9780471177791

Condensed Matter Physics

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780471177791

  • ISBN10:

    0471177792

  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2000-01-01
  • Publisher: Wiley-Interscience

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

A modern, unified treatment of condensed matter physics This new work presents for the first time in decades a sweeping review of the whole field of condensed matter physics. It consolidates new and classic topics from disparate sources, teaching "not only about the effective masses of electrons in semiconductor crystals and band theory, but also about quasicrystals, dynamics of phase separation, why rubber is more floppy than steel, electron interference in nanometer-sized channels, and the quantum Hall effect." Six major areas are covered---atomic structure, electronic structure, mechanical properties, electron transport, optical properties, and magnetism. But rather than defining the field in terms of particular materials, the author focuses on the way condensed matter physicists approach physical problems, combining phenomenology and microscopic arguments with information from experiments. For graduate students and professionals, researchers and engineers, applied mathematicians and materials scientists, Condensed Matter Physics provides: * An exciting collection of new topics from the past two decades. * A thorough treatment of classic topics, including band theory, transport theory, and semiconductor physics. * Over 300 figures, incorporating many images from experiments. * Frequent comparison of theory and experiment, both when they agree and when problems are still unsolved. * More than 50 tables of data and a detailed index. * Ample end-of-chapter problems, including computational exercises. * Over 1000 references, both recent and historically significant. An Instructor's Manual presenting detailed solutions to all the problems in the book is available from the Wiley editorial department.

Author Biography

<b>MICHAEL P. MARDER, PhD</b>, is Associate Professor of Physics at the University of Texas at Austin and a member of the internationally known Center for Nonlinear Dynamics.

Table of Contents

Preface xix
References xxii
I ATOMIC STRUCTURE 1(132)
The Idea of Crystals
3(14)
Introduction
3(3)
Why are Solids Crystalline?
4(2)
Two-Dimensional Lattices
6(5)
Bravais Lattices
6(1)
Enumeration of Two-Dimensional Bravais Lattices
7(1)
Lattices with Bases
7(2)
Primitive Cells
9(1)
Wigner-Seitz Cells
10(1)
Symmetries
11(6)
The Space Group
11(1)
Translation and Point Groups
11(2)
Problems
13(2)
References
15(2)
Three-Dimensional Lattices
17(26)
Introduction
17(3)
Distribution Among Elements
17(3)
Monatomic Lattices
20(4)
The Simple Cubic Lattice
20(1)
The Face-Centered Cubic Lattice
20(1)
The Body-Centered Cubic Lattice
21(1)
The Hexagonal Lattice
22(1)
The Hexagonal Close-Packed Lattice
23(1)
The Diamond Lattice
24(1)
Compounds
24(4)
Rocksalt---Sodium Chloride
25(1)
Cesium Chloride
26(1)
Fluorite---Calcium Fluoride
26(1)
Zincblende---Zinc Sulfide
26(2)
Wurtzite---Zinc Oxide
28(1)
Perovskite---Calcium Titanate
28(1)
Classification of Lattices by Symmetry
28(4)
Fourteen Bravais Lattices and Seven Crystal Systems
30(2)
Symmetries of Lattices with Bases
32(5)
Thirty-Two Crystallographic Point Groups
32(4)
Two Hundred Thirty Distinct Lattices
36(1)
Some Macroscopic Implications of Microscopic Symmetries
37(6)
Pyroelectricity
37(1)
Piezoelectricity
37(1)
Optical Activity
38(1)
Problems
38(3)
References
41(2)
Experimental Determination of Crystal Structures
43(26)
Introduction
43(1)
Theory of Scattering from Crystals
44(10)
Lattice Sums
47(1)
Reciprocal Lattice
48(3)
Miller Indices
51(1)
Scattering from a Lattice with a Basis
52(2)
Experimental Methods
54(5)
Laue Method
55(1)
Rotating Crystal Method
56(2)
Powder Method
58(1)
Further Features of Scattering Experiments
59(10)
Interaction of X-Rays with Matter
60(1)
Production of X-Rays
60(1)
Neutrons
61(1)
Electrons
61(2)
Deciphering Complex Structures
63(1)
Accuracy of Structure Determinations
64(1)
Problems
65(2)
References
67(2)
Surfaces and Interfaces
69(18)
Introduction
69(1)
Geometry of Interfaces
69(4)
Coherent and Commensurate Interfaces
70(1)
Stacking Period and Interplanar Spacing
71(2)
Other Topics in Surface Structure
73(1)
Experimental Observation and Creation of Surfaces
73(14)
Low-Energy Electron Diffraction (LEED)
74(1)
Reflection High-Energy Electron Diffraction (RHEED)
75(1)
Molecular Beam Epitaxy (MBE)
76(1)
Field Ion Microscopy (FIM)
77(1)
Scanning Tunneling Microscopy (STM)
77(5)
Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM)
82(1)
High Resolution Electron Microscopy (HREM)
82(1)
Problems
82(3)
References
85(2)
Complex Structures
87(46)
Introduction
87(1)
Alloys
87(10)
Equilibrium Structures
87(2)
Phase Diagrams
89(1)
Superlattices
90(1)
Phase Separation
91(3)
Nonequilibrium Structures in Alloys
94(1)
Dynamics of Phase Separation
95(2)
Simulations
97(2)
Monte Carlo
97(1)
Molecular Dynamics
98(1)
Liquids
99(4)
Correlation Functions
99(2)
Extended X-Ray Absorption Fine Structure (EXAFS)
101(2)
Calculating Correlation Functions
103(1)
Glasses
103(4)
Liquid Crystals
107(3)
Nematics, Cholesterics, and Smectics
108(1)
Liquid Crystal Order Parameter
109(1)
Polymers
110(5)
Ideal Radius of Gyration
111(4)
Quasicrystals
115(18)
One-Dimensional Quasicrystal
116(5)
Two-Dimensional Quasicrystals---Penrose Tiles
121(3)
Experimental Observations
124(1)
Fullerenes
124(1)
Problems
125(4)
References
129(4)
II ELECTRONIC STRUCTURE 133(128)
The Single-Electron Model
135(20)
Introduction
135(2)
The Basic Hamiltonian
137(2)
Densities of States
139(4)
Definition of Density of States D
140(1)
Results for Free Electrons
141(2)
Statistical Mechanics of Noninteracting Electrons
143(3)
Sommerfeld Expansion
146(9)
Specific Heat of Noninteracting Electrons at Low Temperatures
149(1)
Problems
150(3)
References
153(2)
The Schrodinger Equation and Symmetry
155(30)
Introduction
155(1)
Translational Symmetry---Bloch's Theorem
155(14)
Van Hove Singularities
160(3)
Fourier Analysis of Bloch's Theorem
163(3)
Kronig-Penney Model
166(3)
Rotational Symmetry---Group Representations
169(16)
Classes and Characters
175(3)
Consequences of point group symmetries for Schrodinger's equation
178(3)
Problems
181(3)
References
184(1)
Nearly Free and Tightly Bound Electrons
185(18)
Introduction
185(1)
Nearly Free Electrons
185(4)
Degenerate Perturbation Theory
187(2)
Brillouin Zones
189(5)
Nearly Free Electron Fermi Surfaces
191(3)
Tightly Bound Electrons
194(9)
Wannier Functions
194(3)
Tight Binding Model
197(2)
Problems
199(3)
References
202(1)
Electron-Electron Interactions
203(26)
Introduction
203(1)
Hartree and Hartree-Fock Equations
204(10)
Variational Principle
205(1)
Hartree-Fock Equations
205(4)
Numerical Implementation
209(3)
Hartree-Fock Equations for Jellium
212(2)
Density Functional Theory
214(6)
Thomas-Fermi Theory
216(2)
Kohn-Sham Equations
218(2)
Stability of Matter
220(9)
Problems
223(3)
References
226(3)
Calculation of Band Structures
229(32)
Introduction
229(1)
Numerical Methods
230(16)
Pseudopotentials and Orthogonalized Planes Waves (OPW)
230(5)
Linear Combination of Atomic Orbitals (LCAO)
235(2)
Plane Waves
237(3)
Linear Augmented Plane Waves (LAPW)
240(3)
Linearized Muffin Tin Orbitals (LMTO)
243(3)
Definition of Metals, Insulators, and Semiconductors
246(2)
Brief Survey of the Periodic Table
248(13)
Noble Gases
248(2)
Nearly Free Electron Metals
250(2)
Semiconductors
252(1)
Transition Metals
252(1)
Rare Earths
252(2)
Problems
254(4)
References
258(3)
III MECHANICAL PROPERTIES 261(150)
Cohesion of Solids
263(24)
Introduction
263(2)
Radii of Atoms
263(2)
Noble Gases
265(4)
Ionic Crystals
269(3)
Ewald Sums
270(2)
Metals
272(4)
Use of Pseudopotentials
275(1)
Band Structure Energy
276(4)
Peierls Distortion
277(2)
Structural Phase Transitions
279(1)
Hydrogen-Bonded Solids
280(1)
Cohesive Energy from Band Calculations
280(2)
Classical Potentials
282(5)
Problems
283(2)
References
285(2)
Elasticity
287(18)
Introduction
287(1)
General Theory of Linear Elasticity
287(8)
Solids of Cubic Symmetry
289(1)
Isotropic Solids
290(5)
Other Constitutive Laws
295(10)
Liquid Crystals
295(3)
Rubber
298(3)
Composite and Granular Materials
301(1)
Problems
301(2)
References
303(2)
Phonons
305(38)
Introduction
305(1)
Vibrations of a Classical Lattice
305(8)
Normal Modes
307(2)
Lattice with a Basis
309(4)
Vibrations of a Quantum-Mechanical Lattice
313(13)
Phonon Specific Heat
317(4)
Einstein and Debye Models
321(3)
Thermal Expansion
324(2)
Inelastic Scattering from Phonons
326(10)
Neutron Scattering
327(2)
Formal Theory of Neutron Scattering
329(4)
Averaging Exponentials
333(2)
Evaluation of Structure Factor
335(1)
Kohn Anomalies
336(1)
The Mossbauer Effect
336(7)
Problems
339(1)
References
340(3)
Dislocations and Cracks
343(32)
Introduction
343(2)
Dislocations
345(8)
Experimental Observations of Dislocations
347(3)
Force to Move a Dislocation
350(1)
One-Dimensional Dislocations: Frenkel-Kontorova Model
350(3)
Two-Dimensional Dislocations and Hexatic Phases
353(10)
Impossibility of Crystalline Order in Two Dimensions
353(2)
Orientational Order
355(1)
Kosterlitz-Thouless-Berezinskii Transition
356(7)
Cracks
363(12)
Fracture of a Strip
363(3)
Stresses Around an Elliptical Hole
366(2)
Stress Intensity Factor
368(1)
Atomic Aspects of Fracture
368(2)
Problems
370(3)
References
373(2)
Fluid Mechanics
375(36)
Introduction
375(1)
Newtonian Fluids
375(3)
Euler's Equation
375(2)
Navier-Stokes Equation
377(1)
Polymeric Solutions
378(7)
Plasticity
385(4)
Superfluid 4He
389(22)
Two-Fluid Hydrodynamics
392(1)
Second Sound
393(2)
Origin of Superfluidity
395(5)
Lagrangian Theory of Wave Function
400(3)
Superfluid 3He
403(1)
Problems
404(4)
References
408(3)
IV ELECTRON TRANSPORT 411(148)
Dynamics of Bloch Electrons
413(30)
Introduction
413(2)
Drude Model
413(2)
Semiclassical Electron Dynamics
415(4)
Bloch Oscillations
416(1)
k. P Method
417(2)
Effective Mass
419(1)
Noninteracting Electrons in an Electric Field
419(6)
Zener Tunneling
422(3)
Semiclassical Equations from Wave Packets
425(5)
Formal Dynamics of Wave Packets
425(5)
Quantizing Semiclassical Dynamics
430(13)
Wannier-Stark Ladders
432(1)
de Haas-van Alphen Effect
432(2)
Experimental Measurements of Fermi Surfaces
434(3)
Problems
437(3)
References
440(3)
Transport Phenomena and Fermi Liquid Theory
443(38)
Introduction
443(1)
Boltzmann Equation
443(6)
Boltzmann Equation
445(1)
Relaxation Time Approximation
446(2)
Relation to Rate of Production of Entropy
448(1)
Transport Symmetries
449(2)
Onsager Relations
450(1)
Thermoelectric Phenomena
451(11)
Electrical Current
451(2)
Effective Mass and Holes
453(1)
Mixed Thermal and Electrical Gradients
454(1)
Wiedemann-Franz Law
455(1)
Thermopower---Seebeck Effect
456(1)
Peltier Effect
457(1)
Thomson Effect
457(2)
Hall Effect
459(2)
Magnetoresistance
461(1)
Giant Magnetoresistance
462(1)
Fermi Liquid Theory
462(19)
Basic Ideas
462(2)
Statistical Mechanics of Quasi-Particles
464(2)
Effective Mass
466(2)
Specific Heat
468(1)
Fermi Liquid Parameters
469(1)
Traveling Waves
470(3)
Comparison with Experiment in 3He
473(1)
Problems
474(4)
References
478(3)
Microscopic Theories of Conduction
481(36)
Introduction
481(1)
Weak Scattering Theory of Conductivity
481(7)
General Formula for Relaxation Time
481(5)
Matthiessen's Rule
486(1)
Fluctuations
487(1)
Metal-Insulator Transitions
488(11)
Types of Impurities
488(4)
Impurity Scattering and Green's Functions
492(1)
Green's Functions
493(4)
Single Impurity
497(2)
Coherent Potential Approximation
499(1)
Localization
500(17)
Exact Results in One Dimension
501(4)
Scaling Theory of Localization
505(4)
Comparison with Experiment
509(1)
Problems
510(4)
References
514(3)
Electronics
517(42)
Introduction
517(1)
Metal Interfaces
518(6)
Work Functions
519(1)
Schottky Barrier
520(2)
Contact Potentials
522(2)
Semiconductors
524(9)
Pure Semiconductors
525(3)
Semiconductor in Equilibrium
528(2)
Intrinsic Semiconductor
530(1)
Extrinsic Semiconductor
531(2)
Diodes and Transistors
533(15)
Surface States
536(1)
Semiconductor Junctions
537(3)
Boltzmann Equation for Semiconductors
540(2)
Detailed Theory of Rectification
542(3)
Transistor
545(3)
Inversion Layers
548(11)
Heterostructures
548(2)
Quantum Point Contact
550(3)
Quantum Dot
553(3)
Problems
556(1)
References
557(2)
V OPTICAL PROPERTIES 559(110)
Phenomenological Theory
561(22)
Introduction
561(2)
Maxwell's Equations
563(5)
Traveling Waves
565(1)
Mechanical Oscillators as Dielectric Function
566(2)
Kramers-Kronig Relations
568(5)
Application to Optical Experiments
570(3)
The Kubo-Greenwood Formula
573(10)
Born Approximation
573(4)
Susceptibility
577(1)
Many-Body Green Functions
578(1)
Problems
578(3)
References
581(2)
Optical Properties of Semiconductors
583(26)
Introduction
583(1)
Cyclotron Resonance
583(5)
Electron Energy Surfaces
586(2)
Semiconductor Band Gaps
588(3)
Direct Transitions
588(1)
Indirect Transitions
589(2)
Excitons
591(4)
Mott-Wannier Excitons
591(3)
Frenkel Excitons
594(1)
Electron-Hole Liquid
595(1)
Optoelectronics
595(14)
Solar Cells
595(1)
Lasers
596(6)
Problems
602(4)
References
606(3)
Optical Properties of Insulators
609(28)
Introduction
609(1)
Polarization
609(4)
Ferroelectrics
609(2)
Clausius-Mossotti Relation
611(2)
Optical Modes in Ionic Crystals
613(10)
Polaritons
616(2)
Polarons
618(5)
Experimental Observations of Polarons
623(1)
Point Defects and Color Centers
623(14)
Vacancies
624(1)
F Centers
625(1)
Electron Spin Resonance and Electron Nuclear Double Resonance
626(2)
Other Centers
628(1)
Franck-Condon Effect
628(4)
Urbach Tails
632(1)
Problems
633(2)
References
635(2)
Optical Properties of Metals and Inelastic Scattering
637(32)
Introduction
637(3)
Plasma Frequency
637(3)
Metals at Low Frequencies
640(3)
Anomalous Skin Effect
642(1)
Plasmons
643(3)
Experimental Observation of Plasmons
644(2)
Interband Transitions
646(3)
Brillouin and Raman Scattering
649(2)
Brillouin Scattering
650(1)
Raman Scattering
651(1)
Inelastic X-Ray Scattering
651(1)
Photoemission
651(18)
Measurement of Work Functions
651(3)
Angle-Resolved Photoemission
654(4)
Core-Level Photoemission and Charge-Transfer Insulators
658(6)
Problems
664(3)
References
667(2)
VI MAGNETISM 669(172)
Classical Theories of Magnetism and Ordering
671(36)
Introduction
671(1)
Three Views of Magnetism
671(4)
From Magnetic Moments
671(1)
From Conductivity
672(1)
From a Free Energy
673(2)
Magnetic Dipole Moments
675(7)
Spontaneous Magnetization of Ferromagnets
678(1)
Ferrimagnets
679(2)
Antiferromagnets
681(1)
Mean Field Theory and the Ising Model
682(6)
Domains
684(3)
Hysteresis
687(1)
Other Order-Disorder Transitions
688(3)
Alloy Superlattices
688(3)
Spin Glasses
691(1)
Critical Phenomena
691(16)
Landau Free Energy
692(6)
Scaling Theory
698(4)
Problems
702(3)
References
705(2)
Magnetism of Ions and Electrons
707(38)
Introduction
707(2)
Atomic Magnetism
709(8)
Hund's Rules
710(4)
Curie's Law
714(3)
Magnetism of the Free-Electron Gas
717(7)
Pauli Paramagnetism
718(1)
Landau Diamagnetism
719(3)
Aharonov-Bohm Effect
722(2)
Tightly Bound Electrons in Magnetic Fields
724(4)
Quantum Hall Effect
728(17)
Integer Quantum Hall Effect
728(5)
Fractional Quantum Hall Effect
733(6)
Problems
739(3)
References
742(3)
Quantum Mechanics of Interacting Magnetic Moments
745(38)
Introduction
745(1)
Origin of Ferromagnetism
745(5)
Heitler-London Calculation
745(5)
Spin Hamiltonian
750(1)
Heisenberg Model
750(9)
Indirect Exchange and Superexchange
752(1)
Ground State
753(1)
Spin Waves
753(3)
Spin Waves in Antiferromagnets
756(3)
Comparison with Experiment
759(1)
Ferromagnetism in Transition Metals
759(4)
Stoner Model
759(2)
Calculations Within Band Theory
761(2)
Kondo Effect
763(9)
Scaling Theory
768(4)
Hubbard Model
772(11)
Mean-Field Solution
773(3)
Problems
776(3)
References
779(4)
Superconductivity
783(58)
Introduction
783(1)
Phenomenology of Superconductivity
784(18)
Phenomenological Free Energy
785(2)
Thermodynamics of Superconductors
787(1)
Landau-Ginzburg Free Energy
788(1)
Type I and Type II Superconductors
789(5)
Flux Quantization
794(2)
The Josephson Effect
796(2)
Circuits with Josephson Junction Elements
798(1)
SQUIDS
799(1)
Origin of Josephson's Equations
800(2)
Microscopic Theory of Superconductivity
802(39)
Electron-Ion Interaction
803(3)
Formal Derivation
806(2)
Instability of the Normal State: Cooper Problem
808(4)
Self-Consistent Ground State
812(5)
Thermodynamics of Superconductors
817(3)
Superconductor in External Magnetic Field
820(4)
Derivation of Meissner Effect
824(3)
Comparison with Experiment
827(1)
High-Temperature Superconductors
828(5)
Problems
833(4)
References
837(4)
APPENDICES 841(18)
A Lattice Sums and Fourier Transforms
843(6)
A.1 One-Dimensional Sum
843(1)
A.2 Area Under Peaks
843(1)
A.3 Three-Dimensional Sum
844(1)
A.4 Discrete Case
845(1)
A.5 Convolution
846(1)
A.6 Using the Fast Fourier Transform
846(2)
References
848(1)
B Variational Techniques
849(4)
B.1 Functionals and Functional Derivatives
849(1)
B.2 Time-Independent Schrodinger Equation
850(1)
B.3 Time-Dependent Schrodinger Equation
851(1)
B.4 Method of Steepest Descent
852(1)
References
852(1)
C Second Quantization
853(6)
C.1 Rules
853(1)
C.1.1 States
853(1)
C.1.2 Operators
853(1)
C.1.3 Hamiltonians
854(1)
C.2 Derivations
855(1)
C.2.1 Bosons
855(1)
C.2.2 Fermions
856(3)
Index 859

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