9781592570812

The Complete Idiot's Guide to Physics

by
  • ISBN13:

    9781592570812

  • ISBN10:

    159257081X

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2003-08-05
  • Publisher: DK Publishing, Inc.
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Summary

A guide to physics covers such topics as motion and force, gravity, kinetic energy, work and power, heat and sound, and magnetism.

Author Biography

Johnnie T. Dennis was selected as the 1970 National Teacher of the Year, our nation's oldest, most selective, and highest honor for secondary education teachers -- the last physics teacher to be selected for this award. Now retired, Johnnie spent his 40-year career in the classroom, teaching students not only how to learn physics, but how to have fun with it

Table of Contents

Part 1: Motion Near the Surface of the Earth 1(40)
1 Speaking Physics
3(10)
Making Measurements
4(1)
Recording Measurements and Significant Figures
5(2)
Standardizing Notation
7(1)
Speaking the Language
8(5)
Why Ask Why?
9(1)
Goals = Probable Truths
9(1)
Calculations Using Significant Figures
10(3)
2 On the Move Again
13(10)
Understanding Speed
13(3)
Motion Discussion
14(1)
Using Algebra to Calculate Velocity
15(1)
Describing Uniform Motion
16(2)
Understanding Acceleration
18(2)
Describing Uniformly Accelerated Motion
20(3)
3 Direction Does Make a Difference
23(12)
Understanding Vectors and Scalars
24(7)
Recognizing and Dealing with Vectors
24(1)
Vector Addition, a New Way of Adding
25(3)
A New Subtraction Also
28(1)
Complications of Multiplication in Vector Algebra
29(2)
Is Breaking Up Hard to Do
31(2)
Position and Displacement
33(1)
Understanding Velocity
33(2)
4 Motion in Two Dimensions
35(6)
Understanding Displacement
35(2)
Understanding the Velocity of a Plane
37(1)
Understanding the Velocity of a Boat
38(2)
Understanding Acceleration
40(1)
Uniform Circular Motion
41(8)
Speed and Velocity in a Circular Path
41(1)
Centripetal Acceleration
42
Part 2: When Does Something Move? 41(60)
5 Pushes and Pulls
49(12)
Mathematical Models and Physical Relationships
50(1)
Applying Graphical Techniques to Experimental Data
51(3)
The Vector Nature of Force
54(2)
Components of Forces
56(1)
Net Force and Uniform Motion
57(4)
6 Free Fail and Gravity
61(14)
This Force Is with You
62(1)
Falling Objects Experience a Net Force
63(3)
Atmosphere and Air Friction
64(1)
Terminal Velocity
65(1)
Acceleration Due to a Force Acting at a Distance
66(1)
Describing the Motion of a Falling Object
67(3)
Mass vs. Weight
70(5)
Weight, the Force Due to Gravity
71(1)
Gravitational Field
72(1)
Force Field
73(2)
7 Projectile Motion
75(14)
Effects of Forces Near the Earth
76(1)
Moving On, Across Only
76(2)
What Happens When an Object Is Thrown Vertically Upward
78(3)
Two Motions: Uniformly Accelerated (Vertical) and Uniform Motion (Horizontal)
81(5)
Understanding Projectiles
81(2)
Launching a Projectile Vertically Upward
83(3)
A Baseball from Center Field
86(1)
The Hang Time of a Punt
87(2)
8 Newton's Universal Law of Gravitation
89(12)
How Is Force Related to Mass and Distance?
90(10)
Simple Harmonic Motion in a Spring
95(1)
Simple Harmonic Motion and the Simple Pendulum
96(4)
The Motion of Heavenly Bodies
100(1)
Gravitational Force Between any Two Bodies
101(2)
The Acceleration of Satellites of the Earth
103(1)
Measuring the Mass of the Earth
104
Part 3: What happens When Large Things Move? 101(68)
9 Work and Power
109(14)
Do You Work?
110(1)
How Much Work?
111(4)
Example 1: Calculating Work Using a Horizontal Force
112(1)
Example 2: Calculation of Work Using a Component of the Force
112(1)
Example 3: Calculating Work Using Lifting Force
113(1)
Example 4: Calculating Work Using the Force of Friction
114(1)
Making Work Easy
115(6)
The Inclined Plane
117(1)
The Lever
118(3)
Watt Is Power?
121(2)
10 Kinetic Energy
123(8)
What Has Kinetic Energy?
123(1)
Work and Kinetic Energy
124(5)
Example 1: Motion on an Inclined Plane
126(2)
Example 2: Kinetic Energy of an Object Moving in a Circular Path
128(1)
Kinetic Energy of Falling Objects
129(2)
Where Does Kinetic Energy Go?
131(1)
The Kinetic Energy of a Projectile
131(2)
Bernoulli's Principle
133
11 Potential Energy
131(20)
When Does an Object Have Potential Energy?
137(1)
Work and Potential Energy
138(3)
Potential Energy of Objects Above the Earth
141(5)
A High-Flying Potato
141(1)
Instantaneous Velocity of the Potato
142(2)
Orbital Velocity
144(2)
Transfer of Potential Energy
146(2)
Hooke's Law
148(3)
12 Conservation of Energy
151(18)
Where Does Energy Go?
152(1)
Impulse and Momentum
153(1)
Understanding the Relationship Between Impulse and Momentum
154(1)
Conservation of Momentum
155(6)
Example 1: Conserving Momentum
157(1)
Example 2: A Total Momentum of Zero
158(2)
Example 3: Momentum of a Combination
160(1)
Head-On Collisions
161(5)
Understanding Elasticity
163(1)
Understanding Inelasticity
164(2)
Energy Transfer
166(3)
Part 4: What Happens When Small Things Move? 169(70)
13 Solids, Liquids, and Gases
111(72)
Solids
172(2)
Liquids
174(4)
Example 1: High Heel Pressure
177(1)
Example 2: Swimming Pool Pressure
177(1)
Gases
178(1)
Changing state
179(1)
Boyle's Law
180(3)
14 Pressure
183(18)
Is Pressure a Force?
184(2)
Pressure and Liquids
184(2)
Example 1: Pressure and a Simple Machine
186(1)
Liquid Pressure and Depth
186(7)
Pressure and Total Force
188(1)
Example 2: Total Force
189(1)
Pressure and Buoyant Force
190(3)
Gas Pressure and Altitude
193(5)
Sipping Cider Through a Straw
194(2)
Air Pressure and Buoyant Force
196(2)
Does a Baseball Curve?
198(1)
Pressure and Thermal Energy
199(2)
15 Heat Energy
201(20)
What Is the Temperature Today?
202(3)
Thermometers
203(1)
Effects of Change in Temperature
204(1)
Comparing Temperature Scales
204(1)
Temperature Change or Change in Temperature?
205(2)
Specific Heat
207(5)
Latent Heat of Vaporization and Fusion
212(5)
Transfer of Heat
217(2)
Transfer of Heat by Conduction
218(1)
Transfer of Heat by Convection
218(1)
Transfer of Heat by Radiation
218(1)
Heat and Work
219(2)
16 Sound Energy
221(18)
Where Does Sound Come From?
222(2)
Types of Waves
224(1)
Transverse Waves
224(1)
Longitudinal Waves
225(1)
Properties of Waves
225(3)
Speed of sound
228(3)
Motion and Sound
229(1)
Wavelength and Frequency
229(2)
Effects of Temperature on Sound
231(3)
Reflection of sound
232(1)
Interference of Sound
233(1)
Resonance
234(7)
Observing Resonance of Sound
235(1)
Resonance of a Closed Tube
236(3)
Part 5: Tiny Things Like electrons in Motion 239(102)
17 Atoms, Ions, and Isotopes
241(14)
A Model of the Structure of the Atom
242(2)
Atoms Next
242(1)
Parts of the Atom
243(1)
Isotopes and the Same Element
244(3)
The Formation of Ions
247(2)
Another Source of Ions
248(1)
Uses of Radioactive Particles
248(1)
The Formation of Molecules
249(3)
Other Ways of Forming Molecules
250(1)
Metals Exchange Electrons
251(1)
Movement of Atoms and Their Components
252(3)
18 Electricity at Rest
255(20)
Static Charge
256(2)
Insulators and Conductors
258(4)
Conductors and Electrical Charge
259(1)
Charging an Object
259(3)
Detectors of Static Charge
262(1)
Charge by Induction and Conduction
263(9)
Charging by Induction
266(2)
Generating Much Larger Amounts of Charge
268(1)
Charging a Capacitor
269(2)
Discharging a Capacitor
271(1)
Lightning and Charged Rain Clouds
272(3)
19 Electricity in Motion
275(20)
Electrons in Motion
276(1)
Current
277(1)
Magnetism
278(5)
Magnetic Fields
279(1)
Magnetic Force
280(1)
The Magnetic Compass
280(1)
Magnetic Fields and Relative Motion
281(2)
Potential Difference
283(1)
Resistance
284(11)
Resistance and the Unit of Opposition
285(1)
Components of an Electric Circuit
285(1)
Series Circuits
286(3)
Parallel Circuits
289(1)
Series-Parallel Circuit
290(5)
20 Light as Particles in Motion
295(24)
The Particle Model
295(1)
The Inverse Square Law
296(2)
Direction and Speed
298(1)
Reflection
299(7)
Reflection and Spherical Mirrors
302(2)
Quantitative Descriptions of Images
304(2)
Refraction
306(13)
Mathematics of Snell's Law
307(2)
The Critical Angle of Incidence
309(1)
Snell's Law for Two Media Other Than Air
310(3)
The Double Convex Lens or Converging Lens
313(2)
Quantitative Description of Images Formed by a Lens
315(2)
Testing the Particle Model
317(2)
21 Light as Waves
319(22)
Reflection
319(9)
Behavior of a Wave at a Junction of Two Media
321(1)
Transverse Waves That Superpose
322(2)
Calculating speed from a standing Wave Pattern
324(1)
Waves in Two Dimensions
325(1)
Reflection of Two-Dimensional Waves
326(1)
Waves Reflected from a Curved Mirror
327(1)
Refraction
328(2)
Diffraction
330(2)
Interference
332
A Geometric Model of an Interference Pattern
334(1)
Calculating the Wavelength Using an Interference Pattern
334(2)
An Interference Pattern of Light
336
Appendixes
A Glossary
341(12)
B Answers to Physics Phun
353(4)
Index 357

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