Converging Media A New Introduction to Mass Communication

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-01-05
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press
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Digital media is changing the ways in which we communicate: we watch TV and movies online, call friends on computers, and read newspapers on cell phones. Converging Media: A New Introduction to Mass Communication, Second Edition, by John V. Pavlik and Shawn McIntosh, uses the technologies we employ everyday to explain our current media environment--and to project where we might be headed. Rather than discussing each media industry in isolation, Converging Media shows how each branch of media (print, visual, and audio) relates to and influences the others. This enables students to see the inextricable and dynamic relationship between converging media and traditional media formats. The fully revised and updated second edition: * Opens with a discussion of digital media, giving students an immediate frame of reference as they learn about the historical development of mass communication * Offers an entire chapter on newly emerging, cutting-edge media (Social Media and Web 2.0) * Integrates ethics concerns and global perspectives throughout: -- Convergence Culture boxes cover the ways in which media impacts our social, political, and popular cultures -- Convergence Context boxes place hard-to-understand concepts and technologies within familiar, relevant contexts -- International Perspectives boxes showcase the similarities--and differences--of media and technology throughout the world * Incorporates highly engaging pedagogy: -- Opening vignettes contain interesting stories and timely photos that relate chapter content to the overarching theme of media convergence -- Media Quizzes provide students with lighthearted--yet thought-provoking--self-tests Conclusions, Discussion Questions, and up-to-date Further Reading lists round off every chapter * Features a comprehensive support package: -- For students: Online study guide and Companion Website -- For instructors: PowerPoint lecture slides, Instructor's Manual with printed Test Bank, and Computerized Test Bank Cutting-edge, comprehensive, and compelling, Converging Media, Second Edition, is ideal for courses in introductory mass communication.

Author Biography

John V. Pavlik is Professor and Chair of the Department of Journalism and Media Studies at the School of Communication and Information, Rutgers, the State University of New Jersey.
Shawn McIntosh is a lecturer in strategic communications at Columbia University's School of Continuing Education.

Table of Contents

Each Chapter ends with "Looking Back and Moving Forward," Discussion Questions, and Suggestions for Further reading
About the Authors
The Changing Media Landscape
Mass Communication And Its Digital Transformation
Media Quiz: The Nature of "Intermass" Communication
Telephony: Case Study in Convergence
Three Types of Convergence
Technological Convergence
Economic Convergence
Cultural Convergence
Convergence Context: User-Generated Content: Creativity Or Piracy?
Convergence and Communications
Convergence and Content
Convergence and the Audience
Convergence Culture: Mapping Sex Offenders
Distribution Alters the Balance of Power
Audience Fragmentation and The Daily Me
Convergence and Communications Organizations
Convergence and Communications Professionals
international perspectives: Olympic Mascots Of The Apocalypse
Convergence and Global Media
Mass Communication in the Digital Age
Interpersonal Communication
Mass Communication
Whither Mass Communication?
Nature and Function of Mass Communication
Cultural Transmission
Theories of Communication
Transmission Models
Critical Theory and Cultural Studies
Media Literacy And Ethics
Media Quiz: How Media Literate Are You?
Education and Media
What Is Media Literacy?
Variations in Media Use
Regulatory Factors
Sociocultural Factors
Technological Factors
Economic Factors
Convergence Culture: Text Messaging and the Thumb Tribe
Media Grammar
Subtext Messages
Print Media
Radio and Recorded Music
Film and Television
Online Media
How to Recognize Reliable Information and Evaluate Resources
Dos and Don'ts When Evaluating Online Information
Convergence Context: Wikipedia in Our Cites: The Trouble with Collaborative Knowledge
Fragmentation of Media Channels
The Multichannel Universe
Diversity of Voices
Mass Audiences
Commercial Forces That Shape Media Content
Profit and Nonprofit Media
Product Placement and Corporate Sponsorship
Commercial Forces in Public Service Media
Concentration of Media Ownership
Media Ethics
The Golden Rule
The Golden Mean
Categorical Imperative
The Veil of Ignorance
Discourse Ethics
Conflicts and Issues with Ethical Decision Making
Public Interests Versus Business Interests
New Worlds--or Cultural Imperialism?
International Perspectives: Giving Voice (and Video) to the Voiceless
Media Types Influencing Content
Mass-Communication Formats
Digital Media: Online And Ubiquitous
Media Quiz: How Tech Savvy Are You Really?
Key Concepts in Digital Media
Discussing Digital Media: Networks Are Key
Social and Cultural Implications of Digital Media
Pervasive Media
Fluid Media
Active Audiences
Trust, Transparency, and Reputation
Changing Conceptions of Privacy
Digital Divide
Convergence Context: The Trouble with "The Technology Made Me Do It"
Exploring the Foundations of Digital Media
Historical Development of the Internet and World Wide Web
Creating an Internet Protocol
Media Timeline: Milestones in the Development of the Internet
Creating the World Wide Web
Creating Graphical Web Browsers
The Internet Today
Telephone and Cable Company Broadband Services
Broadband Changing Consumer Patterns
International Perspectives: Mobile Telephony in the Developing World
The World of Digital Media
Digital Print
Digital Books
Digital Newspapers and Magazines
Digital Audio
Digital Visual Media
Convergence Culture: A Brief History of Interactive TV
TV/PC Convergence
Digital Television: Preparing the Way for Convergence
Why DTV Matters in Mass Communication
Capabilities of DTV
Digital Media Economics
The Open-Source Movement
Revenue Models for Digital Media
Books, Newspapers, And Magazines
Media Quiz: Print Media
Readership Patterns: Unconventional Wisdom
Print Media and Their Functions
Transmission of Culture
Diffusion of Ideas and Knowledge
Historical Development of Books
Monastic Scribes
Johannes Gutenberg
Beginnings of Mass Communication and Mass Literacy
Cheaper and Smaller Books
Dime Novels
Mass-Market Paperbacks
Print on Demand
International Perspectives: Education for All 2015
Three Major Trends in Today's Book Industry
Book Sales and Readership
Newspapers and Their Functions
Local Newspapers
National Newspapers
Historical Development of Newspapers
Media Timeline: History (and Pre-History) of Newspapers
The Commercial Press
The Partisan Press
The Golden Age of Newspapers
Convergence Culture: Freesheets: Riding the Rails of Newspapers' Future?
Newspapers Today
Newspaper Readership, Circulation, and Advertising
Declining Number of Daily Newspapers
Declining Advertising
The Newspaper Industry Today
Newspaper Chains
Newspapers Change
Benefits of Chains
Problems with Chains
Leading Newspaper Chains
Tribune Company
The McClatchy Company
Cox Enterprises
Advance Publications
The New York Times Company
E. W. Scripps
The Hearst Corporation
Newspaper Economics
The Future of Newspapers
Magazines and Their Functions
Historical Development of Magazines
Specialization of Magazines
Circulation Patterns and Titles
Content Specialization
Convergence Context: Will Printing on Dead Trees Ever Die?
The Future of Magazines
Audio Media: Music Recordings, Radio
Media Quiz: The Revolution Will Not Be Televised (It Will Be Listened To)
The Recording Industry
Functions of the Recorded-Music Industry
Historical Development: From Edison to CDs
The Recorded-Music Industry Today
Recording-Industry Business Model
Pricing Structure
Recording-Industry Reality Today: A Complex Landscape
What Is Broadcasting?
Convergence Context: The Alphabet Soup of Spectrum Allocation
Functions of Radio
Radio's Historical Development
Wireless Telegraphy
Exploring Radio's Early Potential
Media Timeline: Milestones in Early Radio-Technology Development
Voice Transmission
Radio Before, During, and After WW I
Widespread Public Adoption of Radio
FM Radio, Edwin Howard Armstrong, and David Sarnoff
Development of a Radio Business Model
The Networks
International Perspectives: Trusting in the Power of the Airwaves
Radio Station Programming
Convergence Culture: NPR and PRI: America's Public Radio Networks
Radio Stations: The United States Today
Radio Station Ownership
Satellite Radio
Visual Media: Movies And Television
Media Quiz: Eye-Q Test
Historical Development of Photography
Media Timeline: Early Photography
International perspectives: Photojournalist's Dilemma: Sudan, Starvation, and Suicide
Seeing Beyond the Human Eye
The Functions of the Movie Industry
Historical Development of Movies: The Early Years
Silent Era: New Medium, New Technologies, New Storytelling
George Mèliés and D. W. Griffith
F. W. Murnau and Sergei Eisenstein
Media Timeline: Selected Milestones in Early Motion Pictures
Sound and Color Come to Movies
Convergence Context: 3-D Movies: Perennial Fad, or Wave of the Future?
Introduction to the Movie Industry
The Hollywood Star System
The Motion Picture Industry Today
Exhibition Windows for Movies
Going Digital
Functions of Television
Television's Historical Development
Seeing the Light: The First Television Systems
Modern Television Takes Shape
The Rise of Flat-Panel Displays
Television Distribution
Broadcast TV
Cable TV
Origins of Cable TV
Cable System Structure
Cable Services and Programming: Audience Fragmentation
Direct Broadcast Satellite
Satellite-Cable Convergence
The Television Industry Today
The Shift to Digital Television
Convergence Culture: Television Learns Music's Lessons
How Digital Media Are Changing Our World
Information Overload, Usability, And Interactive Media
MEDIA QUIZ: Searching for Knowledge
Characteristics of Storage, Representation, and Retrieval
Nonelectronic Media Versus Electronic Media
Media Timeline: Development of Electronic Recording Devices
Social and Political Impact of Storing Information
Stone Tablets to Papyrus
Vellum to Paper
The Kitchen Debate to Watergate
Rodney King to the Oval Office
Email to Facebook
Managing Information
Development of Digital Storage Devices
Media Timeline: Development of Digital Storage Media
Convergence Context: DVRs: Changing Television Viewing Habits--and the Industry
Compression of Digital Audio and Video
The Role of Search Engines
Social and Political Impact of Information Overload
The Importance of User Interface
Current Problems with User Interface
Development of the User Interface
The Television Screen
Television and Remote Control
The Computer Interface
The Creation of Intuitive Interfaces
International Perspectives: The Internet of Babel
Computer Mouse
Touch-Sensitive Screens
Natural Input Methods
Graphical User Interface
The Desktop Metaphor
Implications of User Interface for Mass Communication
Interactive Media
Interactivity Defined
The Importance of Interactive Media
Ethics of Interactive Media
Free Speech for Everyone?
Interactive Advertising
Convergence Culture: How I Learned to Stop Worrying and Love the (Google) Bomb
Search Engine Keywords
Networks And Distributing Digital Content
Media Quiz: Network Knowledge
Historical Influences on Modern Networks
Government and Private Industry
Evolving Technology: From the Telegraph to Fiber Optics
Wireless Telecommunications
International Perspectives: Al Jazeera: CNN of the Middle East?
Fiber Optics
The Nature of Networks: Key Concepts
Sarnoff's Law
Metcalfe's Law
Reed's Law
Computer Networks: Key Concepts
Peer-to-Peer Model
Client/Server Model
Wireless Networks
Quality of Service
Convergence Context: The Great Net Neutrality Debate
Characteristics of Digital Distribution
Distributing Bits
Low Distribution Costs
Perfect Infinite Copies
Instantaneous Distribution
New Distribution Dynamics
The Audience as Distributor
File-Sharing Services
Centralized File Sharing: The Case of Napster
Decentralized File Sharing
Streaming File Sharing: The Next Wave
Convergence Culture: SETI@home: Is There Anybody Out There?
New Distribution Technologies, New Legal, Ethical, and Social Issues
Legal Issues
Ethical Issues
Social Issues
Social Media And Web 2.0
Media Quiz: How Connected Are You?
Defining Social Media
Differences with Traditional Media
What Is "Social" About Social Media?
International Perspectives: Lily Allen: MySpace Star Reaches the Stars
Types of Social Media
Discussion Boards and Web Forums
Chat Rooms
Social-Networking Sites
Why Social Networks Matter
Convergence Culture: Are We Really Separated by Six Degrees?
Collaborative Media Work
Roots in the Open-Source Movement
Changing Audiences: From Consumers to "Produsers"
Reputation, Ratings, and Trust
Ethical and Legal Issues with Social Media
Convergence Context: Web 3.0: The Semantic Web
Media Perspectives
Media Quiz: Nose for News
What Is News?
The Historical Development of Journalism
Objectivity and the Associated Press
Minority Newspapers
Pulitzer and Hearst: The Circulation Wars, Sensationalism, and Standards
Joseph Pulitzer
William Randolph Hearst
The Muckrakers
The Rise of Electronic Journalism
Murrow and News in TV's Golden Age
Changes in Television News Coverage
Foundations of Journalism
The Hutchins Commission and A Free and Responsible Press
The Separation of Editorial and Business Operations
Fairness and Balance in News Coverage
Framing the News
International Perspectives: Covering Islam
Expert Sources
The News Agenda of Newspapers
The News Agenda of Television News
From Event to Public Eye: How News Is Created
Gathering the News
Producing the News
Convergence Culture: Platypus Journalism: Journalism's Future, or Evolutionary Dead End?
Distributing the News
Types of Journalism
Alternative Journalism
Public Journalism
Citizen Journalism
An International Perspective
Journalism in the Digital World
The 24/7 News Cycle
Nontraditional News Sources
Online Users' Media Habits
Contextualization of News
Convergent Journalism
Journalism Ethics
Privacy Rights Versus the Public's Right to Know
Going Undercover
Convergence Context: Do the Ends Justify the Means?
Victimizing the Victims
The Society of Professional Journalists Code of Ethics
The Business of Journalism
Diversity in the Newsroom
Careers in Journalism
Specialized Journalism Types
Business and Financial Journalism
Arts and Entertainment Journalism
Sports Journalism
Health or Medical Journalism
Science and Technology Journalism
Environmental Journalism
Media Quiz: Are You an Entertainment Junkie?
Functions of Entertainment
The Historical Development of Entertainment
Entertainment Media
Early Days: Programming and Genre Influences
Pushing the Programming Envelope
The MTV Generation and Rise of Cable
Cable Comes of Age
International Perspectives: Pay-TV Piracy in Asia
Public Service Broadcasting: Public Service in a Commercial World
Types of Programming
Changes in Media, Changes in Programming
Filling the Days
Convergence Culture: The Quiz Show That Became a Town
Filling the Nights
Questionable Programming
Hollywood's Legendary Movie Moguls
The Warner Brothers
Walt Disney
Samuel Goldwyn
Marcus Loew: Mogul of the East
Louis B. Mayer
Film Genres
The Director as Auteur
Technological Influences on Movie Genres
Other Entertainment Sources for Movies
DVDs and Videotapes
Video Games
Convergence Context: Is Playing Video Games Bad for You?
From Tin Pan Alley to Hollywood
Roots of Rock and Roll
Redefining Rock
Music and MTV
Books and Magazines
Entertainment Ethics and Law
The Censorship of Comics
The Hays Code
Stereotypes in Entertainment
The Business of Entertainment
Careers in Entertainment
Salaries in Entertainment
Advertising And Public Relations
Media Quiz: The Power of Persuasion
Strategic Communications
Persuasive Communications
The Role of Media in Persuasion
The Historical Development of Advertising
Greater Prominence of Advertising
Development of the Advertising Agency
Growth of Commercial Television
Commercialization of the Internet
Convergence Context: Me 2.0: The Guide to Branding Yourself
The Rise of Branding
Selling Products, Selling Ideas
Advertising Channels
Print Media
Electronic Media
Convergence Culture: The Super Bowl of Advertising
Direct Mail
Advertising in a Digital World
Email Marketing
Banner Ads
Pop-Ups, Interstitials, Superstitials, and Video
Classifieds and Auction Sites
Search Engine Ads
Viral Marketing
The Advertising Business
Advertising Agencies
Ethical Issues in Advertising
Deceptive Advertising
International Perspectives: Finding the Right Formula for Advertising Regulations
Public Relations
The Historical Development of Public Relations
Trends in the Development of Public Relations
PR and Media Relations
Pseudo Events
Distributing News to the Media in the Digital Age
Finding Sources Online
PR Firms and the PR Industry
Ethical Issues in Public Relations
Changing Trends in Advertising and PR
Careers in Advertising and PR
Media And Society
Media Theory And Research: From Writing To Text Messaging
Media Quiz: Bringing Out Your Inner Researcher
The Role of Theory and Research
Media Research: What Type of Science Is It?
Quantitative Research
Qualitative Research
Qualitative and Quantitative Research Working Together
The First Media Revolution: The Written Word
Media Representations and Understanding the World
Media Ecology
Agenda Setting and Framing
Mass Society, Mass Communication
Media-Effects Research
Propaganda and the Magic Bullet
Payne Fund
Radio's Wider Impact
Television and Violence
Convergence Culture: Advertising and Its Negative Effects on Women
Limited Effects
Cultivation Analysis
Convergence Context: It's a Mean, Mean World--At Least on TV
Spiral of Silence
Third-Person Effect
Criticisms of Media-Effects Research
Understanding the Audience
Audiences Creating Meaning
Uses and Gratifications
Reception Analysis
Cultural Studies
Ideology and the Culture Industry
Political Economy
International Perspectives: Theories Old, Theories New, Theories Borrowed...
Criticisms of Cultural Studies
Digital Media Theory and Research
Information Society
Audiences as Consumers, Users, or Produsers?
Communication Law And Regulation In The Digital Age
Media Quiz: Legal Limits
The Legal Framework
The Foundations of Freedom of Expression
National Security
Clear and Present Danger
Prior Restraint
The New York Times v. Sullivan (1964)
Protecting Journalists Against Libel
Shield Laws
Indecent Content
Criticism, Ridicule, or Humor
The Evolution of Regulating Electronic Media
Early Days and the Radio Act of 1912 (1911-1926)
Increasing Regulation and the Federal Radio Commission (1927-1933)
CONVERGENCE CULTURE: (Low) Power to the People
The Communications Act and Spectrum Scarcity (1934-1995)
The Telecommunications Act and Its Effects (1996-present)
Electronic Media Regulation Internationally
International Perspectives: The Rise and Fall of Russian Media
The Federal Communications Commission (FCC)
Regulating Radio and Television
Universal Service
Spectrum Auction
The FCC, Station ID, and License Renewal
FCC Limits on Stations
Regulating Content
Commercial Speech
Tobacco and Alcohol Advertising
False Advertising
Political Speech
Equal-Time Rule
Fairness Doctrine
Children's Programming Protections
The Children's Television Act
Violent and Sexual Programming: The V-Chip
TV Parental Guidelines
Intellectual Property Rights
Fair Use
Legal Issues in the Digital World
Digital Rights Management
CONVERGENCE CONTEXT: Creative Commons License
Content Rights and Responsibilities
Mass Communication And Politics In The Digital Age
Media Quiz: Playing Politics
Four Theories of International Mass Communication
The Authoritarian Theory
International Perspectives: Searching for Truth: Self-Censorship in China
The Libertarian Theory
The Social Responsibility Theory
The Soviet Theory
The Public, the Public Sphere, and Public Opinion
Political Issues with Media
Media in Developing Countries
The Digital Divide
The Role of Media in Political Elections
Sound Bites and Horse Races
Convergence Context: Sound Bite Shakespeare
The Changing Tone of Television Political Coverage
Opinion Polls
Political Advertising
The Impact of Negative Advertising
Negative Advertising Effectiveness
Political Debates
Convergence Culture: Image Is Everything
The Internet and Political Campaigns
The Role of YouTube
Changing Rules for Politicians
Online Media and Political Communications
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