and Support Roles
288(1)
Individualistic Roles
289(1)
Leadership
289(3)
Functions of Leadership
290(1)
Approaches to Leadership
290(1)
Followership and Membership Issues
291(1)
Cohesiveness
292(1)
Symptoms of Too Little Cohesiveness: Boredom and Indifference
293(1)
Symptoms of Too Much Cohesiveness: The Groupthink Syndrome
293(1)
Conflict in Groups
293(2)
Mediated Groups
295(1)
Implications and Applications
295(3)
Summary
298(2)
12 ORGANIZATIONS
300(30)
Communication and Organizations
301(1)
Organizational Goals
302(1)
Roles and Responsibilities
302(2)
Management Functions
304(1)
Organizational Theories
304(10)
The Scientific Management School
304(1)
The Human Relations School
305(1)
The Systems School
306(1)
The Quality School
307(7)
Communication Networks
314(5)
Network Functions
314(1)
Network Size
314(1)
Internal Networks: Message Flows within Organizations
314(3)
External Networks: Relating to Other Organizations and Publics
317(1)
Mediated Communication Networks
317(1)
Organizational Communication Networks in Action
318(1)
Organizational Culture
319(4)
Origins of Organizational Cultures
319(4)
Functions of Organizational Cultures
323(1)
Assimilation, Socialization, and Innovation in Organizations
323(1)
Organizational Climate
323(1)
Organizational Diversity
324(2)
Implications and Applications
326(1)
Summary
327(3)
13 CULTURES AND SOCIETIES
330(34)
A Case Study: The Culture of the Underground
331(1)
The Nature of Culture
332(1)
The Relationship between Communication and Culture
333(4)
Characteristics of Culture
337(9)
Cultures Are Complex and Multifaceted
337(4)
Cultures Are Invisible
341(3)
Cultures Are Subjective
344(1)
Cultures Change over Time
345(1)
The Role of Mediated Communication
346(3)
Cultural Adaptation
349(3)
Stages of Cultural Adaptation
350(2)
Intercultural Communication
352(1)
Societies--Complex Cultural and Communication Systems
353(2)
National and International Networks
353(2)
Information Societies
355(1)
Economics of the Information Age
355(1)
International Communication: The Global Village
356(3)
The Other Side of the Coin
357(2)
Implications and Applications
359(1)
Summary
360(4)
14 PUBLIC AND MASS COMMUNICATION
364(26)
What Is Public and Mass Communication?
365(2)
The Role of Public and Mass Communication
367(1)
Understanding Public Communication
367(9)
The Speech
367(2)
The Presentation
369(7)
Understanding Mass Communication
376(8)
Production, Distribution, and Consumption
376(2)
Information Products and Services
378(1)
The Audience
378(1)
Four Basic Functions of Mass Communication
379(1)
Broader Functions of Mass Communication
380(4)
The Effects of Public and Mass Communication
384(2)
The Communicator/Producer Perspective
384(1)
The Audience/Consumer Perspective
385(1)
Integrating Perspectives
385(1)
Implications and Applications
386(1)
Summary
387(3)
Index 390

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