In Conflict And Order: Understanding Society

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  • Edition: 11th
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  • Copyright: 2010-01-01
  • Publisher: PRENTICE HALL
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This introductory text, written from a conflict perspective, emphasizes four themes: diversity, the struggle by the powerless to achieve social justice, the changing economy, and globalization. In Conflict and Order studies the forces that lead to both stability and change in society. Who benefits from the existing social arrangements, and who does not? How are human beings shaped by society? What are the forces that maintain social stability, produce social inequality, and resist social change? Eitzen and Baca Zinn challenge you to question your own taken-for-granted assumptions about society, look for the structural causes of social conditions, and ask how society can be restructured along more humane lines.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
About the Authorsp. xix
The Sociological Approachp. 1
The Sociological Perspectivep. 1
Sociologyp. 2
Assumptions of the Sociological Perspectivep. 3
The Sociological Imaginationp. 6
Problems with the Sociological Perspectivep. 6
The Historical Development of Sociologyp. 9
Auguste Comte (1798-1857): The Science of Societyp. 9
Emile Durkheim (1858-1917): Social Facts and the Social Bondp. 9
Karl Marx (1818-1883): Economic Determinismp. 10
Max Weber (1864-1920): A Response to Marxp. 10
Sociological Methods: The Craft of Sociologyp. 11
Sociological Questionsp. 11
Problems in Collecting Datap. 14
A Closer Look: Thinking Like a Sociologistp. 13
Research Methods: Standards for Objectivity and Integrity in Social Researchp. 17
Sources of Datap. 19
The Structure of Social Groupsp. 25
The Micro Levelp. 25
Social Organizationp. 25
A Closer Look: The Isolating Effects of E-Mailp. 26
Normsp. 28
Status and Rolep. 29
Social Controlp. 32
Primary and Secondary Groupsp. 32
Bureaucracy: The Ultimate Secondary Groupp. 34
Power of the Social Groupp. 35
The Societal or Macro Levelp. 41
Society as a Social Systemp. 41
The Culture of Societyp. 42
Social Classesp. 42
Social Institutionsp. 42
Diversity: Gay Marriage?p. 43
The Duality of Social Life: Order and Conflictp. 49
Social Systems: Order and Conflictp. 50
Research Methods: Social Scientists and Values: Taking Sidesp. 50
The Order Modelp. 51
The Conflict Modelp. 52
The Duality of Social Lifep. 53
Synthesis of the Order and Conflict Modelsp. 55
Division and Violencep. 57
A Closer Look: Deepening Divides in U.S. Societyp. 58
Violence and the Myth of Peaceful Progressp. 63
A Closer Look: Violence and Division in Indiap. 64
The Integrative Forces in Societyp. 69
Diversity: The Media's Selective Perception of Race and Classp. 72
The Use of the Order and Conflict Models in This Bookp. 73
The Individual in Society: Society in the Individualp. 77
Culturep. 77
Culture: The Knowledge That People Sharep. 78
Characteristics of Culturep. 78
A Closer Look: Is the United States Culturally Superior?p. 81
Types of Shared Knowledgep. 82
The Social Construction of Realityp. 86
A Closer Look: Cultural Timep. 88
The Globalization of Culture?p. 90
Globalization: The Downside to English as a Universal Languagep. 91
Valuesp. 93
Values as Sources of Societal Integration and Social Problemsp. 94
A Closer Look: Triumph's Great Failurep. 98
Values and Behaviorp. 102
Cultural Diversityp. 104
Research Methods: The Researcher as Participantp. 105
Values from the Order and Conflict Perspectivesp. 106
Socializationp. 111
The Personality as a Social Productp. 114
Charles H. Cooley (1864-1929): The Looking-Glass Selfp. 115
A Closer Look: The Looking-Glass Self and Body Imagep. 116
George Herbert Mead (1863-1931): Taking the Role of the Otherp. 116
Albert Bandura (1925- ): Social Cognitive Theoryp. 118
Sigmund Freud (1856-1939): The Psychoanalytic Viewp. 118
Society's Socialization Agentsp. 119
A Closer Look: Learning to Hatep. 120
A Closer Look: What Is the Impact of Media Violence on Youth?p. 122
Similarities and Differences among the Members of Societyp. 125
Modal Personality Typep. 125
Why We Are Not All Alikep. 126
Social Controlp. 133
Agents of Ideological Social Controlp. 134
Familyp. 135
Educationp. 135
Religionp. 136
Diversity: The Amish and Social Controlp. 137
Sportp. 138
Mediap. 139
Governmentp. 140
Agents of Direct Social Controlp. 141
Welfarep. 142
Science and Medicinep. 142
Governmentp. 145
A Closer Look: The Iron Fist in the Land of Orderp. 146
Globalization: Terrorism: If It's a Muslim Problem, It Needs a Muslim Solutionp. 152
Social Control in the Private Sector: Implications for Contemporary Social Lifep. 153
A Closer Look: The Internet's Private Eyep. 154
Social Control from the Order and Conflict Perspectivesp. 157
Deviancep. 161
Traditional Theories for the Causes of Deviancep. 164
The Individual as the Source of Deviancep. 164
The Blaming-the-Victim Critiquep. 168
Society as the Source of Deviancep. 173
Labeling Theoryp. 173
Diversity: The Criminal Justice System: Unreasonable Stops and Searches by Racep. 175
Human Agency: The Gay Rights Movementp. 181
Conflict Theoryp. 182
A Closer Look: Corporate Perjury and Obstruction of Justicep. 184
Deviance from the Order and Conflict Perspectivesp. 186
The Study of Societyp. 191
Structural Sources of Societal Change: Economic and Demographicp. 191
Globalization and the Structural Transformation of the Economyp. 191
Globalization: Boxing Up U.S. Jobs and Sending Them Overseasp. 194
Structural Changes in the U.S. Economy Resulting from Globalizationp. 195
A Closer Look: Capitalism's Changing Job Market: A Process of Creative Destructionp. 198
The New Immigration and the Changing Racial Landscapep. 204
Immigration Patternsp. 205
The Consequences of the New Immigrationp. 207
The Reaction of the Hosts to the New Immigrantsp. 209
Human Agency: Low-Wage Immigrant Workers Fight Backp. 211
Immigration and Agencyp. 213
Diversity: Newcomers Bring Diversity but Fuel Fearsp. 214
The Aging Societyp. 217
The Demographics of an Aging Societyp. 217
Problems of an Aging Societyp. 219
Responses by the Elderly: Human Agencyp. 222
The Three Structural Transformations of Societyp. 223
Social Stratificationp. 229
A Closer Look: Birth as Destiny: India's Caste Systemp. 230
Globalization: Inequality among Nationsp. 231
Major Conceptsp. 231
Classp. 233
Race and Ethnicityp. 233
Genderp. 234
The Intersection of Class, Race, and Genderp. 235
Theories of Stratificationp. 236
Order Theoryp. 236
Conflict Theoryp. 236
Deficiency Theoriesp. 237
Biological Inferiorityp. 238
Research Methods: The Political Climate and Scientific Ideasp. 240
Cultural Inferiorityp. 243
Structural Theoriesp. 244
Institutional Discriminationp. 244
The Political Economy of Societyp. 246
Diversity: Who Benefits from Poverty?p. 247
Classp. 253
Dimensions of Inequalityp. 254
Wealthp. 254
Incomep. 254
Educationp. 255
Occupationp. 257
The Consequences of Increasing Inequality for Societyp. 258
Social Classesp. 260
The Order Model's Conception of Social Classp. 261
The Conflict Model's Conception of Social Classp. 262
Summary: Class from the Order and Conflict Perspectivesp. 266
The Consequences of Social Class Positionsp. 267
Physical Healthp. 267
Family Instabilityp. 269
The Draftp. 270
Justicep. 270
Educationp. 271
Social Mobilityp. 272
Education and Social Mobilityp. 274
Poverty in the United Statesp. 276
Human Agency: Coping Strategies among the Poorp. 278
Racial Minoritiesp. 278
Nativityp. 279
Genderp. 279
Childrenp. 280
The Elderlyp. 280
The Geography of Povertyp. 280
The Severely Poorp. 281
Myths about Povertyp. 282
Refusal to Workp. 282
Welfare Dependencyp. 283
A Closer Look: The New Welfare Policy: A Critiquep. 284
The Poor Get Special Advantagesp. 287
Welfare Is an African American and Latino Programp. 288
Racial Inequalityp. 293
Racial and Ethnic Minoritiesp. 294
Racial Categoriesp. 295
Diversity: The Growing Difficulty of Defining Racep. 297
Differences among Racial and Ethnic Groupsp. 298
Globalization: The Changing Face of Sweden: Dark Skin and Brown Eyesp. 300
A Closer Look: Diverging Paths for Foreign-Born Blacks and African Americansp. 302
Explanations of Racial and Ethnic Inequalityp. 305
Deficiency Theoriesp. 306
Bias Theoriesp. 306
Structural Discrimination Theoriesp. 307
Racial Stratification from the Order and Conflict Perspectivesp. 309
Discrimination against Blacks and Hispanics: Continuity and Changep. 310
Incomep. 310
Educationp. 313
Unemploymentp. 314
Type of Employmentp. 314
Healthp. 315
Contemporary Trends and Issues in U.S. Racial and Ethnic Relationsp. 316
Growing Racial Strifep. 317
More Racially Based Groups and Activitiesp. 317
Economic Polarization in U.S. Inner Citiesp. 318
Racial Policies in the New Centuryp. 319
Gender Inequalityp. 325
Diversity: Is a Gender-Free World Possible?p. 326
Women and Men Are Differentiated and Rankedp. 326
Is Gender Biological or Social?p. 327
Gender and Powerp. 328
Gender Stratification from the Order and Conflict Perspectivesp. 329
The Order Perspectivep. 329
The Conflict Perspectivep. 330
The Implications of the Order and Conflict Perspectivesp. 331
Learning Genderp. 332
Children at Homep. 332
Children at Playp. 334
Formal Educationp. 336
Socialization as Blaming the Victimp. 341
Reinforcing Male Dominancep. 341
Languagep. 342
Interpersonal Behaviorp. 342
Mass Communications Mediap. 343
Religionp. 344
The Lawp. 345
Politicsp. 346
Structured Gender Inequalityp. 348
Occupational Distributionp. 348
The Earnings Gapp. 351
Intersection of Race and Gender in the Workplacep. 352
Pay Equityp. 352
How Workplace Inequality Operatesp. 353
Gender in the Global Economyp. 355
Globalization: Trafficking Sex for a Globalized Marketp. 356
The Costs and Consequences of Sexismp. 357
Who Benefits?p. 357
The Social and Individual Costsp. 357
Fighting the Systemp. 358
Feminist Movements in the United Statesp. 358
Women's Struggles in the Twenty-First Centuryp. 359
Human Agency: Empowering Poor Women and Protecting the Environment: The Story of Wangari Maathai, Nobel Peace Laureatep. 360
Social Institutionsp. 365
The Economyp. 365
Capitalism and Socialismp. 366
Capitalismp. 366
Socialismp. 368
The Corporation-Dominated Economyp. 369
Monopolistic Capitalismp. 369
Transnational Corporationsp. 371
Capitalism and Inequalityp. 372
Concentration of Corporate Wealthp. 372
Concentration of Private Wealth and Incomep. 373
Concentration of Want and Miseryp. 373
Work in U.S. Societyp. 374
The Problems of Workp. 374
Human Agency: Sweatshop Workers Organize and Winp. 379
Discrimination in the Workplace: The Perpetuation of Inequalityp. 382
Unemploymentp. 385
Capitalism in Crisisp. 387
The Negative Consequences of Private Profitability over Social Needp. 387
Excesses at the Heart of Capitalism: Greed, Cronyism, and Ripoffsp. 388
A Closer Look: The Ten Habits of Highly Defective Corporations: Titans of the Enron Economyp. 390
Declining Wages, Jobs, Consumerism, and Profitsp. 392
The Lack of Economic Planningp. 393
Power and Politicsp. 399
Models of the National Power Structurep. 400
Pluralist Modelsp. 400
A Closer Look: Structural Barriers to Democracyp. 402
A Closer Look: The Best Democracy Money Can Buyp. 404
A Closer Look: Is the United States a Plutocracy? Some Warningsp. 406
Elitist Modelsp. 408
The Consequences of Concentrated Powerp. 417
Human Agency: The Constitutional Battle for Racial Equalityp. 420
Subsidies to Big Businessp. 421
Trickle-Down Solutionsp. 423
The Powerless Pay the Burdenp. 424
Foreign Policy for Corporate Benefitp. 425
The Order and Conflict Perspectives on the Distribution of Powerp. 426
Familiesp. 431
The Mythical Family in the United Statesp. 431
Globalization: Families in Global Perspective: Family Upheavals around the Worldp. 432
Families in Contemporary U.S. Societyp. 433
The Family in Capitalismp. 433
Stratification and Family Lifep. 435
Structural Transformation and Family Lifep. 437
The Changing Composition of Households and Familiesp. 439
Changes in Marriage and Family Rolesp. 441
The Social and Individual Benefits of Marriagep. 442
The Benefits of Marriage Reconsideredp. 443
Same-Sex Marriagep. 444
Diversity: Why Family Issues Matter for Lesbians and Gaysp. 445
Divorce and Remarriagep. 446
Work and Family Rolesp. 447
Research Methods: Researching Families: How Sociologist Arlie Hochschild Interviewed Couples about the Demands of Work and Familyp. 449
Children and Adolescentsp. 450
The Agedp. 452
Violence in Familiesp. 453
The Modern Family from the Order and Conflict Perspectivesp. 455
Families of the Futurep. 456
Educationp. 461
The Characteristics of U.S. Educationp. 462
Education as a Conserving Forcep. 462
Mass Educationp. 462
Local Control of Educationp. 463
The Competitive Nature of U.S. Educationp. 466
The Sifting and Sorting Function of Schoolsp. 466
Diversity: How to Leave No Child Behindp. 467
Diversity: Cooling Out the Failuresp. 468
The Preoccupation with Order and Controlp. 469
Education and Inequalityp. 470
Financesp. 472
Tracking and Teachers' Expectationsp. 478
Education from the Order and Conflict Perspectivesp. 482
Religionp. 487
Globalization: The Global Reach of the World's Major Religionsp. 490
Classical Sociology's Differing Interpretations of Religionp. 492
Religion from the Order Perspective of Emile Durkheimp. 492
Religion from the Conflict Perspective of Karl Marxp. 492
Max Weber's View of Religion and Social Changep. 493
Some Distinctive Features of U.S. Religionp. 494
Civil Religionp. 494
Globalization: Outsourcing Prayerp. 494
The Variety of Religious Beliefs in the United Statesp. 496
Diversity: Islam in the United Statesp. 497
Religious Organizationp. 498
A Closer Look: The Heaven's Gate Cultp. 501
Class, Race, Gender, Sexuality, and Religionp. 502
The Relationship between Social Class and Religionp. 502
Religion and Race: The Case of African Americansp. 504
Religion and Genderp. 505
Religion and Sexualityp. 505
Diversity: Religion and Patriarchyp. 506
Religious Trendsp. 507
The Decline of the Mainline Denominationsp. 509
The Rise of Christian Fundamentalismp. 510
The Spread of the Evangelical Message via Savvy Marketingp. 511
Contemporary Christianity and Politicsp. 513
The Religious Rightp. 513
The Role of Mainline Churches: Comfort or Challenge?p. 514
Religion from the Order and Conflict Perspectivesp. 516
Human Agencyp. 521
Human Agency: Individuals and Groups in Society Changing Social Structuresp. 521
The Sociological Paradox: Social Structure and Agencyp. 521
Social Movementsp. 522
Types of Social Movementsp. 523
Human Agency: The Political Muscle of Americans with Disabilitiesp. 524
The Life Course of Social Movementsp. 525
Globalization: Students against Sweatshopsp. 526
Agency: Social Change from the Bottom Upp. 527
The Civil Rights Movementp. 527
Gender Equity in Sportsp. 531
Conclusionp. 535
Glossaryp. 539
Referencesp. 547
Name Indexp. 571
Subject Indexp. 576
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