The Convergence of Race, Ethnicity, and Gender Multiple Identities in Counseling

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-02-29
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Pre- and in-service counselors get a wealth of authoritative suggestions and practical advice for working effectively with a variety of clients from today's multiculturally diverse world. Through the author's careful examination of convergence-the intersection of race, ethnicity, gender, and other primary identity constructs within the context of counseling-readers see their roles and responsibilities as agents of transformation, while recognizing the way in which dominant cultural beliefs and values furnish and perpetuate clients' feelings in both the therapeutic process and within the larger society.

Table of Contents

Imaging Diversityp. 1
Multiple Identities Definedp. 1
Multicultural Counseling and Psychology Definedp. 3
Diversity: An Overviewp. 5
A, B, and C Dimensionsp. 6
Conceptualization of the Selfp. 7
Images of Diversityp. 8
Culturep. 8
Racep. 9
Ethnicityp. 10
Genderp. 11
Sexualityp. 12
Disabilityp. 13
Socioeconomic Classp. 14
Spiritualityp. 15
Implications for Counselors and Psychologistsp. 16
Case Study: Desperationp. 16
Summaryp. 19
Multicultural Competencies and Guidelinesp. 20
Multicultural Competenciesp. 21
Competency One: Counselor Awareness of Own Cultural Values and Biasesp. 21
Competency Two: Counselor Awareness of Client's Worldviewp. 21
Competency Three: Counselor Use of Culturally Appropriate Intervention Strategiesp. 22
Guidelinesp. 24
Diversity Trainingp. 24
Assessment and Researchp. 26
Implications for Counselors and Psychologistsp. 28
Case Study: Client Identitiesp. 29
Summaryp. 31
Statused Identitiesp. 32
Identities as Status: The Contextual and Social Construction of Differences Modelp. 32
Assumptions of Hierarchical Socialization Patternsp. 34
Racismp. 35
Patriarchyp. 39
Sexismp. 40
Homophobiap. 41
Able-Bodyismp. 41
Class Elitismp. 42
Ageismp. 43
Implications for Counselors and Psychologistsp. 44
Case Study: The Difference Class Makesp. 45
Summaryp. 47
Valued Culturesp. 48
Native Americans and Alaskan Nativesp. 48
Harmony and Balancep. 48
Historyp. 49
Demographyp. 50
Social, Psychological, and Physical Health Issuesp. 52
Cultural Philosophies and Valuesp. 54
Acculturationp. 56
Case Study: A Wounded Mindp. 58
Implications for Counselors and Psychologistsp. 59
Summaryp. 60
Latinosp. 61
The Spanish, Portuguese, Indians, Asians, and Africansp. 62
Demographyp. 62
Geographyp. 63
Migratory Patterns from Mexicop. 64
Social, Psychological, and Physical Health Issuesp. 65
Migration and Acculturationp. 66
Cultural Orientation and Valuesp. 68
Implications for Counselors and Psychologistsp. 71
Case Study: Obliviousp. 72
Summaryp. 73
People of African Descentp. 74
History, CE 500-1500p. 75
The Slave Tradep. 75
Resistance to Slaveryp. 77
Demographic Trendsp. 78
Social, Psychological, and Physiological Health Issuesp. 78
Physical Appearancep. 80
Cultural Orientation and Valuesp. 81
Implications for Counselors and Psychologistsp. 85
Case Study: Anxiety Attacksp. 85
Summaryp. 87
People of Asian Descent, Native Hawaiians, and Pacific Islandersp. 88
Migratory Patternsp. 89
Demographyp. 91
Social, Psychological, and Physical Health Issuesp. 92
Acculturation and Experiences in Americap. 97
Cultural Orientation and Valuesp. 99
Implications for Counselors and Psychologistsp. 101
Case Study: Dual Diagnosisp. 101
Summaryp. 104
People of the Middle East and Arab Americansp. 105
The Africans, Asians, Europeans, and Arabsp. 106
Muslims and Arabs: Differences and Similaritiesp. 107
Migratory Patterns from the Middle Eastp. 108
Demographyp. 109
Social, Psychological, and Physical Health Issuesp. 109
Cultural Orientation and Valuesp. 112
Implications for Counselors and Psychologistsp. 113
Case Study: Perceptions of Dangerousnessp. 114
Summaryp. 115
Converging Identitiesp. 116
Converging Racep. 116
The Social Construction of Racep. 116
Race and Sciencep. 119
Origins of Racial Groupsp. 121
Racial and Ethnic Identity Developmentp. 122
Ethnic Identityp. 123
Native American Identityp. 124
Asian American Identity Developmentp. 125
African American Racial Identityp. 126
Latino Identity Developmentp. 128
White Racial Identity Developmentp. 130
Optimal Theory Applied to Identity Developmentp. 132
Implications for Counselors and Psychologistsp. 133
Case Study: Teaching Privilege to the Privilegedp. 135
Summaryp. 137
Converging Biracial and Multiracial Identitiesp. 138
Definitionsp. 139
Demographyp. 139
The One-Drop Rulep. 142
The Fluidity of Racep. 144
Biracial and Multiracial Identity Developmentp. 145
Research and Biracial and Multiracial Populationsp. 147
Biracial Identity Developmentp. 147
Case Study: Denial of Selfp. 149
Summaryp. 152
Converging Genderp. 153
Gender Definitionsp. 154
Gender and Biologyp. 155
The Social Construction of Genderp. 155
Undoing Genderp. 160
Sex and Gender Rolesp. 162
Gender and Emotionp. 162
Gender and the Bodyp. 164
Gender and Experiences in Therapyp. 168
Gender Identity Modelsp. 170
The Womanist Modelp. 170
White Male Identity Development Modelp. 171
Implications for Counselors and Psychologistsp. 171
Case Study: Building Rapportp. 173
Summaryp. 175
Converging Socioeconomic Classp. 176
The Invisibility of Class as a Variable in Counselingp. 177
The Intersections of Classp. 178
Class: An Identity Constructp. 179
Middle-Class Bias and Counselor Trainingp. 180
The Fluidity of Class-Statusp. 183
Middle-Class Bias and Ethical Standardsp. 184
Classismp. 186
Implications for Counselors and Psychologistsp. 187
Case Study: Class Dividep. 188
Summaryp. 191
Converging Sexualityp. 192
Definitions and Terminologyp. 193
Narrative Questionsp. 197
The Importance of a Focus on Gay, Lesbian, Bisexual, and Transgender Issues in Counselingp. 197
Developmental Processesp. 200
Cass's Model of Gay, Lesbian, and Bisexual Sexual Identity Formationp. 201
Troiden's Homosexual Identity Development Modelp. 205
Sullivan's Model of Sexual Identity Developmentp. 206
Counseling Gays, Lesbians, and Bisexuals of Colorp. 206
Implications for Counselors and Psychologistsp. 207
Case Study: Assigning Genderp. 209
Summaryp. 211
Converging Disabilityp. 212
Understanding Disabilityp. 213
Disability Studiesp. 214
The Social Construction of Disabilityp. 215
Perfection, Beauty, and the Able Bodyp. 217
Implications for Counselors and Psychologistsp. 219
Case Study: Rethinking Manhoodp. 220
Summaryp. 222
Converging Spiritualityp. 223
Spirituality and Religion Definedp. 223
Case Study: Crises of Faithp. 224
Clinical Skills in Integrating Spirituality and Psychotherapyp. 226
Spirituality, Therapy, and Cultural Considerationsp. 228
Diverse Healing Strategiesp. 230
Effective Lay-Led Healingp. 230
Other Approachesp. 232
Creative Artsp. 232
Wellnessp. 232
Implications for Counselors and Psychologistsp. 232
Summaryp. 233
Epiloguep. 234
Referencesp. 235
Name Indexp. 269
Subject Indexp. 275
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