Community Organizing and Development

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2007-02-20
  • Publisher: Pearson

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This revised edition of a well-known and widely used text in community organizing and development fully examines the broad and changing political and social settings that influence actions; while portraying the infra-structure of social change -- the knowledge, personnel, and organizations -- that enable such work to be successfully accomplished. The text brings together the practicalities of organizing and development -- fund raising, working out news releases, running an organization, orchestrating political actions, academic knowledge -- and explains why various approaches work; as well as the values and ideologies that guide what is to be done. It provides the foundations of organizing and development work and then describes how activists -- through following either a social confrontation model or an economic and social production approach -- can respond to economic and social problems.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. x
Progressive Organizingp. 1
Organizing and Development for Progressive Social Changep. 3
Progressive Organizingp. 5
Accomplishing Social Change Through Organizing and Development Effortsp. 5
Why People Must Organizep. 6
Shared Characteristics of a Variety of Approaches to Progressive Organizingp. 11
Conclusionsp. 17
A World of Action: A World of Hopep. 19
An Activist's Tour of the World of Social Change: Activities and Accomplishmentsp. 19
Grasping What Has Been Seen: Building toward an Infrastructure for Social Changep. 26
An Infrastructure for Collective Action and Social Changep. 27
Conclusionp. 32
Models for Implementing Progressive Social Change: Commonalities, Differences, and Reconciliationsp. 33
Grouping Social Change Actions by Goals and Purposesp. 33
Families of Empowerment Tacticsp. 36
Categorizing the Variety of Social Change Modelsp. 36
Tensions between Advocates of Separate Organizing Modelsp. 55
Conclusionsp. 58
The Three Pillars of Progressive Organizingp. 59
Empowering Individualsp. 61
The Battle for Personal Empowermentp. 62
Combating Personal Disempowermentp. 70
Conclusionp. 74
Building Community to Create Capacity for Changep. 75
The Variety of Community Bondsp. 75
Building and Strengthening Communities: The Path from Social Bonds to Social Actionp. 77
Conclusion: Community Building for Collective Empowermentp. 89
Empowering through Building Progressive Organizationsp. 91
How Progressive Organizations Structurally Compare with Their Mainstream Cousinsp. 91
How Social Change Organizations Empower and Build Capacityp. 96
Tensions That Occur in Building Empowered Organizationsp. 99
Conclusionp. 105
Problems, Programs, and Precedentsp. 107
Social Problems and Public Policyp. 109
Understanding Social Problems as Contested Framingsp. 109
Social Problems: Structural or Personal?p. 111
Problems and Agencyp. 112
Social Problems, Public Policies, and Organizingp. 113
Clusters of Problemsp. 117
Conclusions and Implications for Organizing Workp. 127
Intersecting Histories: Community Organizing, Issue Mobilization, and Social Movementsp. 129
A Brief Overview of the History of Social Activism and the Neighborhood Movementp. 130
Lessons from the History of Organizing for Social Changep. 140
Conclusionsp. 144
Learning about Personal, Community, and Social Needs through Action Researchp. 145
Social Implications of Action Researchp. 146
Undertaking Social Action Researchp. 148
The Overall Flow of a Research Projectp. 149
Data-Gathering Techniquesp. 152
Data Analysis and Presentationp. 165
Conclusionp. 167
Building Capacity to Initiate Collective Actionp. 169
Activists, Organizers, and Social Change Professionalsp. 171
A Variety of Social Change Professionalsp. 172
Why and How Do a Variety of People Become Activists and Organizers?p. 173
The Tasks of Organizers and Social Change Professionalsp. 177
Learning to Be a Social Change Professionalp. 186
Social Change Work as a Careerp. 189
Conclusion: Social Change Work as Both a Calling and a Professionp. 191
Creating Capacity through Effective Organizational Administrationp. 192
Defining the Missionp. 192
Structuring the Organizationp. 193
Personnelp. 195
Personnel Managementp. 198
Fund-Raisingp. 199
Professional Fiscal Practicesp. 209
Organizational Planningp. 211
Conclusionp. 212
Expanding Capacity through Empowering, Participatory Meetingsp. 213
Encouraging Involvement in Meetings by Creating a Flavor of Successp. 213
Meetings with Large-Scale Involvementp. 218
Instructional Meetings and Sessionsp. 220
Focused Decision-Making Meetingsp. 222
Interorganizational Committee Meetingsp. 229
Conclusionp. 229
Building Capacity by Working with the Support Sectorp. 231
A Wide Array of Support Organizations and Support Networksp. 231
Capacity Building through Working with Support Organizationsp. 237
Conclusionp. 248
Compelling Change through Social Mobilizationp. 249
An Overview to Social Mobilization Campaignsp. 251
Power and Social Mobilization Campaignsp. 253
Understanding the Environment in Which Social Mobilization Campaigns Occurp. 264
Keeping Up Morale over the Long Runp. 264
Reflect upon Progressive Values during Social Mobilization Campaignsp. 265
Conclusions: Strategic Planning and Action Campaignsp. 268
Mobilizing Individuals and Groupsp. 270
Understanding Mobilizationp. 270
Mobilization Tactics and Processesp. 277
Mobilization in a Multicultural Societyp. 288
Conclusionp. 290
Influencing the Public Sector: Civic and Administrative Engagementp. 291
Understanding Governmental Structures and Policy Makingp. 291
Tactics for Civil and Regulatory Engagementp. 299
Constraints on Political Participationp. 315
Conclusionp. 316
Compelling Change through Power Tacticsp. 317
Shared Characteristics of Power and Confrontational Approaches to Social Changep. 320
Applying Power Tacticsp. 326
Conclusions and Concerns about Confrontational Actionsp. 346
Tools for Strengthening Social Mobilization Campaigns: Lawyers and Litigation, Publicity and the Mass Media, Negotiationsp. 348
Lawyers and Litigationp. 348
Obtaining Publicityp. 351
Negotiationsp. 359
Conclusionp. 365
Social Action: Magnifying Power through Coalitionsp. 367
The Variety of Coalitionsp. 368
Advantages of Being within a Coalitionp. 370
Establishing and Maintaining Coalitionsp. 373
Campaigns Orchestrated by Support Coalition Organizationsp. 376
Conclusionp. 382
Implementing Change through the Community Economic Development and Social Production Approachp. 385
An Introduction to the Community Economic and Social Production Modelp. 387
Guiding Principles for Community Economic and Social Production Workp. 389
Organizational Forms and Community Economic and Social Production Workp. 392
Illustrations of Community Economic and Social Production Workp. 394
Advocates for Progressive Programs that Expand Economic and Social Capacityp. 394
Concerns Raised by Community Economic and Social Production Workp. 404
Conclusion and Summaryp. 408
Skills for Accomplishing Economic and Social Production Workp. 409
Planningp. 409
Financing Projects and Servicesp. 414
Project Implementation: Developmentp. 419
Project Implementation: Management and Administrationp. 426
Evaluation and Monitoring of Economic and Social Production Workp. 429
Conclusionp. 432
Epilogue: Working toward a Progressive Societyp. 433
Reflection and Organizingp. 433
Tensions and Reconciliationsp. 434
Where Do We Go from Here?p. 440
Bibliographyp. 444
Indexp. 464
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