Connect Access Card for The Science of Psychology: An Appreciative View

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: eBook
  • Copyright: 2010-08-25
  • Publisher: McGraw-Hill Education
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Table of Contents

King, The Science of Psychology, Second EditionContents


Chapter 1 What Is Psychology?

Defining Psychology

The Psychological Frame of Mind

CRITICAL CONTROVERSY Are Young Americans in the Middle of a Narcissism Epidemic?

Psychology as the Science of All Human Behavior

Psychology in Historical Perspective

Wundt’s Structuralism and James’s Functionalism

Darwin’s Natural Selection

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Explore Evolution from Giraffes to Human Beings

Contemporary Approaches to Psychology

The Biological Approach

The Behavioral Approach

The Psychodynamic Approach

The Humanistic Approach

The Cognitive Approach

The Evolutionary Approach

The Sociocultural Approach

Summing Up the Seven Contemporary Approaches

What Psychologists Do

Careers in Psychology

Areas of Specialization

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Questions That Psychology Specialists Ask

INTERSECTION Social Psychology and Cross-Cultural Psychology: Is Success Always Sweeter Than Failure?

The Science of Psychology and Health and Wellness

How the Mind Impacts the Body

How the Body Impacts the Mind


Key Terms

Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 2 Psychology’s Scientific Method

Psychology’s Scientific Method

Step 1. Observing Some Phenomenon

Step 2. Formulating Hypotheses and Predictions

Step 3. Testing Through Empirical Research

Step 4. Drawing Conclusions

Step 5. Evaluating the Theory

Types of Psychological Research

Descriptive Research

Correlational Research

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Miserable but Helpful?

Experimental Research

INTERSECTION Social Psychology and Developmental Psychology: Is High Self-Esteem Such a Good Thing?

Applications of the Three Types of Research

Research Samples and Settings

The Research Sample

The Research Setting

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Experimentation in a Natural Setting

Analyzing and Interpreting Data

Descriptive Statistics

Inferential Statistics

Conducting Ethical Research

Ethics Guidelines

The Place of Values in Psychological Research

CRITICAL CONTROVERSY Would Reality TV Pass the Institutional Review Board?

Thinking Critically About Psychological Research

Avoid Overgeneralizing Based on Little Information 

Distinguish Between Group Results and Individual Needs

Look for Answers Beyond a Single Study

Avoid Attributing Causes When None Have Been Found

Consider the Source of Psychological Information

The Scientific Method and Health and Wellness


Key Terms

Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 3 Biological Foundations of Behavior

The Nervous System

Characteristics of the Nervous System

Pathways in the Nervous System

Divisions of the Nervous System


Specialized Cell Structure

The Neural Impulse

Synapses and Neurotransmitters

Neural Networks

Structures of the Brain and Their Functions

How Researchers Study the Brain and Nervous System

How the Brain Is Organized

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY The Brain in Different Species

The Cerebral Cortex

CRITICAL CONTROVERSY Are Human Brains Uniquely Wired to Recognize Faces?

The Cerebral Hemispheres and Split-Brain Research

INTERSECTION Emotion and Neuroscience: Is Your Brain Happy?

Integration of Function in the Brain

The Endocrine System

Brain Damage, Plasticity, and Repair

The Brain’s Plasticity and Capacity for Repair

Brain Tissue Implants

Genetics and Behavior

Chromosomes, Genes, and DNA

The Study of Genetics


Genes and the Environment

Psychology’s Biological Foundations and Health and Wellness


Key Terms

Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 4 Sensation and Perception

How We Sense and Perceive the World

The Processes and Purposes of Sensation and Perception


Sensory Receptors and the Brain


PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Subliminal Perception: Working Up a Thirst

Signal Detection Theory

Perceiving Sensory Stimuli

INTERSECTION Perception and Social Psychology: Was That a Gun or Car Keys?

Sensory Adaptation

Extrasensory Perception

The Visual System

The Visual Stimulus and the Eye

Visual Processing in the Brain

Color Vision

Perceiving Shape, Depth, Motion, and Constancy

The Auditory System

The Nature of Sound and How We Experience It

Structures and Functions of the Ear

CRITICAL CONTROVERSY Are Cochlear Implants a “Cure” for Deafness?

Theories of Hearing

Auditory Processing in the Brain

Localizing Sound

Other Senses

The Skin Senses

The Chemical Senses

The Kinesthetic and Vestibular Senses

Sensation, Perception, and Health and Wellness


Key Terms

Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 5 States of Consciousness

The Nature of Consciousness

Defining Consciousness

Consciousness and the Brain

Levels of Awareness

INTERSECTION Consciousness and Developmental Psychology: How Do We Develop a Sense of the Minds of Others?

Sleep and Dreams

Biological Rhythms and Sleep

Why Do We Need Sleep?

Stages of Wakefulness and Sleep

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Taking a Ride on the Sleep Cycles

Sleep and Disease

Sleep Disorders


Psychoactive Drugs

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Drug Use by American Teenagers

Uses of Psychoactive Drugs

Types of Psychoactive Drugs

CRITICAL CONTROVERSY Should Illicit Psychoactive Drugs Be Legalized for Medical Use?


The Nature of Hypnosis

Explaining Hypnosis

Uses of Hypnosis

Consciousness and Health and Wellness: Meditation

Mindfulness Meditation

The Meditative State of Mind

Getting Started with Meditation


Key Terms

Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 6 Learning

Types of Learning

Classical Conditioning

Pavlov’s Studies

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY From Acquisition to Extinction (to Spontaneous Recovery)

Classical Conditioning in Humans

Operant Conditioning

Defining Operant Conditioning

Thorndike’s Law of Effect

Skinner’s Approach to Operant Conditioning


INTERSECTION Behaviorism and Cognitive Neuroscience: If It Feels Good, Is It Rewarding?

Principles of Reinforcement

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Schedules of Reinforcement and Different Patterns of Responding

CRITICAL CONTROVERSY Will Sparing the Rod Spoil the Child?

Applied Behavior Analysis

Observational Learning

Cognitive Factors in Learning

Purposive Behavior

Insight Learning

Biological, Cultural, and Psychological Factors in Learning

Biological Constraints

Cultural Influences

Psychological Constraints

Learning and Health and Wellness

What Can a Rat Tell Us About Stress?


Key Terms

Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 7 Memory

The Nature of Memory

Memory Encoding


Levels of Processing



Memory Storage

Sensory Memory

Short-Term Memory

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY The Inner Workings of Working Memory

Long-Term Memory

INTERSECTION Memory and Sensation: Why Does Smell Share a Special Relationship with Memory?

Memory Retrieval

Serial Position Effect

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Don’t Mess with Mr. In-Between

Retrieval Cues and the Retrieval Task

Special Cases of Retrieval

CRITICAL CONTROVERSY Memories: Recovered, Discovered, or False?


Encoding Failure

Retrieval Failure

Study Tips from the Science of Memory Memory and Health and Wellness

Keeping Memory Sharp

Memory and Everyday Life


Key Terms

Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 8 Thinking, Intelligence, and Language

The Cognitive Revolution in Psychology



Problem Solving

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Thinking Outside the Box

Reasoning and Decision Making

Thinking Critically and Creatively

INTERSECTION Emotion and Cognition: How Are You Feeling and Thinking Today?


Measuring Intelligence


Genetic and Environmental Influences on Intelligence

Extremes of Intelligence

Theories of Multiple Intelligences


The Basic Properties of Language

Language and Cognition

CRITICAL CONTROVERSY Does Gender Influence Language?

Biological and Environmental Influences on Language

Language Development over the Life Span

Thinking, Problem Solving, and Health and Wellness

Cognitive Appraisal and Stress

Cognitive Reappraisal


Key Terms

Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 9 Human Development

Exploring Human Development

Research Methods in Developmental Psychology

How Do Nature and Nurture Influence Development?

CRITICAL CONTROVERSY Genes or Superparents: Which Matters More to Kids?

What Is the Developer’s Role in Development?

Are Early or Later Life Experiences More Important in Development?

Child Development

Prenatal Development

Physical Development in Childhood

Cognitive Development in Childhood

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Thinking Critically About Object Permanence

Socioemotional Development in Childhood

INTERSECTION Developmental Psychology and Clinical Psychology: Is “Girl Talk” Always a Good Thing?


Physical Development in Adolescence

Cognitive Development in Adolescence

Socioemotional Development in Adolescence: The Emergence of Identity

PSYCHOLOGICAL INQUIRY Looking at Identity ExplorationEmerging Adulthood, Adult Development, and Aging

Emerging Adulthood

Physical Development in Adulthood

Cognitive Development in Adulthood

Socioemotional Development in Adulthood

Human Development and Health and Wellness

Coping and Adult Development

Life Themes and Life-Span Development


Key Terms

Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 10 Motivation and Emotion

1. Theories of Motivation

2. Hunger, Obesity, and Eating Disorders

3. Beyond Hunger: Approaches to Motivation in Everyday Life

4. Emotion

5. Motivation, Emotion, and Health and Wellness: The Pursuit of Happiness


Key Terms

Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 11, Gender and Sexuality

1. Defining Sex and Gender

Sex and Its Biological Components


The Role of Genes

Disorders of Sexual Development

2. Theories of Gender Development

Biological Approaches

Evolutionary Psychology Approaches

Social Cognitive Approaches

Social Role Theory

Evaluating the Theoretical Approaches to Gender

3. The Psychology of Gender Differences

Infant Sex Differences

Cognitive Differences

Gender Differences in Aggression

Gender Differences in Sexuality

Evaluating the Evidence for Gender

4. Sexual Orientation

Defining Sexual Orientation

Measuring Sexual Orientation

Occurrence of the Different Sexual Orientations

Origins of Sexual Orientation: A Scientific Puzzle

Gay and Lesbian Functioning

Individual Adjustment and Well-Being

Relationship Functioning

Gay and Lesbian Families

5. Sexual Behaviors, Practices, and Attitudes

Sexual Behaviors

Sexual Practices

The Human Sexual Response Pattern

Cognitive and Other Factors in Sexual Behavior and Attitudes

6. Gender and Sexual Variations and Disorders

Transgender: A Variation of Gender Identity

Variations in Sexual Behavior

Variations, Disorders, and the Meaning of Normality

7. Gender, Sexuality, and Health and Wellness

Sexual Behavior and Physical Health

Sexual Behavior and Psychological Well-Being


Key Terms

Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 12, Personality

1. Psychodynamic Perspectives

2. Humanistic Perspectives

3. Trait Perspectives

4. Personological and Life Story Perspectives

5. Social Cognitive Perspectives

6. Biological Perspectives

7. Personality Assessment

8. Personality and Health and Wellness


Key Terms

Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 13, Social Psychology

1. Social Cognition

2. Social Behavior

3. Social Influence

4. Intergroup Relations

5. Close Relationships

6. Social Psychology and Health and Wellness


Key Terms

Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 14, Industrial and Organizational Psychology

1. Origins of I/O Psychology

2. Industrial Psychology

3. Organizational Psychology

4. Organizational Culture

5. I/O Psychology and Health and Wellness


Key Terms

Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 15, Psychological Disorders

1. Defining and Explaining Abnormal Behavior

2. Anxiety Disorders

3. Mood Disorders

4. Eating Disorders

5. Dissociative Disorders

6. Schizophrenia

7. Personality Disorders

8. Psychological Disorders and Health and Wellness


Key Terms

Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 16, Therapies

1. Biological Therapies

2. Psychotherapy

3. Sociocultural Approaches and Issues in Treatment

4. The Effectiveness of Psychotherapy

5. Therapies and Health and Wellness


Key Terms

Apply Your Knowledge

Chapter 17, Health Psychology

1. Health Psychology and Behavioral Medicine

2. Making Positive Life Changes

3. Resources for Effective Life Change

4. Toward a Healthier Mind (and Body): Controlling Stress

5. Toward a Healthier Body (and Mind): Behaving as If Your Life Depends upon It

6. Integrating Psychology and Health and Wellness


Key Terms

Apply Your Knowledge

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