Conducting Research in Psychology Measuring the Weight of Smoke

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-02-27
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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Using humor and interesting examples that students can understand and relate to, authors Brett W. Pelham and Hart Blanton have written an informative and comprehensive research methods text that your students will really enjoy. This brief book includes hands-on activities that involve learning by doing, methodology exercises that encourage students to use their intuitions to understand research methods, and methodology problems that teach students to apply basic research principles to novel problems.

Table of Contents

How Do We Know?p. 1
Introduction: What This Text Is Aboutp. 1
A Few Quick Tips for Using This Textp. 2
Preamble for Chapter 1p. 2
A Brief History of Human Knowledgep. 4
Metaphysical Systemsp. 4
Philosophyp. 6
Physiology and the Physical Sciencesp. 7
Experimental Psychologyp. 7
The Four Canons of Sciencep. 8
Determinismp. 8
Empiricismp. 12
Parsimonyp. 14
Testabilityp. 17
Four Ways of Knowing About the Worldp. 21
Summaryp. 24
Study Questionsp. 24
Notesp. 25
How Do We Find Out? The Logic, Art, and Ethics of Scientific Discoveryp. 26
The Logic of Scientific Discoveryp. 27
Laws, Theories, and Hypothesesp. 27
The Science of Observationp. 31
Three Approaches to Hypothesis Testingp. 34
The Art of Scientific Discoveryp. 44
Inductive Techniques for Developing Ideasp. 45
Deductive Techniques for Developing Ideasp. 47
The Ethics of Scientific Discoveryp. 50
The Evolution of Ethical Guidelinesp. 50
Modern Internal Review Boards and Risk-Benefit Analysesp. 52
A Primer in Ethical Guidelinesp. 54
Summaryp. 57
Study Questionsp. 57
Notesp. 58
Moving From Fact to Truth: Validity, Reliability, and Measurementp. 59
Three Strange Storiesp. 60
Validityp. 61
Internal Validityp. 61
External Validityp. 63
Construct Validityp. 64
Conceptual Validityp. 65
Reliabilityp. 68
Reliability, Validity, and the "More Is Better" Rulep. 72
Measurement Scalesp. 73
Nominal Scalesp. 74
Ordinal Scalesp. 74
Interval Scalesp. 74
Ratio Scalesp. 75
The Validity of Measurement Assumptionsp. 75
Summaryp. 76
Study Questionsp. 77
Moving From Notions to Numbers: Psychological Measurementp. 78
Converting Notions to Numbers: The Two Major Challengesp. 80
The Judgment Phasep. 81
Walking a Mile in Someone Else's Moccasins: Perspective Takingp. 81
Wording Questions Well for Everyone: Being Clear and Simplep. 86
The Response Translation Phasep. 97
The Number of Scale Pointsp. 97
The Importance of Anchorsp. 98
Putting It All Together: The EGWA Scalep. 103
Special Cases Require Special Scalesp. 103
From Writing Questions to Creating Scalesp. 105
Three Steps to Designing Questionnairesp. 106
Alternate Measuresp. 107
Summaryp. 112
Study Questionsp. 113
How Do We Misinterpret? Common Threats to Validityp. 115
One Strange and Lucrative Storyp. 116
People Are Differentp. 117
Individual Differences and "Third Variables"p. 117
Selection Bias and Nonresponse Biasp. 118
People Changep. 120
History and Maturationp. 121
Regression Toward the Meanp. 122
The Process of Studying People Changes Peoplep. 125
Testing Effectsp. 126
Experimental Mortality (Attrition)p. 128
Participant Reaction Biasp. 130
Experimenter Biasp. 135
Moving From Three Threats to Two: Confounds and Artifactsp. 137
Confoundsp. 137
Artifactsp. 140
Confounds Versus Artifactsp. 143
Summaryp. 143
Study Questionsp. 143
Notep. 144
Nonexperimental Research Designsp. 145
Describing the World of a Single Participant: Case Studiesp. 145
Please Don't Try This at Home: The Case of Phineas Gagep. 146
My Life as a Dog: The Case of Stephen D.p. 147
Really, Really Late Night with Peter Trippp. 148
The Life and Very Hard Times of Sarahp. 149
The Man Who Forgot His Wife and His Hatp. 150
What Makes a Case Study Scientific?p. 152
Describing the State of the World at Large: Single-Variable Researchp. 153
Population Surveysp. 154
Epidemiological Researchp. 156
Research on Public Opinionp. 157
Limitations and Drawbacks of Population Surveysp. 159
Single-Variable Convenience Samplesp. 160
Describing Associations: Multiple-Variable Researchp. 161
Correlational Methodsp. 161
Person Confoundsp. 163
Environmental Confoundsp. 163
Operational Confoundsp. 163
A Reminder About Reverse Causalityp. 165
Archival Researchp. 166
Observational Researchp. 170
Confounds Can Be Measured Too!p. 172
Summaryp. 174
Study Questionsp. 174
Notesp. 175
Experience Carefully Planned: Experimental Research Designsp. 176
A Wonderful Methodp. 176
A Brief History of True Experimentsp. 177
Strengths of True Experimentsp. 182
True Experiments Eliminate Individual Differencesp. 182
True Experiments Eliminate Other Kinds of Confoundsp. 184
True Experiments Pull Researchers Into the Laboratoryp. 186
True Experiments Allow Researchers to Observe the Invisiblep. 186
True Experiments Provide Information About Statistical Interactionsp. 188
True Experiments Minimize Noisep. 189
A Summary of Experimentationp. 190
Are True Experiments Realistic?p. 190
The Problem: Artificialityp. 191
The Solution: Two Forms of Realismp. 192
Is There a Recipe for Experimental Realism?p. 197
Trade-Offs Between Internal and External Validityp. 198
The "How-To"s of Laboratory Studiesp. 202
Setting the Stagep. 202
Rehearsing and Playing the Partp. 204
When the Study Is Done: Replicate as Neededp. 206
Summaryp. 208
Study Questionsp. 209
Notesp. 209
Experience Carefully Exploited: Quasi-Experimental Research Designsp. 211
One Very Old Storyp. 211
Why Quasi-Experiments?p. 213
Kinds of Quasi-Experimentsp. 214
Person-by-Treatment Quasi-Experimentsp. 214
Natural Experimentsp. 219
Nature and Treatment Designsp. 221
Comparabilityp. 224
Patched-Up Designsp. 225
Evaluating a Teaching Toolp. 226
Would a Rose by Any Other Name Move to Rosemont?p. 232
When True Experiments and Quasi-Experiments Collidep. 235
Summaryp. 240
Study Questionsp. 240
Notesp. 241
Choosing the Right Research Designp. 242
One Obscure Moviep. 242
One-Way Designsp. 243
Factorial Designsp. 245
Ins and Outs of Factorial Designsp. 245
Main Effectsp. 247
Interactionsp. 249
Within-Subjects Designsp. 258
Advantages of Within-Subjects Designsp. 258
Disadvantages of Within-Subjects Designsp. 260
Solutionsp. 262
Mixed-Model Designsp. 266
Summaryp. 267
Study Questionsp. 267
Notesp. 268
A Brief Course in Statisticsp. 270
Descriptive Statisticsp. 270
Central Tendency and Dispersionp. 271
The Shape of Distributionsp. 273
Inferential Statisticsp. 276
Probability Theoryp. 278
A Study of Cheatingp. 281
Things That Go Bump in the Light: Factors That Influence the Results of Significance Testsp. 284
Alpha Levels and Type I and II Errorsp. 284
Effect Size and Significance Testingp. 285
Measurement Error and Significance Testingp. 285
Sample Size and Significance Testingp. 286
Restriction of Range and Significance Testingp. 286
The Changing State of the Art: Alternate Perspectives on Statistical Hypothesis Testingp. 287
Estimates of Effect Sizep. 288
Meta-Analysisp. 290
Summaryp. 292
Study Questionsp. 292
Notesp. 293
Telling the World About Itp. 294
The Hourglass Approach to Empirical Research Papersp. 295
Some "Rules" to Writing Research Papersp. 298
Be Correctp. 298
Be Clearp. 298
Be Comprehensive (but Discerning)p. 301
Be Concisep. 302
Be (Somewhat) Cautiousp. 304
Be Assertivep. 305
Be Predictablep. 306
Be Creativep. 307
Be Original (and Cite Your Lack of Originality)p. 308
Be Gender Neutralp. 309
Be Easy on the Eyesp. 309
No More Rulesp. 311
How to Give a Good Talk in Psychology (by Daniel T. Gilbert)p. 311
Have a Planp. 311
Tell the Planp. 313
Start at the Beginningp. 313
Be Painfully Clearp. 314
Talk About One Interesting Thingp. 315
Take Charge of the Interactionp. 316
End at the Endp. 317
Summaryp. 317
Study Questionsp. 318
Putting Your Knowledge to Work: 20 Methodology Problemsp. 319
In Search of a Delicious, Low-Fat TV Showp. 320
Let's Get Supernaturalp. 320
Fly Away Homep. 320
Impressive Pickup Linesp. 321
Clever Who?p. 321
Life Sucks and So You Diep. 322
On the Drawbacks of Liking Yourselfp. 322
The Early Bird Gets the Win?p. 323
Testosterone Makes Better Dive Bombersp. 323
Working Your Fingers to the Dean's Listp. 324
To Thine Own Selves Be Truep. 324
A Rosy Mood by Any Other Name?p. 324
Old Geniuses Never Die Young?p. 325
Sampling Student Opinionp. 325
I'm Speechlessp. 326
He May Be Small but He's Slowp. 327
Everyone's a Winnerp. 328
Can a Couple of Beers Really Go Straight to Your Belly?p. 328
What's in a Name?p. 328
Are You Threatening Me?p. 329
Codap. 331
Hands-On Activitiesp. 332
Hands-On Activity 1p. 332
Galileo's Dicep. 332
Group 1 (the Logical Counters of Ways)p. 333
Group 2 (the Logical Expected Evaluators)p. 333
Groups 3 and/or 4 (the Empiricists)p. 333
What About Intuition and Authority?p. 334
More Detailed Instructions for Groups 1 and 2p. 334
Questionsp. 336
Hands-On Activity 2p. 336
Regression Toward the Meanp. 336
Questions for Group Discussionp. 338
Special Notes to the Instructorp. 338
Hands-On Activity 3p. 339
A Double-Blind Taste Test with Popular Colasp. 339
Information for the Experimenterp. 339
Instructions for Participants in the Cola Taste Testp. 340
Questions for Studentsp. 340
Hands-On Activity 4p. 344
The Stroop Interference Effectp. 344
Advance Preparationp. 345
Task Instructionsp. 345
Methodological Notesp. 346
Methodology Exercisesp. 349
Methodology Exercise 1p. 349
Partial Correlationp. 349
Hypothetical Data From Observational Study of Cookie Theftsp. 350
A Questionp. 350
More Datap. 351
Complete Data for Observational Study of Cookie Theftsp. 351
More Questionsp. 352
Methodology Exercise 2p. 352
Random Assignmentp. 352
Questionsp. 354
Methodology Exercise 3p. 354
Interactionsp. 354
Methodology Exercise 4p. 357
Repeated Measures Designsp. 357
Questionsp. 359
How to Describe the Results of Statistical Analysesp. 361
The Mysterious Spheresp. 362
The Murder Rate Studyp. 362
The Survey Study of Apathy and Energyp. 364
The Newlywed Marriage Studyp. 366
The Stereotyping Studyp. 369
A Brief Return to Roberto and to the Newlywed Studyp. 372
The Duck in the Drugstore Studyp. 373
Notesp. 376
The Role of Status in Producing Depressed Entitlement in Women's and Men's Pay Allocationsp. 377
Glossaryp. 397
Referencesp. 409
Name Indexp. 419
Subject Indexp. 423
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