Comprehensive Planning for Safe Learning Environments: A School Professional's Guide to Integrating Physical and Psychological Safety Prevention through Recovery

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2009-12-10
  • Publisher: Routledge

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This book provides school administrators, school-based mental health professionals, and other educational professionals with the framework and tools needed to establish a comprehensive safe learning environment. The authors identify four necessary phases to achieve this (prevention, preparedness, response, and recovery) and provide numerous examples and tools to help readers create safe environments, while also addressing studentsa (TM) academic, emotional, and social needs. An emphasis is placed on the importance of the balance between physical and psychological safety within a multi-tiered framework - it is not enough for students to know their school is secure; they must also feel they are safe and can turn to their teachers and school-based mental health professionals with their concerns. An accompanying CD contains several valuable resources, such as forms, handouts, articles, and monitoring tools.

Author Biography

Melissa A. Reeves, PhD, is a Lecturer in the Department of Psychology at Winthrop University. She also served as a School Psychologist and Coordinator of Social-Emotional-Behavioral-Services for the Cherry Creek School District. Linda M. Kanan, PhD, is Director of the Colorado School Safety Resource Center. Previously she was a school psychologist, Intervention Coordinator, and Chair of the Safe Schools Design Team for the Cherry Creek School District. Amy E. Plog, PhD, is the Director of Research for Creating Caring Communities and a Research and Data Coordinator in the Cherry Creek School District.

Table of Contents

List of Figuresp. xv
List of Tablesp. xvii
Series Forewordp. xxi
Prefacep. xxv
Acknowledgmentsp. xxix
About the Authorsp. xxxi
Establishing a Comprehensive Safe Schools Climate
Introduction and Overview to Establishing a Safe Schoolp. 3
What Is a Safe School?p. 5
Barriers to Establishing Safe Schoolsp. 7
What Is a Crisis?p. 8
Characteristics of a Crisisp. 9
What Is Physical and Psychological Safety?p. 9
Physical Safetyp. 9
Psychological Safetyp. 10
Essential Elements to Comprehensive Planning for Safe Learning Environmentsp. 11
Multi-Phase Elements (M-PHAT)p. 11
Multi-Hazard Elements (M-PHAT)p. 15
Multi-Agency Elements (M-PHAT)p. 16
Multi-Tiered Intervention Elements (M-PHAT)p. 16
Why Do We Need to Establish Physical and Psychological Safety?p. 20
Safety and Crime Statisticsp. 20
Legislationp. 24
No Child Left Behind Act of 2001p. 24
Zero-Tolerance Policiesp. 25
Family Educational Rights and Privacy Actp. 26
Proposed Legislationp. 27
The Present Volumep. 28
System-Wide Considerations: Stakeholder Support and Data-Driven Decision Makingp. 33
The Importance of Stakeholdersp. 33
Who Are Key Stakeholders in School Safety?p. 34
Barriers to Collaboration With Stakeholdersp. 35
Integration With Multi-Hazards Approach to Prevention and Preparednessp. 36
Importance of Data in the Processp. 38
What Does the Data Gathering Look Like?p. 39
Physical Safety Auditp. 39
Psychological Safety Assessmentp. 41
Comprehensive School Safety Assessment: Real-World Examplep. 61
District Example of Using Data to Establish a Safe School Climatep. 63
Physical Safety Datap. 63
Psychological Safety Datap. 64
Development of District-Level Safety Teamp. 68
District-Level Safe Schools Design Team: Real-World Examplep. 72
Parallel Process at the School Levelp. 75
Effective Collaboration With Community Agenciesp. 75
Conclusionp. 77
Physical Safety: Multi-Hazard Prevention and Preparedness
Integrating and Expanding a Multi-Hazards Approach to Establish a Safe Learning Environmentp. 81
What Does It Mean to Use a Multi-Hazards Approach for Safety Planning?p. 81
How Is the Multi-Hazard Approach Expanded or Modified for Schools?p. 83
The Importance of Multi-Agency Collaboration for Multi-Hazard Preparedness and Response Readinessp. 84
School Multi-Hazard Preparedness and Planning: Types of General and Specific Plansp. 86
Building Control and General System Proceduresp. 86
Crisis Go-Kitsp. 93
Accidents and Medical Emergenciesp. 93
Weather and Other Natural Disastersp. 94
Hazard-Specific Building Responsesp. 96
Specific Psychological Safety Response Planningp. 96
Psychological Safety Preparedness and Response Training: Real-World Examplep. 97
Conclusionp. 97
Establishing an Effective School Crisis Team Using Incident Command System Principlesp. 99
The National Incident Management Systemp. 101
NIMS Training for School Personnelp. 101
Real-World Examplep. 102
Incident Command Systemp. 103
Command Structurep. 108
Integrated or Unified Commandp. 108
School Incident Command System Crisis Team Structurep. 108
Real-World Examplep. 111
Conclusionp. 113
Comprehensive Safe School and Crisis Response Planningp. 123
Comprehensive Plans for Safe Schoolsp. 124
Crisis Response Plansp. 125
School/Building-Level Crisis Response Plansp. 125
School Crisis Team Response Planp. 132
RESPONSE PLAN (i.e., School Crisis Team Response Plan)p. 133
School Staff Crisis Response Planp. 134
Types of Practice Exercises and Drillsp. 134
School Staff Response Planp. 135
Release and Reunification Planningp. 141
Working With the Mediap. 143
Conclusionp. 144
Psychological Safety: Multi-Level Prevention, Intervention, and Recovery
Universal Prevention Efforts in Schoolsp. 147
Mitigation and Physical Safetyp. 148
Prevention and Psychological Safetyp. 151
School Policies and Management Strategiesp. 152
Social-Emotional Skill Building Instructionp. 155
Overall Climate and Culturep. 156
Positive Youth Developmentp. 156
Parent Involvementp. 159
Importance of Coordinated Effortsp. 159
Real-World Example of Organizing a District-Wide Universal Prevention Program in Schools: The CARES Modelp. 161
Communities Are Connected, Inclusive, and Work to Prevent Bullyingp. 164
Asset-Building Is Integrated in the School, Family, and Communityp. 164
Responsive Decision Making Is Based on Datap. 165
Expectations are Clear to Students, Staff, and Parentsp. 165
Social-Emotional-Behavioral Skills are Taughtp. 166
Importance of Evidence-Based Interventionsp. 166
Resources.for Finding Evidence-Based Interventionsp. 168
Real-World Example: Examination of CARES Model Fit and Research Base for Programs in Use in a Large Suburban School Districtp. 173
Conclusionp. 182
Early and Targeted Interventionsp. 189
Definition of Early and Targeted Interventionsp. 190
Why Are Targeted Interventions Needed?p. 192
The Benefits of Providing Targeted Interventionsp. 194
Academic Performance and Educational Outcomesp. 195
Helping Students Learn Well With Othersp. 195
Increasing Student Engagementp. 195
Decreasing Behaviors That Interfere With Learningp. 196
Evidence-Based Interventionsp. 196
Selecting Targeted Interventionsp. 197
Considerations for Implementation of Targeted Interventionsp. 198
Participant Selectionp. 198
Staff Trainingp. 198
Staff Resourcesp. 199
School Demand and Expectations Versus Student Functioningp. 199
Types of Targeted Interventionsp. 201
Academic Interventionsp. 202
Alternatives to Suspensionp. 202
Social-Emotional Interventionsp. 204
Emotional Regulationp. 209
Anger Management/Aggression Reductionp. 210
Social Skills/Problem Solvingp. 210
Coping Skills Regarding Grief and Lossp. 211
Coping Skills Regarding Divorcep. 213
Substance Abuse and Suicidep. 213
Awareness of Risk Factors and Early
Warning Signs for Early Interventionp. 214
Risk Factors and Warning Signsp. 214
Staff Awareness Trainingp. 214
Breaking the Code of Silence: Methods of Reporting Concerning Behaviorsp. 216
Specific Reporting Guidelines for Tip Linesp. 217
Real-World Example: One State's Tip Linep. 217
Summaryp. 218
Managing Risk Behaviors and Other Intensive Interventionsp. 219
Risk Behaviors and Threats to School Safetyp. 220
Legal and Policy Issuesp. 221
Breaking the Code of Silence for High-Risk Behaviorsp. 222
Reporting of Dangerous Student Behavior: Real-World Examplep. 224
Suicide as a School Safety Issuep. 225
Best Practices for Suicide Interventionp. 227
Suicide Risk Documentation: Real-World Examplep. 233
Other High-Risk Behaviorsp. 233
Self-Injuryp. 233
Victims of Child Abuse, Sexual Abuse, and Sexual Assaultsp. 234
Substance Abusep. 234
Threats of Harm to Others or the Schoolp. 237
Interventions Equal to the Level of Concernp. 243
Documenting Interventions After Threat Assessmentp. 244
Real-Life Example: Danger Assessment and Intervention Planp. 244
Students With Significant Emotional and Behavioral Issuesp. 245
Collaborating With Community Agencies for Interventionp. 246
Wraparound Servicesp. 246
Functional Family Therapyp. 247
The Safe Schools/Healthy Students Initiativep. 248
Summaryp. 248
Recovery Efforts and Management of Crises in Schoolsp. 249
Physical Recovery Effortsp. 250
Psychological Recovery Effortsp. 251
Assessment of Individual Physical Safety and Psychological Impactp. 251
Trauma Assessment Variablesp. 253
Crisis Exposurep. 253
Personal Vulnerabilityp. 253
Threat Perceptionsp. 254
Crisis Reactionsp. 254
Common Reactionsp. 256
Psychological Triagep. 260
Primary Levelp. 260
Secondary Levelp. 261
Tertiary Levelp. 261
Psychological Recovery Interventionsp. 262
Psychological First Aidp. 262
Reestablishing Social Support Systemsp. 263
Classroom Meetingsp. 265
Psychoeducation as Crisis Recovery Interventionp. 266
Individual and Group Psychological Crisis Interventionsp. 268
Individual Crisis Interventions (ICI)p. 272
Group and Classroom-Based Crisis Interventions (CCI)p. 274
Research Regarding Group Crisis Interventionsp. 276
Listen, Protect, Connect-Model and Teachp. 276
Psychotherapeutic Interventionsp. 279
Care for the Caregiversp. 281
Guidelines for Dealing With a Death and Memorialsp. 282
Conclusionp. 284
Concluding Commentsp. 285
Web Site Resourcesp. 287
U.S. Department of Education Resourcesp. 287
National Incident Management System Web Sitesp. 287
Federal Agency Web Sitesp. 288
Resource and Professional Organization Web Sitesp. 288
Referencesp. 291
Indexp. 331
CD Contentsp. 339
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