Connections A World History, Combined Volume

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  • Copyright: 2011-07-01
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Connections: A World Historyis a reader-centered text that focuses on connections within and among world societies. Concise, engaging chapters and a clear narrative make the often overwhelming amount of information in world history accessible to a wide range of readers. A uniquely comprehensive and consistent map program is combined with strong pedagogical support for increased understandability. The authors' focus on connections offers a useful and compelling framework for understanding how and why peoples and societies change over time.

Author Biography

Edward H. Judge and John W. Langdon are professors of history at Le Moyne College, where they have team-taught for the last 20 years a two-semester world history course for first-year students as well as courses on modern global history for upper-level students. Judge earned his doctorate at the University of Michigan and spent a year in the USSR as an IREX scholar. He has taught at Le Moyne since 1978, was the college's scholar of the year in 1994 and was awarded the J. C. Georg Endowed Professorship in 1997. Langdon earned his doctorate at Syracuse University's Maxwell School of Public Affairs, where he was a national defense fellow. He has taught at Le Moyne since 1971, directed its honors program and was awarded the O'Connell Distinguished Teaching Professorship in 1996. Each has been named the college's teacher of the year and has chaired its department of history. They have written or edited eight books: three in collaboration with each other, three as individuals and two in collaboration with other scholars. They love teaching world history, especially to students of diverse backgrounds and interests, and they derive great joy from infecting their students with a passion and enthusiasm for the study of the human past.

Table of Contents

Why We Wrote This Book

Support Materials



Part I: Emergence and Expansion of Regional Societies, To 300 C.E.


Chapter 1 The Emergence of Human Societies, to 3000 B.C.E.Our Earliest Ancestors

Hominids and Cultural Adaptation

Foraging, Family, and Gender

Ice Age Migrations and Homo Sapiens

Physical and Cultural Diversity

Paleolithic Cultural and Spiritual Perspectives

Intercultural Connections and Conflicts

The Origins and Impact of Agriculture

The Origins of Farming and Herding

Agricultural Innovation and Expansion

Foragers, Hunter-Farmers, and Pastoral Nomads

Agricultural Society: Village, Family, and Land

The Impact of Agriculture

The Emergence of Complex Societies

Towns, Cities, Occupations, and Religion

States and Civilizations

Chapter Review


Chapter 2 Early Societies of West Asia and North Africa, to 500 B.C.E.

Early West Asian Societies

Early Mesopotamia: The City-States of Sumer

The Akkadian Conquest and Spread of Sumerian Culture

Babylonian Society and Hammurabi’s Code

Indo-European Migrations

The Hittite Connection

Later Mesopotamia: Assyrians and Chaldeans

Early Northeast African Societies

Egyptian Culture and Society

The Kingdoms of Egypt

Nubian Culture and the Kingdoms of Kush

The Kingdom and Culture of Meroë

West Asia and North Africa: The Phoenician Connection

The Israelites and Their God

The Children of Israel

The Kingdoms of Israel

The God of Israel

Chapter Review


Chapter 3 Societies and Beliefs of Early Indai, to 550 C.E.

The Indian Subcontinent

Harappan India: Early Indus Valley Societies

The Early Cities

Farming, Culture, and Commerce

The Decline of Harappan Society

Vedic India: The Aryan Impact

Aryan Incursions and the Rise of Vedic Culture

The Emergence of Caste

Family, Status, and Stability

The Religions of India

Jainism: Reverence for All Living Things

Buddhism: The Path to Inner Peace

Hinduism: Unity amid Diversity

Post-Vedic India: Connections and Divisions

Conflicts and Contacts with Persians and Greeks

The Rise of the Mauryan Empire

Ashoka’s Reign: Buddhism and Paternalism

India After Ashoka: New Connections and Conflicts

Indian Society and Culture

Caste, Family, and Gender

The Visual Arts

Science and Mathematics

Philosophy and Literature: Upanishads and Epics

Chapter Review


Chapter 4 The Origins of the Chinese Empire, to 220 C.E.

China’s Geographic Diversity

Early Chinese Societies

Predynastic China

Xia and Shang Societies

Chinese Writing

State and Society During the Zhou Dynasty

The Mandate of Heaven and Dynastic Cycle

Conflict, Chaos, and Commerce

The Central Asian Connection

The Classical Age of Chinese Philosophy

Confucianism: Noble-Minded Conduct and Familial Respect

Daoism: The Way That Cannot Be Spoken

Yin and Yang: The Balance of Forces in Nature

Legalism: Regulation, Coercion, and Control

The Birth of the Empire Under the Qin Dynasty

The First Emperor

The End of the Qin Dynasty

The Growth of the Empire Under the Han Dynasty

The Early Han: Confucian Bureaucracy and Military Expansion

Rebellion, Reform, and Ruin

The Later Han: Revival and Decline

Society, Technology, and the Silk Road

Han Society

Technical and Commercial Creativity

The Silk Road and the Sea Trade

Chapter Review


Chapter 5 Early American Societies: Connection and Isolation, 20,000 B.C.E-1500 C.E.

Origins and Arrival of the Amerinds

The Amerinds of North America

Two Hunter-Gatherer Bands

Five Limited-Scale Tribal Societies

Four Full-Scale Tribal Societies

Three Complex Societies

The Amerinds of Mesoamerica

The Olmec of the Preclassic Period (1800 B.C.E.–150 C.E.)

The Maya of the Classic Period (150–900 C.E.)

Teotihuacán: Rise and Fall of a Great City-State

The Toltec: Conflict Between Warriors and Priests

South America: Societies of the Andes

Hunter-Gatherers and the Chavín Society

Nazca and Moche Societies

Tiahuanaco, Huari, and Chimor

Chapter Review


Chapter 6 The Persian Connection: Its Impact and Influences, 2000 B.C.E-637 C.E.

The Persian Empire

Geographic Challenges Confront the First Persians

Cyrus the Great

Persian Governance and Society: Links with Mesopotamia

From Cyrus to Darius

Administration of the Empire

Mesopotamian Influences: Law, Administration, and Commerce

Persian Society and Culture


A Religion of Good and Evil

Social and Political Content

Confrontation with Greece

The Ionian Revolt and the Persian Response

Xerxes and the Invasion of Greece


Persian Resurgence

The Macedonian Conquest and Its Successor States

The End of the Persian Empire

Persia Under Macedonian Rule

The Parthian Empire

The Sasanian Empire

Chapter Review


Chapter 7 Greek Civilization and Its Expansion into Asia, 2000-30 B.C.E.

Early Greece

Mycenae and Crete

The Polis

Archaic Greece, 700–500 B.C.E.

Greek Colonization and the Spread of Greek Culture

Rivalry Between Sparta and Athens

Classical Greece, 500–338 B.C.E.

The Persian Wars

Athenian Dominance and the Spartan Response

The Peloponnesian War

The Arts and Philosophy in Classical Greece

Architecture, Sculpture, and Pottery

Greek Drama


Classical Greek Society and Religion

Free Labor and Slavery

The Status of Women

Greek Religion

The Empire of Alexander the Great

Alexander’s Conquests

The Fate and Impact of Alexander’s Empire

Connections and Conflicts in the Hellenistic World

Commercial and Cultural Connections

Politics and Governance

Chapter Review


Chapter 8 The Romans Connect the Mediterranean World, 753 B.C.E.-284 C.E.

The Roman Republic to 133 B.C.E.

Rivalry with Etruria

The Republic and Its Foundation in Law

The Punic Wars and Rome’s Mediterranean Domination

Changes in Society and Culture

Dissatisfaction with the Republic

Social Discontent and Decline in Popular Rule

Julius Caesar

The Birth of the Roman Empire

The Rise of Octavian

From Republic to Empire

Greco-Roman Culture

Challenges to Augustus’s Work

Roman Religion and the Rise of Christianity

Rome’s Polytheistic Religion

Jewish Resistance and Eastern Cults

Paul of Tarsus and the Spread of Christianity

From Golden Age to Disarray

Commercial Connections

The Empire in Disarray

Chapter Review


Part II: Trans-Regional Conflicts and Religious Connections, 200–1200 C.E.


Chapter 9 Germanic Societies and the Emergence of the Christian West, 100-1100 C.E.

The Germanic Peoples

Germanic Society: Kinship and Combat

Germanic Migrations and Their Threat to Rome

The Decline of the Western Roman Empire

The Divided Empire and Its Eastern Orientation

The Triumph and Transformation of Christianity

Crisis and Chaos in the West

The Fall of Rome and End of the Western Roman Empire

Early Medieval Europe: Germanic and Christian Connections

The Emergence of Germanic Kingdoms

The Early Medieval Church: Expansion and Adaptation

The Franks and Their Effort to Reunite the West

Vikings, Muslims, and Magyars: Invasions and Connections

Europe’s Warrior Nobility: Protection, Land, and Power

Economy and Society: Manors, Lords, and Serfs

The Decline and Revival of the Western Church

From Scandal to Reform

The Great Schism of 1054

The Power of the Popes

Chapter Review


Chapter 10 The Byzantine World, 284-1240

The Foundations of Byzantine Governance

Constantine and the Christian Church

The Union of Church and State

Early Byzantium: Challenges and Survival

Justinian and Theodora

Byzantine Society

Crises of the Seventh Century

Eastern Christianity’s Culture and Conflicts

Foreign Conflicts and Byzantium’s Decline

The Arab Conflict

The Turkish Conquests

Pre-Christian Russia

Russia’s Difficult Climate and Terrain

Early Cultures and Conflicts

Kievan Rus Connects to the Byzantine World

The First Period: Early Rulers and Campaigns

The Second Period: Connections to Christendom

The Third Period: Chaos and Conflict

Economy and Society

The End of Early Russian Civilization

Chapter Review


Chapter 11 The Origins and Expansion of Islam, 100-750

Pre-Islamic Arabia

Camels and Commerce

The Collapse of Southern Arabia and the Rise of Mecca

The Rise of Islam

The Prophet Muhammad

From Mecca to Medina

Islam Expands, 632–661

An Agreement Between Leader and Followers

The Challenge to a Unified Islam

The Umayyad Caliphate, 661–750

Umayyad Expansion

Collapse of the Umayyad Caliphate

Society and Culture in Early Islam

Religious Observance: The Mosque

Legal Uniformity: The Shari`ah

Tolerance of Other Faiths

Chapter Review


Chapter 12  Religion and Diversity in the Transformation of Southern Asia, 711-1400

Islam Expands Eastward

Islamic Persia and the Abbasid Caliphate

Persian Influences on Islamic Governance and Culture

The Impact of Shi’ite Opposition

The Rise of Baghdad

Cosmopolitan Islam

Abbasid Governance

Commerce and Culture in the Abbasid Caliphate

Sufis and Fundamentalists

The Decline of the Abbasid Caliphate

Forces of Disintegration

Continuity of Islamic Unity and Expansion

The Gupta Empire in India

Gupta Rule and Achievements

Conflict and Collapse

The Islamic Impact on India

Islamic Invasions from Persia

Conflict and Connection: Muslims and Hindus

India’s Influence on Southeast Asia

Funan: The First Southeast Asian State

The Cambodian Empire

Srivijaya: Coalition and Cultural Blend

Chapter Review


Chapter 13  Early African Societies, 1500 B.C.E.-1500 C.E.

Africa Before Islam

The Bantu Migrations: Cohesion in Diversity

Regional Cultural Adaptations

Clans and Kingdoms

African Traditional Religion

Early African Culture

Islamic Africa and Spain: Commercial and Cultural Networks

Islamic North Africa

Cosmopolitan Umayyad Spain

Fatimid Egypt

Trade Across the Sahara

Early Saharan Trade

Islam’s Interaction with West Africa

West African Kingdoms: Ghana and Mali

The Conversion of Ghana

Islamic Mali, 1200–1450

Ethiopia’s Christian Kingdom

The City-States of East Africa

Development of a Bantu-Arab Culture

East and West Africa Compared

The Bantu Connection: Central and Southern Africa

The Bantu Influence

Great Zimbabwe

Chapter Review


Chapter 14 The Evolution and Expansion of East Asian Societies, 220-1240 C.E.

China’s Age of Disunity, 220–589

The Three Kingdoms Era

Division, Invasion, Adaptation, and Migration

Central Asian Connections and the Arrival of Buddhism

The Spread of Buddhism in China

China’s Age of Preeminence, 589–1279

China Reunited: the Sui Dynasty, 589–618

China Triumphant: The Tang Dynasty, 618–907

China in Turmoil: Ten Kingdoms and Five Dynasties, 907–960

China Resurgent: The Song Dynasty, 960–1127

China Divided: Jurchens and Southern Song, 1127–1279

Highlights and Hallmarks of Chinese Society

Commercial and Technological Innovations

Spiritual, Intellectual, and Cultural Creativity

Urban and Rural Society

Vietnam and the Chinese Impact

Vietnam Under Chinese Dominion

Vietnamese Autonomy

Korea and the Chinese Impact

Early Chinese Influence in Korea

The Kingdom of Koryo, 935–1392

The Emergence of Japan

Early Borrowing from China

The Heian Era: Divergence from China

The Rise of the Warrior Class

Chapter Review


Part III: Cross-Cultural Conflicts And Commercial Connections, 1000–1650


Chapter 15 Nomadic Conquests and Eurasian Connections, 1000-1400

The Nomads of Central Asia

Herding and Horsemanship

Family and Social Structure

Contacts and Conflicts with Settled Societies

The Rise and Fall of the Seljuk Turks

The Seljuk Conquests

The Great Seljuk Empire

The Fragmentation of the Seljuk Realm

The Mongol Invasions

The Conquests of Genghis Khan

Reasons for Mongol Success

The Mongol Khanates: Conquest, Adaptation,and Conversion

East Asia: Khubilai Khan and His Mongol-Chinese Empire

Southwest Asia: Mongol Devastation and Muslim Resilience

Russia: Conquest, Tribute, and the Tatar Yoke

Central Asia: The Struggle to Maintain the Mongol Heritage

The Mongol Impact: Connections and Consequences

Trade and Travel: The Pax Mongolica

Exchanges of Ideas and Technologies

The Plague Pandemic

The End of the Mongol Era

Chapter Review


Chapter 16  The Resurgence of the Christian West, 1050-1530

Conflicts and Connections Between Europe and Islam

Christians and Muslims in Iberia

The First Crusade: “It Is God’s Will!”

The Muslim Response and the Later Crusades

Islamic Impacts on Western Commerce and Culture

The High Middle Ages

Agricultural Advances

The Growth of Towns and Trade

The Rise of Royal Authority

The Revitalized Roman Church

Intellectual and Cultural Developments

Exaltation of Women and Marriage

The Decline of the Middle Ages

The Avignon Popes

Famine, Plague, and Social Unrest

The Great Western Schism

Europe in Disarray

The European Renaissance

Roots and Attributes of the Renaissance

The Italian Renaissance

The Northern European Renaissance

Social and Political Effects

Chapter Review


Chapter 17 Culture and Conflict in the Great Islamic Empires, 1071-1707

The Conquests of Timur Lenk

Timur’s Strengths and Good Fortunes

Attack on the Ottomans

Timur as Warrior and Administrator

The Cosmopolitan Ottoman Empire

Ottomans and Byzantines

Mehmed the Conqueror

The Ottoman State and Society

Suleiman the Magnificent

A Faltering Empire

Safavid Persia: A Shi’ite State

Shi’ite Islam as a Unifying Force

Regional and Islamic Influence on Family and Gender Roles

The Mughal Empire: A Muslim Minority Rules India

The Delhi Sultanate in India

Babur: Founding the Mughal Empire

Akbar’s Reign of Cultural Accommodation

The Great Mughals

Chapter Review


Chapter 18 The Aztec and Inca Empires, 1300-1550

The Great Amerind Empires

The Aztec Empire

Tenochtitlán: City in the Lake

Exploitation and Human Sacrifice

Society and Culture

The Inca Empire

A Unified Empire

Society and Economy

Adaptation to the Andes

Governance and Religion

Aztec and Inca on the Eve of Invasion

The Invasion and Conquest of Mexico

The Arrival of the Spaniards

Encounter Between Aztecs and Spaniards

The End of the Aztec Empire

Reasons for the Spanish Victory

The Invasion and Conquest of Peru

Upheavals Among the Inca

Encounter Between Inca and Spaniards

Cajamarca and the End of the Inca Empire

Reasons for the Spanish Victory

Chapter Review


Chapter 19 The Global Exploration and Global empires, 1400-1700

The Iberian Impulse

Portuguese Overseas Exploration

Columbus’s Enterprise of the Indies

The Voyage of Magellan

The Portuguese Seaborne Empire

Empire in the Atlantic Ocean

Empire in the Indian and Pacific Oceans

Portugal’s Commercial Empire in 1600

The Spanish and Portuguese Empires in America

The Amerind Foundation

Slave Labor

Government and Administration

The Colonial Church

Society in the Iberian Empires

Amerinds and Europeans in North America

Coalitions and Contacts

The Coming of the Europeans

Disease and Demographic Decline

The Columbian Exchange

Chapter Review


Chapter 20 The West in an Age of Religious Conflict and GLobal Expansion, 1500-1650

The Protestant Reformation

Roots of the Reformation

The Lutheran Revolt

The Rising Tide of Rebellion

Henry VIII and the English Reformation

Calvin and the Elect

The Spread of Protestantism

The Catholic Counterreformation

The Council of Trent

The Roman and Spanish Inquisitions

New Religious Orders

Religious and Political Strife in Europe

The Spanish Catholic Crusade

The Wars of Religion in France

The Thirty Years War

The Globalization of Western Christianity and Commerce

Catholicism’s Global Expansion

Merchant Capitalism and Global Trade

Colonies, Commerce, and Religion

Western Society in an Age of Religious and Economic Change

Warfare, Disease, and Witch Hunts

Social Effects of Economic Expansion

Family, Gender, Education, and Diet

Changes in the Role of Religion

Chapter Review


Part IV: The Shift From Regional To Global Connections, 1500–1800


Chapter 21 The Search for Stability in East Asia, 1300–1800

The Search for Stability in Japan and Korea

Rebellions, Warring States, and Intruders

The Unification of Japan

Korea and the Japanese Invasion

Japan Under Tokugawa Rule

The Tokugawa Shoguns

The Evolution of Japanese Society

Urban Culture and the Roles of Women

The Search for Stability in China

The Ming Ascendancy

Sources of Ming Stagnation

Domestic and Foreign Trade

Intruders from Europe and Japan

Calamity and Rebellion

The Qing Empire

The Manchu Conquest

Kangxi and the Consolidation of Manchu Rule

The Jesuits in China: Cultural Connections and Controversy

The Height of the Qing Regime

Vietnam Under Chinese Sway: Expansion and Foreign Influence

Chinese Culture and Society in the Ming and Qing Eras

Civil Service, Scholarship, and the State

Popular Culture and Commerce

Village Farming and Population Growth

The Functions of the Chinese Family

Chapter Review


Chapter 22 Southern Asia and the Global Shift in Wealth and Power, 1500–1800

Confrontation: Europe and Islam in Southern Asia

The Indian Ocean Trade

Shifting Balances of Power and Commerce

Transformation of the Indian Subcontinent

Europeans Arrive in India

The Mughals in Decline

The Crisis of Islamic India

British and French Rivalry in India

Muslims and Europeans in Southeast Asia

Coexistence Between Muslims and Hindus

The European Intrusion

The End of Safavid Persia

Safavid Centralization and Decline

Shi’ite Islam After the Safavids

The Ottoman Response to Europe’s Challenge

The Ottomans Lose the Initiative

Ottoman Reform and Cultural Synthesis

Wahhabism in Arabia

Chapter Review


Chapter 23 Africa and the Atlantic Slave Trade, 1400–1800

Africa’s Diverse Societies

Slavery and the Slave Trade in Africa

African Slavery

The Trans-Sahara Slave Trade

African Slaves in the Islamic World

The Atlantic Slave Trade

The Africans and the Portuguese

Sugar and the Slave Trade

The Atlantic Trading System

The Capture and Transport of Slaves

African Slaves in the Americas

Riches, Race, and Racism

The Transformation of Africa

The Reorientation of West Africa

The Depopulation of Central Africa

The Contest for East Africa

South Africa and the Dutch

The Impact on Africa of the Atlantic Slave Trade

Demographic Dislocation

Disruption of Family Life

African Slaves and the Global Shift in Wealth and Power

Chapter Review


Chapter 24 Absolutism and Enligtenment in Europe, 1600–1763

The Age of Absolutism

The French Model of Absolute Government

Absolutism in Central Europe

The English Alternative to Absolutism

Europe’s Intellectual Revolution

The Scientific Revolution

The Enlightenment

Absolutism and Enlightenment

Absolutism and Enlightenment in Prussia and Austria

Unenlightened Monarchy in England and France

Chapter Review


Chapter 25 Russia's Eurasian Empire: Convergence of East and West, 1300–1800

Russia’s Eastern Orientation

The Byzantine and Mongol Heritage

The Rise of Moscow

Ivan the Terrible and His Impact

The Early Romanovs and the Russian Church Schism

Muscovite Culture and Society

Russia’s Expansion Across Asia

Russia’s Western Reorientation

Peter the Great: Westernization and War

Elizabeth I: Culture, Elegance, and Conflict

Catherine the Great: Enlightenment and Expansion

Russia’s Eurasian Society

Chapter Review


Part V: Revolution, Industry, Ideology, And Empire, 1750–1914


Chapter 26 The North Atlantic Revolutions, 1750–1830

The Background of the Atlantic Revolutions

New Ideas About Government and Society

The Seven Years War

The American Revolution

Tensions Between Britain and Its Colonists

Clashes in the Colonies

The Revolutionary War

Consequences of the American Revolution

The French Revolution

The Estates General and the Onset of Revolution

The Constitutional Monarchy and Its Demise

The National Convention and the Reign of Terror

The Role of the Lower Classes

The Directory and the Rise of Napoleon

The Consulate: Consolidation of the Revolution

The Revolution and the Rights of Women

The Haitian Revolution

The Saint-Domingue Slave Colony

The Revolt of Toussaint Louverture

The Success and Impact of the Revolution

The Napoleonic Empire

The Formation and Expansion of the Empire

The Russian Campaign and the Empire’s Collapse

Restoration and Rebellion

The Congress of Vienna and the Congress System

Renewed Attempts at Revolution

Chapter Review


Chapter 27 Industry, Ideology, and their Global Impact, 1700–1914

The Industrial Revolution in Britain

Agricultural Advances and Population Growth

Cotton and Its Connections

The Steam Engine and Its Impact

Industrial Britain: Workshop of the World

Industry’s Early Spread and Social Impact

Industrialization in Europe and North America

Mechanization and Urbanization

Family and Society in the Industrial Age

New Ideas and Ideologies

Liberalism and Socialism

Nationalism and Romanticism

The European Impact of Industry and Ideology

Reform and Revolution in Europe, 1832–1849

Liberalism, Nationalism, and Industrial Growth, 1850–1914

The Global Impact of Industry and Ideology

Industry, Technology, and Global Trade

The Great Global Migrations

Industry, Technology, and Imperialism

Nationalism, Liberalism, and Racism

Responses to Western Domination

Chapter Review


Chapter 28 Nation Building in the Americas, 1789–1914

The Trials and Triumphs of The United States

Unification and Consolidation

Expansion and Social Division

North Against South

Industry, Immigration, and Overseas Commitments

The Consolidation and Expansion of Canada

French and British Colonization of Canada

Dominion, Expansion, and Ethnic Anxieties

The Revolutions of Latin America

Preconditions for Revolution

Regional Character of the Spanish American Revolutions

Independence Movements in South America

Failure and Eventual Success in Mexico

From Colony to Empire in Brazil

Mexico from Santa Anna to Díaz

La Reforma

Social Structure and the Porfiriato

Argentina and Chile: Contrasts in The Southern Cone

Argentina from Rivadavia to Rosas

Modernization: Society, Women, and the Economy

Chilean Institutionalization

Social Stratification and Inequality

Brazil’s Experiment with Empire

The Long Reign of Pedro II

Slavery, Society, and Imperial Collapse

Chapter Review


Chapter 29 New Connections and Challenges in Easter and Souther Asia, 1800–1912

Instability and Endurance in China

China’s Internal Problems

The Opium Trade and Its Impact

The Taiping Rebellion and China’s Disintegration

The Dynasty’s Survival and Regional “Self-Strengthening”

Subordination and Resistance in India

Commercial Connections and Cultural Conflicts

The Indian Revolt of 1857

The Rise of Indian Nationalism

Restoration and Adaptation in Japan

The Tokugawa Shogunate and the Western Challenge

Civil War and Meiji Restoration

Centralization and Western Adaptations

The Impact of Imperialism in Asia

Southeast Asia and the West

Indonesia and the Dutch

Japan Versus China in Korea

The Scramble for Chinese Concessions

The Chinese and Japanese Response

The Boxer Uprising in China

The Russo-Japanese War

The End of the Chinese Empire

Chapter Review


Chapter 30 New Connections and Challenges in West Asia and Africa, 1800–1914

Changing Patterns in West Asia and North Africa

Reform and Rebellion in the Ottoman Empire

The Tanzimat and the Young Turks

The Transformation of Egypt

The Suez Canal and Its Impact

The Origins of Arab Nationalism in West Asia

The Plight of the Maghrib

Changing Patterns in Sub-Saharan Africa

The Banning of the Slave Trade

New Economic Patterns

The Rise of New Regional States

The Age of Imperialism in Africa

Factors that Facilitated Imperialism

The Colonization of the Congo Basin

Global Trade and the Occupation of Egypt

The Imperial Scramble

The Roots of African Resistance

Diamonds, Gold, and Diversity in South Africa

The Impact of Empire on Africa

Economic and Social Implications

The Impact of Western Ideals and Institutions

African Resistance to Colonial Rule

Chapter Review


Part VI: Global Upheavals and Global Integration, 1900–Present


Chapter 31 The Great War and the Russian Revolutions, 1890–1918

The Path to War and Revolution

The Diplomatic Revolution of 1890–1907

The Crises of 1908–1913

The Crisis of July 1914

Deadlock and Devastation, 1914–1916

Stalemate on the Western Front

Efforts to Break the Stalemate

The War Against Germany’s Colonies

Civilian Life During the Great War

Year of Revolution, 1917

The United States Enters the War

Mutinies in the French Army

The Russian Revolutions

Year of Decision, 1918

Russian Withdrawal from the War

The Great March Offensive and Influenza Pandemic

Decision in Southwest Asia

The Path to the Armistice

Chapter Review


Chapter 32 Anxieties and Ideologies of the Interwar Years, 1918–1939

Western Society and Culture in an Age of Anxiety

The Rise of Relativism and Relativity

Technology and Popular Culture

Changes in the Role of Women

Architecture, Art, and Literatrure

Democracy, Depression, and Dictatorship

The Versailles Settlement

Democracy and Dictatorship in Eastern Europe

Fascism in Italy

The Great Depression and Its Global Impact

The New Deal in the United States

Democracy and Socialism in Western Europe

Communism in Russia

National Socialism in Germany

New Varieties of Nationalism in Africa and Asia

Nationalism and Anticolonialism in Africa

Secular and Islamic Nationalism in the Middle East

Nationalism and Nonviolence in India

Nationalism and Communism in China

Nationalism and Militarism in Japan

Chapter Review


Chapter 33 World War II and the Holocaust, 1933–1945

The Road to War

Germany Prepares, 1933–1936

Civil War in Spain, 1936–1939

Germany’s Eastward Expansion

Hitler’s War, 1939–1941

From Poland to France

The Battle of Britain

The German Invasion of Russia

East Asia and the Pacific, 1937–1942

The New Order in East Asia

Japan Strikes in the Pacific

End of the Japanese Advance

North Africa and Europe, 1942–1943

The Battle for North Africa

Stalingrad and Kursk

Civilian Life in World War II

Resistance to Nazi Rule

Nazi Mass Murder

Extermination Camps

The Implementation of Mass Murder

The Question of Responsibility

The Defeat of Germany, 1944–1945

Squeezing Germany Between West and East

Allied Victory in Europe

The Defeat of Japan

The American Strategy

The Japanese Empire Contracts

Atomic Weapons

The Legacy of World War II

Chapter Review


Chapter 34 East Versus West: Cold War and its Global Impact, 1945-Present

Origins of the Cold War

The Yalta and Potsdam Conferences

Divided Europe: The “Iron Curtain”

The Truman Doctrine and Marshall Plan

The Berlin Blockade and NATO

The Global Confrontation

New Realities and New Leaders

Decolonization and Global Cold War

Peaceful Coexistence and Its Problems

Berlin, Cuba, Vietnam, and MAD

The West in the Cold War Era

The Revival of Western Europe

Affluence and Anxieties in America

The Soviet Bloc

Life Under Communist Rule

Challenges to Soviet Authority

The End of the Cold War Era

Détente and Its Demise

The Gorbachev Revolution

Collapse of the Communist Bloc

Disintegration of the USSR

The World Transformed

Chapter Review


Chapter 35 The Upheavals of Asia, 1945-Present

Independence and Conflict in India and Pakistan

Independence and Partition

India: Democracy, Progress, and Problems

Pakistan: Dictatorship and Division

Revival and Resurgence of Japan

Japan’s Economic Miracle

Problems Amid Prosperity

Conflict and Division in China and Korea

Civil War in China: Communists Versus Nationalists

Divided China: Taiwan and the People’s Republic

Occupation, Partition, and Conflict in Korea

Divided Korea: Communist North, Capitalist South

Radicalism and Pragmatism in Communist China

Early Radical Reforms

The Great Leap Forward and Its Failure

The Great Proletarian Cultural Revolution

China’s Opening to the West

China After Mao: Economic Freedom, Political Repression

The Agonies of Southeast Asia and Indonesia

Vietminh, France, and the First Indochina War

Vietnam, America, and the Second Indochina War

The Cambodian Catastrophe

Indonesia Between East and West

Changes in Asian Societies

Industry, Technology, Population, and Urbanization

Changing Family and Gender Roles

Chapter Review


Chapter 36  Reform and Revolution in Latin America, 1914-Present

Latin America and the World Since 1914

Connections: Latin America in the Global Economy

Conflict: Latin America and Global War

Connections and Conflict: Latin America and the United States

Democracy and Dictatorship in Latin America

Argentina: The Failure of Political Leadership

Brazil: Development and Inequality

Chile: Socialism, Militarism, and Democracy

Mexico: The Legacy of the Revolution

Six Regional Transitions

Gender Roles






Chapter Review


Chapter 37  Post-Colonial Challenges in Africa and the Middle East, 1939-Present

The Context of African Decolonization

The Impact of World War II

European Preparations for Colonial Autonomy

The Transformation of Africa After 1945

African Nationalism and the Cold War

North Africa

Sub-Saharan Africa

From Apartheid to Freedom in South Africa

Challenges Facing Independent Africa

Politics: Democracy or Dictatorship?

Economic Underdevelopment

Social Challenges: Poverty, Ignorance, Disease

The Transformation of The Middle East

The State of Israel and the Palestinian Conflict

Arab Nationalism and the Arab-Israeli Wars

The Development of Islamist Fundamentalism

Persian Gulf Wars and Global Terrorism

Chapter Review



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