Converging Media 2013-2014 Update A New Introduction To Mass Communication

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2013-01-15
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
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This is a revision of an introduction to mass communication text that uses the technologies we employ every day to explain our current media environment and predict how it might change. Rather than discussing each media industry in isolation, Converging Media shows how each branch of media -print, visual, and audio - relates to and influences the others. This enables students to see the inextricable and dynamic relationship between new media and traditional media formats.We reviewed the current edition of Converging Media. In response to these reviews, the authors have decided to shift the chapter on ethics nearer the chapter on law while still maintaining an early introduction to the topic and integrating it throughout the text. In addition to updating examples,the authors will add more content on media economics to better compete with the Vivian text. Pavlik and McIntosh will also be adding content on global media, hyperlocal media, and other emerging media types, including social media. The number and quality of end-of-chapter questions will beincreased and the number of International Perspectives doubled. The authors will also introduce a new feature box containing inspirational stories about famous journalists, and all existing feature boxes will be updated to contain photo captions and reflection questions. The glossary will be editedfor consistency and to include page numbers. The book will undergo a robust copyedit to minimize repetition and streamline the prose for intro-course accessibility. The interior will be redesigned along the lines of the Rodman text. The photography program will be updated for an edgier look, and the font used for the marginal definitionswill be changed. Lastly, the PowerPoints to be distributed via the Instructor's Resource CD and Companion Website will be redone so that they are less crowded and reflect good practice.

Table of Contents

About the Authors
Part 1: The Changing Media Landscape
Chapter 1: Mass Communication and its Digital Transformation
Telephony: Case Study in Convergence
Three Types of Convergence
-Technological Convergence
-Economic Convergence
-Cultural Convergence
Implications of Convergence
-Media Organization Changes
-Media Type Changes
-Media Content Changes
-Media Use Changes
-Media Distribution Changes
-Media Audience Changes
-Media Profession Changes
-Attitude and Value Changes
Mass Communication in the Digital Age
-Interpersonal Communication
-Mass Communication
-Mass Communication and Convergence
Functions of Mass Communication
-Cultural Transmission
Theories of Communication
-Transmission Models
-Critical Theory and Cultural Studies
Television: The Future of Convergence
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Media Quiz: The Nature of "Intermass" Communication
Convergence Context: User-Generated Content: Creativity or Piracy?
Convergence Culture: Mapping Sex Offenders
International Perspectives: Crying in a BMW
Chapter 2: Media Literacy in the Digital Age
Education and Media
What is Media Literacy?
Historical Development of Media
-Regulatory Factors
-Sociocultural Factors
-Technological Factors
-Economic Factors
Media Grammar
-Print Media
-Radio and Recorded Music
-Film and Television
Commercial Forces on Media Content
-Profit and Nonprofit Media
-Commercial Forces in Public Service Media
-Product Placement and Corporate Sponsorship
-Concentration of Media Ownership
Historical Development of Digital Media
Discussing Digital Media: Networks Are Key
The World of Digital Media
-Digital Print
--Digital Books
--Digital Newspapers and Magazines
-Digital Audio
-Digital Visual Media
Digital Media Grammar
Commercial Forces on Digital Media Content
-The Open-Source Movement
-Revenue Models for Digital Media
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Media Quiz Answers
Media Quiz: How Media Literate Are You?
Ethics in Media: The Filter Bubble
Convergence Culture: Text Messaging and the Thumb Tribe
International Perspectives: Mobile Telephony in the Developing World
Convergence Context: Wikipedia in Our Cites: The Trouble with Collaborative Knowledge
Part 2: Mass Communication Formats
Chapter 3: Print Media: Books, Newspapers, and Magazines
Functions of Print Media
-Transmission of Culture
-Diffusion of Ideas and Knowledge
Distinctive Functions of Books
History of Books to Today
-Monastic Scribes
-Johannes Gutenberg
-Beginnings of Mass Communication and Mass Literacy
-Cheaper and Smaller Books
--Dime Novels
--Mass-Market Paperbacks
Current Book Industry Issues
Sales and Readership of Books
Outlook for Books
Distinctive Functions of Newspapers
-Local Newspapers
-National Newspapers
History of Newspapers to Today
-The Commercial Press and Partisan Press
-Colonial Readership and Finances
-The Golden Age of Newspapers
Current Newspaper Industry Issues
-Newspaper Chains
--Benefits of Chains
--Problems with Chains
Leading Newspaper Chains
Declining Number of Daily Newspapers
Sales and Readership of Newspapers
-Circulation and Readership
Outlook for Newspapers
Distinctive Functions of Magazines
History of Magazines to Today
Current Magazine Industry Issues
Sales and Readership of Magazines
Outlook for Magazines
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Media Quiz: Print Media
International Perspectives: Education for All 2015
Timeline: History (and Pre-History) of Newspapers
Convergence Culture: Freesheets: Riding the Rails of Newspapers' Future?
Convergence Context: Will Printing on Dead Trees Ever Die?
Chapter 4: Audio Media: Music Recordings, Radio
The Recording Industry
Distinctive Functions of the Recorded-Music Industry
History of Recorded Music
The Recorded-Music Industry Today
Recording-Industry Business Model
-Pricing Structure
Outlook for the Recording Industry
-Digital Rights Management and Illegal File Sharing
-New Business Models Emerging
What Is Broadcasting?
Distinctive Functions of Radio
History of Radio
-Wireless Telegraphy
-Exploring Radio's Early Potential
-Voice Transmission
-Radio Before, During, and After WWI
-Widespread Public Adoption of Radio
-FM Radio, Edwin Howard Armstrong, and David Sarnoff
-Creating a Viable Business Model for Radio
-The Rise of Radio Networks
-Consolidation in Radio Station Ownership
The Radio Industry Today
-Radio Station Programming
Outlook for the Radio Industry
-Satellite Radio
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Readings
Media Quiz Answers
Media Quiz: The Revolution Will Not Be Televised (It Will Be Listened To)
Convergence Context: The Alphabet Soup of Spectrum Allocation
Timeline: Milestones in Early Radio-Technology Development
Ethics in Media: On Call...And On the Radio
Convergence Culture: NPR and PRI: America's Public Radio Networks
International Perspectives: Trusting in the Power of the Airwaves
Chapter 5: Visual Media: Movies and Television
-History of Photography
-Seeing Beyond the Human Eye
-Photographic Industry Today
-The Functions of the Movie Industry
History of the Movie Industry
-Silent Era: New Medium, New Technologies, New Storytelling
--George Méliès and D.W. Griffith
--F.W. Murnau and Sergei Eisenstein
-Sound and Color Come to Movies
-The Birth of Hollywood
--Hollywood Star System
Movie Industry Today
Marketing and Distribution for Movies
Movie Industry Business Model
Outlook for Movie Industry
-Functions of Television
History of Television Industry
-Seeing the Light: The First Television Systems
-Modern Television Takes Shape
Digital Television: Preparing the Way for Convergence
-The Rise of Flat-Panel Displays
Television Distribution
-Broadcast TV
-Cable TV
-Satellite TV
Television Industry Today
-Cable System Structure
-Satellite vs. Cable
Television Industry Business Model
-Cable and Satellite Services and Programming: Overcoming Audience Fragmentation
Outlook for Television Industry
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Media Quiz Answers
Media Quiz: Eye-Q Test
Timeline: Development of Photography
Ethics in Media: Photojournalist's Dilemma: Sudan, Starvation, and Suicide
Timeline: Selected Milestones in Early Motion Pictures
Convergence Context: 3-D Movies: What will be the impact?
Convergence Culture: A Brief History of Interactive TV
Part 3: How Digital Media Are Changing Our World
Chapter 6: Information Overload, Usability, and Interactive Media
Characteristics of Storage, Representation, and Retrieval
Nonelectronic Media Versus Electronic Media
Social and Political Impact of Storing Information
-Stone Tablets to Papyrus
-Vellum to Paper
-The Kitchen Debate to Watergate
-Rodney King to the Oval Office
-Email to Facebook
Managing Information
-Development of Digital Storage Devices
-Compression of Digital Audio and Video
-The Role of Search Engines
-Social and Political Impact of Information Overload
The Importance of User Interface
Current Problems with User Interface
Development of the Digital User Interface
-The Television Screen
-Television and Remote Control
-The Computer Interface
-The Creation of Intuitive Interfaces
--Computer Mouse
--Touch-Sensitive Screens
--Natural Input Methods
-Graphical User Interface
The Desktop Metaphor
Implications of User Interface for Mass Communication
Interactive Media
Interactivity Defined
The Importance of Interactive Media
Ethics of Interactive Media
-Free Speech For Everyone?
-Interactive Advertising
-Search Engine Keywords
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Media Quiz Answers
Media Quiz: Searching for Knowledge
Timeline: Development of Electronic Recording Devices
Timeline: Development of Digital Storage Media
Convergence Context: Do's and Don'ts of Evaluating Information Online
International Perspectives: The Internet of Babel
Convergence Culture: Douglas Englebart: Visionary of Computing's Future
Chapter 7: Networks and Digital Distribution
Historical Influences on Modern Networks
-Government and Private Industry
-Evolving Technology: From the Telegraph to Fiber Optics
-Radio and Television
-Fiber Optics
Historical Development of the Internet and World Wide Web
-Creating an Internet Protocol
-Creating the World Wide Web
-Creating Graphical Web Browsers
The Internet Today
-Telephone and Cable Company Broadband Services
-Broadband Changing Consumer Patterns
--Social Effects of Broadband
The Nature of Networks: Key Concepts
-Sarnoff's Law
-Metcalfe's Law
-Reed's Law
Computer Networks: Key Concepts
-Peer-to-Peer Model
-Client/Server Model
-Wireless Networks
-Quality of Service
Characteristics of Digital Distribution
-Distributing Bits
-Low Distribution Costs
-Perfect Infinite Copies
-Instantaneous Distribution
-New Distribution Dynamics
-The Audience as Distributor
File-Sharing Services
-Centralized File Sharing: The Case of Napster
-Decentralized File Sharing
-Streaming File Sharing: The Next Wave
New Distribution Technologies, New Legal, Ethical, and Social Issues
-Legal Issues
-Ethical Issues
-Social Issues
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Media Quiz Answers
Media Quiz: Network Knowledge
Media Pioneers: Reuters and the Creation of News Wire Services
International Perspectives: Al-Jazeera: CNN of the Middle East?
Timeline: Milestones in the Development of the Internet
Convergence Context: The Great Network Neutrality Debate
Convergence Culture: SETI@Home: Is There Anybody Out There?
Chapter 8: Social Media and Web 2.0
Defining Social Media
-Differences with Traditional Media
What Is "Social" About Social Media?
Types of Social Media
-Discussion Boards and Web Forums
-Chat Rooms
-Social-networking Sites
Why Social Networks Matter
Collaborative Media Work
-Changing Audiences: From Consumers to "Producers"
-Reputation, Ratings, and Trust
Ethical and Legal Issues with Social Media
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Media Quiz Answer
Media Quiz: How Connected Are You?
International Perspectives: Lily Allen: MySpace Star Reaches the Stars
Convergence Culture: Are We Really Separated by Six Degrees?
Convergence Context: Web 3.0: The Semantic Web
Part 4: Media Perspectives
Chapter 9: Journalism: From Information to Participation
What Is News?
The Historical Development of Journalism
-Objectivity and the Associated Press
-Pulitzer and Hearst: The Circulation Wars, Sensationalism, and Standards
--Joseph Pulitzer
--William Randolph Hearst
-The Muckrakers
-The Rise of Electronic Journalism
--Murrow and News in TV's Golden Age
--Changes in Television News
-Foundations of Journalism
-The Hutchins Commission and A Free and Responsible Press
-Separation of Editorial and Business Operations
-Fairness and Balance in News Coverage
-Framing the News
-Expert Sources
From Event to Public Eye: How News Is Created
-Gathering the News
-Producing the News
-Distributing the News
Types of Journalism
-Alternative Journalism
-Public Journalism
-Citizen Journalism
-An International Perspective
Journalism in the Digital World
-The 24/7 News Cycle
-Nontraditional News Sources
-Online Users' Media Habits
-Contextualization of News
-Convergent Journalism
The Business of Journalism
-Diversity in the Newsroom
Careers in Journalism
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Media Quiz Answers
Media Quiz: A Nose for News
Media Pioneers: Mary Shadd Cary and the Role of Minority Newspapers
International Perspectives: Covering Islam
Convergence Culture: Platypus Journalism: Journalism's Future, or Evolutionary Dead End?
Ethics In Media: Do the Ends Justify the Means?
Convergence Context: ProPublica: Reviving Investigative Journalism
Chapter 10: Entertainment
Functions of Entertainment
The Historical Development of Entertainment
Entertainment Media
-Early Days: Programming and Genre Influences
-Pushing the Programming Envelope
-The MTV Generation and the Rise of Cable
-Cable Comes of Age
-Public Service Broadcasting: Public Service in a Commercial World
-Types of Programming
--Changes in Media, Changes in Programming
--Filling the Days
--Filling the Nights
--Reality Shows
-Hollywood's Legendary Movie Moguls
--The Warner Brothers
--Walt Disney
--Samuel Goldwyn
--Marcus Loew: Mogul of the East
--Louis B. Mayer
- Film Genres
-The Director as Auteur
-Technological Influences on Movie Genres
-Other Entertainment Sources for Movies
-DVDs and Netflix
Video Games
-The Rise of Social Games
-From Tin Pan Alley to Hollywood
-Roots of Rock and Roll
-Redefining Rock
-Music and MTV
Books and Magazines
Entertainment and Law
-The Censorship of Comics
-The Hays Code
The Business of Entertainment
-Careers in Entertainment
-Salaries in Entertainment
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Media Quiz: Are You an Entertainment Junkie?
International Perspectives: Copyright and International Piracy in the Digital Era
Convergence Culture: The Quiz Show That Became a Town
Convergence Context: Is Playing Video Games Bad for You?
Ethics in Media: Jersey Shore and the G Word
Chapter 11: Advertising and Public Relations: The Power of Persuasion
Strategic Communications
-Persuasive Communications
-The Role of Media in Persuasion
-The Historical Development of Advertising
--Greater Prominence of Advertising
--Development of the Advertising Agency
--Growth of Commercial Television
--Commercialization of the Internet
-The Rise of Branding
-Selling Products, Selling Ideas
-Advertising Channels
--Print Media
--Electronic Media
--Direct Mail
-Advertising in a Digital World
--Email Marketing
--Banner Ads
--Pop-Ups, Interstitials, Superstitials, and Video
--Classifieds and Auction Sites
--Search Engine Ads
--Behavioral Advertising
--Viral Marketing
-The Advertising Business
-Advertising Agencies
Public Relations
-The Historical Development of Public Relations
-Trends in the Development of Public Relations
-PR and Media Relations
--Pseudo Events
--Distributing News to the Media in the Digital Age
--Finding Sources Online
-PR Firms and the PR Industry
Changing Trends in Advertising and PR
-Careers in Advertising and PR
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Media Quiz Answers
Media Quiz: The Dynamics of Persuasion
Convergence Context: Me 2.0: The Guide to Branding Yourself
Convergence Culture: Going Viral
International Perspectives: Finding the Right Formula for Advertising Regulations
Ethics in Media: Fooling Most of the People Most of the TimeDigitally
Part 5: Media and Society
Chapter 12: Media Ethics
Ethics, Morals, and Laws
Major Systems of Ethical Reasoning
-Character, or Virtue Ethics
--The Golden Rule
--The Golden Mean
--The Categorical Imperative
-Discourse Ethics
--Social Justice
-Relationships, or Dialogical Ethics
--Ethics of Care
-Moral Relativism
Issues in Ethical Decision-Making
-The Role of Commercialism in Media Ethics
-Media Types Influencing Content
-New Worlds-Or Cultural Imperialism?
Ethics in Journalism
-Privacy Rights vs. the Public's Right to Know
-Going Undercover
-Victimizing the Victims
-Society of Professional Journalists Code of Ethics
Ethics in Advertising
-Deceptive Advertising
-Conflicts of Interest in Advertising
-Advertising Codes of Ethics
Ethics in PR
-Conflicts of Interest in PR
-Public Relations Codes of Ethics
Ethics in Entertainment
-Stereotypes in Entertainment
-Sex and Violence
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Media Quiz: How Moral Are You?
Convergence Context: Selling a War
Chapter 13: Communication Law and Regulation in the Digital Age
The Legal Framework
The Foundations of Freedom of Expression
-National Security
--Clear and Present Danger
--Prior Restraint
--New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)
--Protecting Journalists Against Libel
--Shield Laws
--Indecent Content
--Criticism, Ridicule, or Humor
The Evolution of Regulating Electronic Media
-Early Days and the Radio Act of 1912 (1911-1926)
-Increasing Regulation and the Federal Radio Commission (1927-1933)
-The Communications Act and Spectrum Scarcity (1934-1995)
-The Telecommunications Act and Its Effects (1996-present)
-Electronic Media Regulation Internationally
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
-Regulating Radio and Television
-Universal Service
-The FCC, Station ID, and License Renewal
-FCC Limits on Stations
-Spectrum Auction
The Federal Trade Commission (FTC)
-Commercial Speech
--Tobacco and Alcohol Advertising
--Unclear Regulatory Boundaries
-Political Speech
--Equal-Time Rule
--Fairness Doctrine
Children's Programming Protections
-The Children's Television Act
-Violent and Sexual Programming: The V-Chip
Intellectual Property Rights
-Fair Use
Legal Issues in the Digital World
-Digital Rights Management
-Content Rights and Responsibilities
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Media Quiz Answers
Media Quiz: Legal Limits
Convergence Culture: (Low) Power to the People
International Perspectives: The Rise and Fall of Russian Media
Convergence Context: Jailed as a Journalist
Chapter 14: Media Theory and Research: From Writing to Text Messaging
The Role of Theory and Research
Early Concerns of Media Effects
What Makes Mediated Communication Different
Mass Society, Mass Communication
Media-Effects Research
-Propaganda and the Magic Bullet
-Payne Fund
-Radio's Wider Impact
-Television and Violence
-Limited Effects
--Cultivation Analysis
--Spiral of Silence
--Third-Person Effect
-Criticisms of Media Effects Research
Understanding the Audience
-Audiences Creating Meaning
--Uses and Gratifications
--Reception Analysis
-Audiences as Consumers, Users, or Produsers?
Cultural Studies
-Ideology and the Culture Industry
-Criticisms of Cultural Studies
Socio-Historical Frameworks
-Information Society
-Political Economy
-Media Ecology
Media Research: What Type of Science Is It?
-Quantitative Research
-Qualitative Research
-Qualitative and Quantitative Research Working Together
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Media Quiz Answers
Media Quiz: Bringing Out Your Inner Researcher
Convergence Culture: Advertising's Potential Negative Effects on Women-And Men
Convergence Context: It's a Mean, Mean World--At Least on TV
International Perspectives: Theories Old, Theories New, Theories Borrowed. . .
Chapter 15: Mass Communication and Politics in the Digital Age
Four Theories of International Mass Communication
-The Authoritarian Theory
-The Libertarian Theory
-The Social Responsibility Theory
-The Soviet Theory
The Public, the Public Sphere, and Public Opinion
Political Issues with Media
-Media in Developing Countries
-The Digital Divide
Role of Media in Political Elections
-Sound Bites and Horse Races
-The Changing Tone of Television Political Coverage
-Opinion Polls
-Political Advertising
--The Impact of Negative Advertising
--Negative Advertising Effectiveness
--Political Debates
The Internet and Political Campaigns
-The Role of YouTube
-Changing Rules for Politicians
Online Media and Political Communications
Looking Back and Moving Forward
Discussion Questions
Further Reading
Media Quiz Answers
Media Quiz: Playing Politics
International Perspectives: Searching for Truth: Self-Censorship in China
Convergence Context: Sound Bite Shakespeare
Ethics in Media: Can Imagery Lead to Action?
Convergence Culture: Image Is Everything

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