9780691049809

Conservation - Linking Ecology, Economics, and Culture

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780691049809

  • ISBN10:

    0691049807

  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2004-11-29
  • Publisher: Princeton Univ Pr

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Summary

Nearly 90 percent of the earth's land surface is directly affected by human infrastructure and activities, yet less than 5 percent is legally "protected" for biodiversity conservation--and even most large protected areas have people living inside their boundaries. In all but a small fraction of the earth's land area, then, conservation and people must coexist.Conservationis a resource for all those who aim to reconcile biodiversity with human livelihoods. It traces the historical roots of modern conservation thought and practice, and explores current perspectives from evolutionary and community ecology, conservation biology, anthropology, political ecology, economics, and policy. The authors examine a suite of conservation strategies and perspectives from around the world, highlighting the most innovative and promising avenues for future efforts. Exploring, highlighting, and bridging gaps between the social and natural sciences as applied in the practice of conservation, this book provides a broad, practically oriented view. It is essential reading for anyone involved in the conservation process--from academic conservation biology to the management of protected areas, rural livelihood development to poverty alleviation, and from community-based natural resource management to national and global policymaking.

Author Biography

Monique Borgerhoff Mulder is Professor of Anthropology at the University of California, Davis Peter Coppolillo received a Ph.D. in Ecology from the University of California, Davis, and now works for the Wildlife Conservation Society, directing the Rungwa-Ruaha Landscape Conservation Program in central Tanzania

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Commonly Used Abbreviations xix
The Many Roads to Conservation
Introduction
1(1)
Principal Threats to Biodiversity
2(1)
Why Conserve Nature? Instrumental Values
3(8)
The Links between Health and Conservation
9(1)
Much More Than Stocks of Wood
10(1)
Intrinsic Values
11(4)
Ecophilosophies
12(3)
The Changing Practice of Conservation: First, Protection
15(1)
Man versus Nature: From Hunters to Penitent Butchers
17
Then Resource Management
16(4)
Leading to Game Management, Multiple Use, and Broader Conservation Goals
20(2)
Early Environmentalists in the Colonies
23
Conclusion
22(5)
The Evolution of Policy
27(26)
Introduction
27(1)
Global Conservation and Protected Areas
28(3)
Ancient Royal Forests
29(2)
The Limits and Legacies of Protectionism
31(6)
Reserves: Their Comings and Goings in Peninsular Malaysia
35(3)
Coercive Conservation: Tigers, Lions, Carrots, and Sticks
38
Conservation ``with a Human Face''
37(7)
The Evolution of Biosphere Reserves
40(2)
Sustainability---Mere Hopes about the Future
42(1)
The Ivory Wars: Debates over Utilization
43(1)
The Rise of Community-Based Conservation
44(5)
Integrated Conservation and Development in Action: Annapurna
48(1)
Imperiled Parks
49(1)
Conclusion
50(3)
The Natural Science behind it All
53(28)
Introduction
53(1)
From Natural History Comes Ecology and its Golden Age
54(6)
Stability and Equilibrium
57(2)
Maximum Sustainable Yield
59(1)
Things Get Messy: Disturbance and Disequilibrium
60(7)
Stability, Pastoralism, and Opportunism
63(1)
Adaptive Management
64(2)
Ecological Sustainability: Still a Slippery Term
66(1)
A Brave New Science: Conservation Biology
67(3)
The Fire-Brigade Discipline Comes of Age
70(5)
Conservation Planning
75(4)
Prioritizing Conservation Efforts
76(3)
Conclusion
79(2)
Indigenous Peoples as Conservationists
81(23)
Introduction
81(1)
Cultural and Biological Diversity
81(1)
Cultural and Biological Diversity in Central and Southern America
83
Guardians of Biodiversity
82(7)
Traditional Ecological Knowledge and Adaptive Management
86(2)
Sacred Groves
88(1)
Ecological Impacts of Traditional Ways of Life
89(7)
Rapa Nui (Easter Island) Extinctions
90(6)
The Long Shadow of an Ecologically Noble Savage
96(5)
Transitions in Ecological Noble Savage Thinking
98(2)
The Kayapo Controversy
100(1)
Revisiting Cultural and Biological Diversity
101(2)
Conclusion
103(1)
Conservation and Self-Interest
104(25)
Introduction
104(1)
An Evolutionary Viewpoint
105(2)
Design of a Conservation Act
107(3)
Prudent Predators?
108(2)
An Intention to Conserve
110(1)
Family Hunting Territories in Subarctic Canada
112
Ecological Outcomes
111(3)
Humans as Top Predators
115
Conservation---Where, When, and Why?
114(4)
Selling the Forest for Instant Returns
117(1)
Expanding the Toolkit
118(2)
Studying Hunting with Hunters in Paraguay's Mbaracayu Reserve
121
Policy Implications
120(5)
Evolutionary Aesthetics and the ``Savanna Hypothesis''
126
Conclusion
125(4)
Rational Fools and the Commons
129(27)
Introduction
129(1)
The Rational Fool Fumbles the Common Good
130(3)
Freedom in the Commons Brings Ruin to All
132(1)
Commons Classics
133(3)
Changes in the Management of the Kenya Orma Commons
137
The Cooperation Game
136(7)
Experimental Games in Economics
139(3)
Asymmetries among Herders: The Barabaig Case
142(1)
Culture, Norms, and Cooperation
143(3)
Coordinating the Subaks of Bali
145(1)
The Study of Common-Property Institutions
146(3)
Property Rights, Management, and Sustainable Outcomes
149(6)
Reviving Traditions in Sagarmatha National Park
151(3)
Social Forestry: Bihar and Beyond
154(1)
Conclusion
155(1)
The Bigger Picture
156(25)
Introduction
156(1)
What is Political Ecology?
157(3)
The Hen Has Starting Crowing
161
Tropical Forest Destruction and Population Growth
160(6)
IPAT
163(4)
Leviathan Rules
167
Biodiversity and its Human Dimensions
166(6)
Forest Islands in Guinea: Are They Man-Made?
169(2)
Social Ecology
171(1)
Community as a Casualty
172(4)
Co-Management in a Landscape of Resistance: The Case of Alaska's Yup'ik
177
Where's the Ecology?
176(3)
Conclusion
179(2)
Local People and International Conservation
181(29)
Introduction
181(1)
Indigenous Movements and Conservationists
181(4)
Chipko: Grassroots Environmentalism with a Sting in its Tail
183(2)
Room for Alliance, or Cover for Dalliance?
185(9)
Environmentalists Find Common Cause with Rainforest Dayak Peoples
187(4)
Enforced Primitivism and the ``Bushman Problem''
191(2)
``Forget about Gola Forest!''
193(1)
Bioprospecting or Biopiracy?
194(6)
Drug Development and Conservation in West and Central Africa
199(1)
Green Consumerism
200(3)
Conservation through Self-Determination
203(4)
Whatever Happened to PEMASKY?
206(1)
The View from the Other Side
207(2)
Conclusion
209(1)
Global Issues, Economics, and Policy
210(28)
Introduction
210(1)
Ecological Economics and Environmental Valuation
211(7)
Does Kenya Profit from Protectionism? Ecological Economic Calculations
216(2)
Business---Dancing with the Devil?
218(6)
Harnessing the International Market: Innovative Incentive Mechanisms
220(3)
The Business of Game Ranching
223(1)
Buying a Nature Reserve
224(3)
International Policy Initiatives: Who Pays?
227(6)
Debt-for-Nature Swaps
231(2)
What Are the Rules?
233(4)
Conclusion
237(1)
From How to Think to How to Act
238(36)
Introduction
238(1)
Protectionism in the Name of Science
238(3)
Protected Area Outreach
241(3)
Outreach in Tanzania
243(1)
Conservation Education
244(4)
The Saint Lucia Parrot's Comeback
245(3)
Ecotourism
248(6)
Trouble in Paradise? The Galapagos Archipelago
250(4)
Integrated Conservation and Development
254(8)
``A Lemur Will Have to Meet You at the Airport'': The ICD Project at Ranomafana
256(5)
CAMPFIRE under Fire
261(1)
Extractive Reserves
262(5)
Extraction and the Maya Biosphere Reserve
264(3)
Monitoring and Evaluation
267(5)
Conclusion
272(2)
Red Flags: Still Seeing Things in Black and White?
274(29)
Introduction
274(1)
No Development without Tears, and Other Debates
274(5)
Working for Water in South Africa
276(3)
Integrative and Novel Solutions
279(16)
Community-Based Protected Areas
279(2)
Flagging the Varzea in Brazil's Mamiraua Reserve
281(1)
Dealing with Commerce
282(2)
Even in the Last Place on Earth: Exploitation and Conservation in Nouabale Ndoki
284(1)
Direct Payments
284(3)
Co-management
287(2)
Co-management in Australia's Kakadu National Park
289(3)
Fisheries Co-management in the Philippines: The Case of San Salvador
292
Participation and Capacity-Building
291(4)
Spatial Scale and Integrating Conservation and Development
295(2)
Means and Ends: The Many Orthogonal Axes of Conservation in Practice
297(5)
Conclusion
302(1)
Bibliography 303(38)
Index 341

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