A Companion to Bioethics

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-03-12
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

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This second edition of A Companion to Bioethics, fully revised and updated to reflect the current issues and developments in the field, covers all the material that the reader needs to thoroughly grasp the ideas and debates involved in bioethics. Thematically organized around an unparalleled range of issues, including discussion of the moral status of embryos and fetuses, new genetics, life and death, resource allocation, organ donations, AIDS, human and animal experimentation, health care, and teaching Now includes new essays on currently controversial topics such as cloning and genetic enhancement Topics are clearly and compellingly presented by internationally renowned bioethicists A detailed index allows the reader to find terms and topics not listed in the titles of the essays themselves

Author Biography

Helga Kuhse is Senior Honorary Research Fellow at the Centre for Human Bioethics, Monash University, Australia. She is the author, co-author or editor of more than 150 professional articles and some 15 books, including Bioethics: An Anthology (co-edited with Peter Singer, Second Edition, Blackwell, 2006).  

Peter Singer is Ira W. DeCamp Professor of Bioethics at Princeton University and Laureate Professor at the University of Melbourne. He is the author, co-author, or editor of more than forty books, including Animal Liberation (first published in 1975), widely credited with triggering the modern animal-rights movement, Practical Ethics (Third Edition, 2011), In Defense of Animals: The Second Wave (Blackwell, 2005), The Moral of the Story: An Anthology of Ethics Through Literature (co-edited with Renata Singer, Blackwell, 2004) and The Life You Can Save (2009). He was the founding president of the International Association of Bioethics, and in 2005, Time named him one of the 100 most influential people in the world.

Table of Contents

List of Contributors xi

Acknowledgments xiii

Part I Introduction 1

1 What Is Bioethics? A Historical Introduction 3
Helga Kuhse and Peter Singer

Part II Questions About Bioethics 13

2 Ethical Theory and Bioethics 15
James Rachels

3 Culture and Bioethics 24
Segun Gbadegesin

4 Gender and Bioethics 36
Jan Crosthwaite

5 Religion and Bioethics 46
Eric Gregory

6 Law and Bioethics 56
Wibren van der Burg

Part III Ethical Approaches 65

7 A Principle-based Approach 67
James F. Childress

8 Exceptionless Rule Approaches 77
Joseph Boyle

9 A Utilitarian Approach 85
R. M. Hare

10 A Virtue Ethics Approach 91
Justin Oakley

11 A Care Approach 105
Rita C. Manning

12 A Case Approach 117
John D. Arras

Part IV Before Birth: Issues Involving Embryos and Fetuses 127

13 Personhood 129
Michael Tooley

14 Abortion 140
Mary Anne Warren

15 Mother–Fetus Conflict 149
Bonnie Steinbock

Part V Issues In Reproduction 161

16 Population 163
Margaret Pabst Battin

17 Assisted Reproduction, Prenatal Testing, and Sex Selection 178
Laura M. Purdy

18 Cloning 193
Gregory Pence

Part VI The New Genetics 205

19 Gene Therapy 207
Ruth Chadwick

20 Genetic Enhancement 216
Julian Savulescu

21 Creating and Patenting New Life Forms 235
Nils Holtug

22 Genetic Counseling, Testing, and Screening 245
Angus Clarke

Part VII Life and Death Issues 261

23 Medical Decisions at the End of Life 263
Dan W. Brock

24 Severely Disabled Newborns 274
Eike-Henner W. Kluge

25 Death, Brain Death, and Persistent Vegetative State 286
Jeff McMahan

26 Advance Directives 299
Alexander Morgan Capron

27 Voluntary Euthanasia, Suicide, and Physician-assisted Suicide 312
Brian Stoffell

28 The Slippery Slope Argument 321
Govert den Hartogh

Part VIII Resource Allocation 333

29 Deciding Between Patients 335
John Harris

30 Society's Allocation of Resources for Health 351
Daniel Wikler and Sarah Marchand

31 Is There a Right to Health Care and, If So, What Does It Encompass? 362
Norman Daniels

Part IX Organ Donations 373

32 A World of Transferable Parts 375
Janet Radcliffe Richards

Part X Global Health-care Issues 391

33 Global Health Responsibilities 393
Christopher Lowry and Udo Schüklenk

34 Developing World Challenges 404
Udo Schüklenk, Michael Kottow, and Peter A. Sy

35 Global Pharmaceutical Markets 417
Kevin Outterson and Donald W. Light

36 Infectious Disease 430
Michael J. Selgelid

37 AIDS as a Global Health Emergency 441
Udo Schüklenk

Part XI Experimentation With Humans and Animals 455

38 Research Involving Human Beings 457
Florencia Luna and Ruth Macklin

39 Regulating Experimentation in Research and Medical Practice 469
Paul Ulhas Macneill

40 Research Using Preimplantation Human Embryos 487
Mary Warnock and Peter Braude

41 The Moral Status of Animals and Their Use As Experimental Subjects 495
Bernard E. Rollin

PART XII Ethical Issues in the Practice of Health Care 511

42 Confidentiality 513
Raanan Gillon and Daniel K. Sokol

43 Truth-telling 520
Roger Higgs

44 Informed Consent and Patient Autonomy 530
Robert Young

45 Patients Doubtfully Capable or Incapable of Consent 541
Carl Elliott

46 Ethics in Nursing Practice 551
Janet L. Storch

47 Global Trends in Nursing Ethics 563
Verena Tschudin

Part XIII The Teaching and Practice of Bioethics 571

48 Ethics Committees and Ethics Consultants 573
Jonathan D. Moreno

49 Teaching Ethics in the Health Professions 584
Lynn Gillam

Index 594

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