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9780314158857

Constitutional Law

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780314158857

  • ISBN10:

    0314158855

  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-12-12
  • Publisher: West Group

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

This Black Letter discusses the allocations of national and state governmental power, individual rights and liberties, and the constitutional limitations on governmental power. Topics covered include the Dormant Commerce Clause, abortion, fundamental rights and due process, takings, equal protection, First Amendment and content-based regulations, and freedom of religion.

Table of Contents

Capsule Summary of Constitutional Law 1(70)
Perspective 71(16)
PART ONE: THE ALLOCATION OF GOVERNMENTAL POWER: NATIONAL AND STATE
Judicial Review
87(40)
Establishing Judicial Review
88(2)
``Judicial Review'' Defined
88(1)
Review of Federal Action
88(1)
Reviewing Acts of Congress---Marbury v. Madison
88(1)
Reviewing Executive Action
89(1)
Review of State Action
90(1)
Source of Judicial Power: Article III Jurisdiction
90(4)
Federal ``Judicial Power'' Defined
91(1)
Art. III and Art. I Courts
91(1)
Subject Matter Jurisdiction
91(1)
Congressional Control
91(1)
Supreme Court Jurisdiction
92(1)
Original Jurisdiction
93(1)
Appellate Jurisdiction---Congressional Power to Confer and Withdraw
93(1)
Essential Functions: Internal Restraints
93(1)
Rights and Liberties: External Restraints
93(1)
Discretionary Review
94(1)
Certiorari
94(1)
Basis for Review
94(1)
Constitutional and Policy Limitations on Judicial Review
94(4)
Constitutional Limitations
95(1)
Eleventh Amendment
95(1)
State Immunity
95(1)
Waiver
95(1)
Congressional Limitations
96(1)
Unconstitutional Official Acts
96(1)
Case and Controversy
97(1)
No Advisory Opinions
97(1)
Declaratory Judgments
97(1)
Policy Limitations (Judicial Self Restraint)
98(1)
Rules for Constitutional Review
98(1)
Presumption of Constitutionality
98(1)
Judicial Restraint
98(1)
Congressional Role
98(1)
Specific Doctrines---Limiting Judicial Review
98(26)
The Standing Limitation---Who Can Litigate?
98(1)
Constitutional Standing
98(1)
General Standards
98(1)
``Injury in Fact''
99(4)
Causation---``Fairly Traceable''
103(2)
Redressability
105(1)
Taxpayer and Citizen Standing
106(1)
Federal Taxpayers
106(1)
State Taxpayers
107(1)
Citizen Standing
107(1)
Statutory Standing
108(3)
Prudential Standing
111(1)
Third Party Standing---Raising the Rights of Others
111(3)
Associational Standing
114(1)
The Timing Limitation---When Can Constitutional Litigation Be Brought?
114(1)
Mootness
114(3)
Ripeness, Prematurity and Abstractness
117(3)
Discretionary Abstention
120(1)
Vagueness
120(1)
Pending State Proceedings
120(1)
The Subject Matter Limitation---What Can Be Litigated?
121(1)
The Political Question Doctrine
121(1)
Classic Doctrine
121(1)
Functional Considerations
121(1)
Prudential Considerations
121(2)
Adequate and Independent State Grounds
123(1)
Substantive Rules
123(1)
Procedural Rules
123(1)
Review Questions
124(3)
National Legislative Powers
127(30)
The Scope of the National Legislative Power
128(3)
Express Powers
128(1)
Implied Powers
128(1)
``Necessary and Proper'' Clause
128(1)
Interpretation of ``Necessary and Proper''
128(2)
Inherent Powers
130(1)
Delegation of Powers
130(1)
The Tenth Amendment
130(1)
The Supremacy Clause
130(1)
Commerce Power
131(11)
Definition
131(1)
Territorial Movement
131(1)
A Broader Commerce Power
131(1)
The Regulatory Power
131(1)
Achieving Social Welfare Through the Commerce Power---A National Police Power?
131(1)
Prohibiting Commerce
132(1)
Pretext Principle
132(1)
Protective Principle---The Modern View
132(1)
Stream of Commerce
133(1)
Instrumentalities of Commerce
133(1)
The Affectation Doctrine
134(1)
Regulating Local Activities
134(1)
Direct-Indirect Test
134(1)
The Modern Affectation Doctrine
135(1)
Substantial Effects
135(1)
Cumulative Effects
135(1)
Restricting the Commerce Power
136(3)
Affectation after Lopez and Morrison
139(3)
Narrowing Construction
142(1)
The Taxing Power
142(2)
Objective Constitutionality
143(1)
The Penalty Doctrine
143(1)
Modern Trend
144(1)
Self-Incrimination
144(1)
The Spending Power
144(3)
General Welfare
144(1)
Reasonable Conditions
145(1)
Constitutional Limitations
145(2)
Spending as a Contract: Explicit Conditions
147(1)
Intergovernmental Immunities
147(6)
State Taxation and Regulation
148(1)
Federal Taxation and Regulation
148(1)
Federal Taxation of States
148(1)
Federal Regulation of States
148(5)
Review Questions
153(4)
State Power in American Federalism
157(34)
State Power to Regulate Commerce
159(24)
Establishing the Foundations
159(1)
The Nature of the Power---Exclusive or Concurrent
159(1)
The Commerce Power Is, at Least Partially, a Shared Power
159(1)
Primacy of Federal Regulation
160(1)
The Nature of the Subject---The Cooley Doctrine
160(1)
The Modern Focus: The Dormant Commerce Clause
160(1)
Rationale
161(1)
Common Market Philosophy
161(1)
A Political Rationale
161(1)
Direct and Indirect Effects
161(1)
The Modern Standards
161(1)
Discrimination
161(1)
Intentional Discrimination
161(1)
Discriminatory Means and Effects
162(8)
Undue Burdens---Ad Hoc Balancing
170(1)
Important State Interests
170(1)
Trade, Conservation, Environment
171(3)
Transportation
174(1)
State as Market Participant
174(2)
Protecting Personal Mobility Through the Dormant Commerce Clause
176(1)
Interstate Privileges and Immunities
176(3)
When Congress Speaks
179(1)
Preemption
179(2)
Legitimizing State Burdens on Commerce
181(2)
The Compact Clause
183(1)
State Power to Tax Commerce
183(5)
General Principles
184(1)
Concurrent Power
184(1)
Discrimination
184(1)
Due Process
184(1)
Interstate Commerce
184(1)
``Multiple Burdens''
184(1)
Apportionment
185(1)
Modern Applications
185(3)
Review Questions
188(3)
Congress and Executive Power
191(20)
The Domestic Arena
192(8)
Executive Law-Making
192(1)
Limited Domestic Law-Making Powers
192(1)
Veto Power
193(1)
Executive Impoundment
194(1)
Justification
194(1)
Critique
194(1)
Delegation and Control of Legislative Power
194(1)
Legislative Delegation
194(2)
The Legislative Veto
196(1)
The Appointment and Removal Power
196(1)
The Appointment Power
196(2)
The Removal Power
198(1)
Executive Removal
198(1)
Congressional Removal
198(1)
Separation of Powers Generally
199(1)
The Foreign Arena
200(4)
Foreign Affairs
200(1)
Presidential Powers
200(1)
Congressional Powers
200(1)
Shared Powers
201(1)
Treaties and Executive Agreements
201(1)
Treaties
201(1)
Executive Agreements
201(1)
Supremacy
201(1)
Self-Executing Treaties
202(1)
The War Power
202(1)
Shared Power
202(1)
Declaring and Making War
203(1)
War Powers Resolution
203(1)
The Militia Clauses
203(1)
Military Detentions
203(1)
Privileges and Immunities
204(3)
Executive Privilege
204(1)
Limitations
204(1)
Unsettled Areas
204(1)
Impeachment
205(1)
Grounds
205(1)
Procedure
205(1)
Unsettled Questions
206(1)
Presidential Immunity
206(1)
Congressional Immunity
206(1)
Review Questions
207(4)
PART TWO: INDIVIDUAL RIGHTS AND LIBERTIES: CONSTITUTIONAL LIMITATIONS ON GOVERNMENTAL POWER
Historical Perspectives
211(6)
The Original Constitution
212(1)
Natural Rights
212(1)
Express Rights
212(1)
Bill of Rights
212(1)
The Civil War Amendments
213(1)
Subsequent Amendments
213(1)
The Thirteenth Amendment
213(1)
The Fourteenth Amendment
213(1)
The Fifteenth Amendment
213(1)
Privileges and Immunities of National Citizenship
213(2)
The Slaughterhouse Cases
213(1)
Function of the Clause
214(1)
Rationale
214(1)
Recent Revival
214(1)
Review Questions
215(2)
Due Process of Law
217(60)
Ex Post Facto Laws
218(3)
Constitutional Text
218(1)
Criminal Punishment
218(2)
Civil Laws
220(1)
Bills of Attainder
221(1)
Constitutional Text
221(1)
Punishment Without Trial
221(1)
Impairment of Obligation of Contract
222(2)
Constitutional Text
222(1)
Present Scope
222(1)
Judicial Construction
222(1)
Private Contracts
222(1)
Public Contracts
223(1)
The Takings Clause
224(8)
Taking Property
224(1)
Constitutional Text
224(1)
What Is a ``Taking''
224(1)
Regulatory Takings
224(1)
Reasonable Regulation
224(3)
Categorical (Per Se) Takings
227(2)
Conditional Takings
229(2)
Public Use
231(1)
Due Process: The Incorporation Process
232(1)
Total Incorporation
232(1)
Flexible Due Process
232(1)
Selective Incorporation
232(1)
Standard of Incorporation
232(1)
Provisions Not Incorporated
233(1)
Full and Partial Incorporation
233(1)
Traditional Substantive Due Process
233(4)
The Rise and Fall of Economic Substantive Due Process
234(1)
Rise of Economic Substantive Due Process
234(1)
Decline of Economic Substantive Due Process
234(1)
Modern Substantive Due Process: Non-Fundamental Rights
235(2)
Substantive Due Process Revisited: The Right of Privacy and Other Unenumerated Rights
237(18)
Fundamental Rights
237(1)
Express, Implied and Unenumerated Rights
237(1)
Contraception and Abortion
238(1)
The Privacy Right
238(1)
The Roe v. Wade Revolution and Reaction
239(1)
The Uncertain Effect of Casey
240(3)
Privacy Rights of Minors
243(1)
Abortion Funding
244(1)
Sodomy Laws
245(1)
The Bowers v. Hardwick Precedent
245(1)
Bowers v. Hardwick Overruled
245(2)
Rights to Marriage and Family Life
247(2)
The Right of Travel
249(1)
Right of Interstate Movement
249(1)
Right of Foreign Travel
250(1)
The Right to Care and Protection
250(1)
The Right to Refuse Treatment
251(1)
The Right to Die
252(1)
Rights in Restricted Environments
253(2)
Procedural Due Process
255(17)
What Is ``Property''?
256(1)
What Is ``Liberty''?
257(1)
What Is a ``Deprivation''?
258(1)
Due Process Contexts
258(1)
Welfare Rights
258(1)
The Statutory Entitlement Concept
258(1)
Balancing to Determine Fairness
258(1)
The Right to Use and Possess Property: Constitutionalizing the Consumer Credit Relationship
259(1)
Wages as a Property Interest
259(1)
Contingent Interests in Property
259(1)
Employment Rights of the Public Sector
260(1)
Conditions of Employment
260(1)
Employment at Will---Conditional Property Interests
261(1)
Institutional Due Process
262(3)
Parental Rights
265(1)
Student Rights
266(1)
Access to Courts
267(1)
Filing and Record Fees
267(1)
Effective Access
268(1)
Miscellaneous
269(2)
Conclusive Presumptions
271(1)
Review Questions
272(5)
Equal Protection
277(62)
General Standards
278(1)
Constitutional Text
278(1)
Unreasonable Classification
278(1)
Standards of Reasonableness
278(1)
Traditional Equal Protection
278(5)
The Rational Basis Test
278(2)
Rationality With Bite
280(3)
Heightened Review Equal Protection
283(51)
Suspect Classifications
283(1)
Criteria of Suspectness
283(1)
Purpose, Not Effect
283(4)
Legislation and Administration
287(1)
The Rationale and Limits of Suspectness
288(1)
Race and National Origin
288(2)
Segregation in Education
290(1)
De Jure Segregation
290(1)
De Facto Segregation
290(1)
Duty to Desegregate
290(1)
Desegregation: Balancing, Quotas and Busing
291(2)
Interdistrict Segregation
293(1)
Resegregation
293(1)
Affirmative Action
294(11)
Alienage---The ``Sometimes Suspect'' Classification
305(1)
Compelling Justification
305(1)
Political Functions Exception
306(1)
Preemption
307(1)
Federal Discrimination
307(1)
Gender Classifications
308(1)
Sex Discrimination
308(4)
Discriminatory Purpose
312(1)
Non-sex Classifications
312(1)
Affirmative Action
313(1)
Mothers and Fathers
314(1)
Illegitimacy Classifications
315(1)
Wealth and Age
316(1)
Mental Retardation
317(1)
Sexual Orientation
317(1)
Fundamental Rights and Interests
318(1)
First Amendment Rights
319(1)
The Right to Travel
319(2)
The Right of Sexual Privacy
321(1)
Right to Marry
321(1)
Voting
322(1)
Exercising the Franchise
322(1)
Voting Qualifications
322(1)
Special Purpose Districts
323(1)
Durational Residency Requirements
324(1)
The Fifteenth Amendment
324(1)
Diluting the Franchise
325(1)
Access to the Ballot
325(1)
Reapportionment
326(2)
Multi-member Districts
328(1)
Political Gerrymandering
329(1)
Inequality in Vote Processes
330(1)
Access to Justice
330(2)
Education
332(2)
Welfare
334(1)
Review Questions
334(5)
Freedom of Expression
339(134)
The Basic Doctrine of Freedom of Expression
340(12)
First Amendment Rationale
340(1)
Marketplace of Ideas
340(1)
The Citizen Participant Model
340(1)
The Individual Liberty Model
341(1)
First Amendment Methodology
341(1)
Categories of Speech
341(1)
Strict Scrutiny
342(1)
Balancing
342(1)
Content-Based v. Content-Neutral Regulation
342(1)
Content-Based Regulation
342(2)
Content-Neutral Regulation
344(2)
The Doctrine of Prior Restraint: Forms of Control
346(4)
First Amendment Vagueness and Overbreadth
350(1)
Vagueness
350(1)
Overbreadth
350(1)
Third Party Standing
351(1)
Substantial Overbreadth
351(1)
Freedom of Association and Belief
352(10)
Restraints on Membership and Associational Action
353(1)
Group Registration and Disclosure Requirement
354(2)
Restraints on Government Employment and Benefits
356(1)
General Principles
356(1)
Loyalty Programs and Loyalty Oaths
357(1)
Loyalty Programs
357(1)
Loyalty Oaths
357(1)
Positive Oaths
357(1)
Overbreadth
358(1)
Vagueness
358(1)
Individual Membership Disclosure: Bar Admission Requirements
358(1)
Political Patronage
359(2)
Legislative Investigations and Forced Disclosures
361(1)
Investigatory Power
361(1)
First Amendment Limitations
361(1)
Disclosure Requirements and Self-Incrimination
361(1)
Group Litigation
362(1)
Freedom from Compelled Expression
362(6)
Compelled Support
363(1)
Compulsory Fees and Dues
364(2)
Membership Discrimination
366(2)
The Electoral Process
368(12)
Political Speech and Association
368(5)
Regulating Political Parties
373(2)
Limitations on Contributions and Expenditures
375(1)
Campaign Spending
375(5)
Ballot Referenda
380(1)
Forced Disclosure Requirements
380(1)
Speech in the Local Forum
380(27)
Controlling Speech Content
381(1)
The Clear and Present Danger Test
381(1)
The Early Formulation
381(1)
The Doctrine Distorted
382(1)
Advocacy v. Incitement
382(1)
The Modern Test: Incitement and Danger
383(2)
The Fighting Words Doctrine
385(1)
Rationale
385(1)
Overbreadth and Vagueness
385(2)
``Protected'' Fighting Words
387(1)
Hostile Audiences
388(1)
Offensive and Abusive Language
388(1)
True Threats
389(1)
Equal Protection as a First Amendment Doctrine
390(1)
Hate Speech
391(1)
Regulating Public Property
392(1)
The Nature of the Forum
392(1)
Traditional Public Forum
393(1)
Limited or Designated Public Forum
394(1)
Nonpublic Forum
395(3)
Privately-Owned Property
398(1)
The Demand for Reasonable Regulation
399(1)
The O'Brien Standards
399(1)
Determining Reasonableness
399(1)
Speech Plus
400(1)
Sound Amplification and Interest Balancing
401(1)
Protecting the Homeowner
402(2)
Licensing, Prior Restraint and the Duty to Obey
404(1)
Facial Validity---Vagueness and Overbreadth
405(1)
The Duty to Obey
406(1)
Procedural Standards
407(1)
Symbolic Speech (Expressive Conduct)
407(3)
Is the Conduct Communicative?
407(1)
Is the Speech Protected?
407(3)
Commercial Speech
410(11)
Definition
410(1)
Applying the First Amendment
411(1)
Unprotected Commercial Speech
412(1)
The Modern Test
412(3)
Lawyer and Other Professional Advertising
415(3)
Advertising Harmful Activity
418(3)
Freedom of the Press
421(23)
Defamation
422(1)
Public Officials and Public Figures
422(1)
Rationale
422(1)
Who Is a Public Official?
423(1)
Who Is a Public Figure?
423(1)
All-Purpose Public Figures
423(1)
Limited Purpose ``Vortex'' Public Figures
423(2)
Actual Malice
425(1)
Private Figures
426(1)
Standards of Review
426(1)
Presumed and Punitive Damages
426(1)
Proof of Falsity
427(1)
The Fact-Opinion Dichotomy
427(1)
Privacy
428(1)
Invasions of Privacy
428(1)
False Light Privacy
428(1)
Disclosure of Private Facts
428(1)
Disclosure of Illegally Obtained Information
429(2)
Right of Publicity
431(1)
Intentional Infliction of Emotional Distress
431(1)
Newsgathering
432(1)
Newsman's Privilege
432(1)
Access to Public Information and Institutions
432(1)
Prisons
432(1)
Censorship of Mail
432(1)
Interviewing Prisoners
433(1)
Judicial Proceedings
433(1)
Criminal Trials
433(1)
Pretrial Proceedings
434(1)
Newsroom Searches and Seizures
435(1)
Cameras in the Courtroom
436(1)
Copyright
436(1)
Silencing Trial Participants
436(1)
Media Ride Alongs
437(1)
Regulation of Electronic Media
437(1)
Regulating Broadcasting
437(2)
Regulating Cable Television
439(3)
Regulating the Internet
442(1)
Public Access to the Media
443(1)
Public Access to the Electronic Media
443(1)
Fairness Doctrine
443(1)
A Right of Access
443(1)
Public Access to the Print Media
444(1)
Obscenity
444(12)
No First Amendment Protection
444(1)
Rationality Satisfied
444(1)
A Matter of Definition
444(1)
The Modern Definition
445(1)
Contemporary Community Standards
445(1)
No National Community Standard
445(1)
Federal Jury Standard
445(1)
Identifying ``Community'' Members
445(1)
Experts
445(1)
Appellate Review
446(1)
Defining the Relevant Audience
446(1)
The Average Person
446(1)
Variable Obscenity: Minors and Deviants
446(1)
The Demand for Specificity
446(1)
Vagueness
446(1)
Overbreadth
447(1)
Pandering
447(1)
Racketeering Laws
448(1)
Serious Value
448(1)
Privacy and Obscenity
448(1)
Civil Control of Obscenity and Indecency
449(1)
Prior Restraints
449(1)
Content-Neutral Regulation
449(1)
Vagueness and Overbreadth
450(2)
Broadcasting and Indecent Speech
452(1)
Child Pornography
452(2)
Procedural Fairness
454(1)
Administrative Regulation
454(1)
Judicial Censorship
455(1)
Search and Seizure
456(1)
Special Contexts
456(10)
Political Activity by Government Employees
456(4)
The Academic Forum
460(1)
Library Censorship
460(1)
Student Speech
460(2)
Academic Freedom
462(1)
Subsidized Speech
462(4)
Review Questions
466(7)
Freedom of Religion
473(42)
The Meaning of the ``Establishment'' Clause
474(26)
Religion in the Schools
475(1)
Released Time
475(1)
Prayers, Bible Reading, Moments of Silence and Devotional Exercises
476(2)
Teaching Religious Values
478(1)
Curriculum Control
478(1)
Covert Religious Purpose
479(1)
Equal Access
479(4)
Financial Assistance to Religious Institutions
483(1)
Public Benefits
483(1)
Financial Aid to Schools
484(1)
Elementary-Secondary v. Higher Education
485(1)
Testing, Recordkeeping, and Other Services and Equipment
486(3)
Tax Relief and Tuition Benefits
489(3)
Other Establishment Contexts
492(1)
Blue Laws
492(1)
Tax Exemptions
493(1)
Social Welfare Programs
493(1)
Legislative Prayer
494(1)
Religious Displays
494(4)
Denominational Preferences
498(1)
Internal Church Disputes
499(1)
Institutionalized Persons
499(1)
The Meaning of the ``Free Exercise'' Clause
500(10)
Belief-Conduct
501(1)
Centrality and Sincerity
501(1)
General Indirect Burdens
502(1)
Blue Laws
503(1)
Conditioning Public Welfare Benefits
503(2)
Compelled Expression
505(2)
Noncoercive Laws
507(1)
Proscribed Religious Practices
508(2)
The Meaning of Religion
510(1)
Conscientious Objection
511(1)
Review Questions
511(4)
State Action
515(16)
The State Action Requirement
516(1)
Thirteenth Amendment
516(1)
Fourteenth Amendment
516(1)
Fifteenth Amendment
517(1)
The Present Standard---State Responsibility
517(1)
Official Misconduct and Joint Action
517(1)
Action Contrary to Law
517(1)
Public Administration
517(1)
Joint Action
518(1)
Public Functions
518(2)
White Primaries
518(1)
Company Towns
519(1)
Traditionally and Exclusively Sovereign
519(1)
Significant State Involvement
520(4)
Symbiotic Relationships
520(2)
Government Regulation and Licensing
522(1)
Government Financial Support
523(1)
Encouragement, Authorization and Approval
524(4)
Neutral Law Enforcement
524(1)
Involuntary Discrimination
524(1)
Significant Encouragement
524(1)
Authorization and Approval
525(3)
Review Questions
528(3)
Congressional Legislation in Aid of Civil Rights and Liberties
531(132)
In General: Federal Legislative Jurisdiction
532(1)
Commerce Clause
532(1)
Spending Power
532(1)
Federal Rights
532(1)
Authority to Enforce Amendments
532(1)
Enforcing the Thirteenth Amendment
533(1)
Private Action Covered
533(1)
Badges of Slavery
533(1)
Enforcing the Fourteenth Amendment
534(8)
Scope of the Enforcement Power
534(2)
Constitutional Limits on Enforcement Powers
536(1)
Tenth Amendment
536(1)
Sovereign Immunity
537(3)
Private Action
540(1)
Historic Barrier
540(1)
Basis for Expansion
541(1)
The Expansionist Approach Rejected
541(1)
Thirteenth Amendment
542(1)
Enforcing the Fifteenth Amendment
542(1)
Constitutional Text
542(1)
Enforcement Clause
542(1)
Review Questions
543(4)
APPENDICES
A. Answers to Review Questions
547(36)
B. Practice Examination
583(20)
C. Text Correlation Chart
603(12)
D. Glossary
615(30)
E. Table of Cases
645(18)
F. Index
663

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