Correction Techniques in Emission Tomography

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  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2012-04-27
  • Publisher: CRC Press

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A range of correction techniques are needed to quantitatively use PET data. As they transition from preclinical to clinical settings, hybrid PET systems, such as PET-CT and PET-MRI, necessitate additional and more complex requirements for data correction. This book presents compensation techniques for a range of PET and hybrid PET imaging modalities, including newer hybrid systems currently in preclinical and small animal settings that are being developed for clinical applications. The authors address the problems encountered in emission tomography and their effects on the resulting images, providing compensation methods from the viewpoints of mathematics, computer science, and physics.

Table of Contents

About the Seriesp. xi
Forewordp. xv
List of Contributorsp. xix
Introductionp. 1
Introductionp. 1
Principle of emission tomographyp. 2
Electromagnetic spectrump. 4
Need for correction techniquesp. 4
Referencesp. 7
Backgroundp. 9
Biomedical Applications of Emission Tomographyp. 11
The role of imaging in biomedical research and applicationsp. 11
Functional and molecular imaging by emission tomography enables high sensitivity and spatial resolutionp. 13
Biomedical applications of emission tomography depend on tracersp. 14
Applicationsp. 16
Preclinical applicationsp. 16
Clinical applicationsp. 17
Examples of biomedical applications of emission tomographyp. 18
Bioluminescence imaging of tumor growthp. 18
Dynamic PET in pharmakodynamic studiesp. 19
From mice to men-Non-invasive translational imaging of inflammatory activity in graft-versus-host diseasep. 20
PET to quantify catecholamine recycling and receptor density in patients with arrhythmiasp. 22
Multiparametric imaging of brain tumorsp. 23
Referencesp. 26
PET Image Reconstructionp. 31
Introductionp. 31
Analytical algorithmsp. 32
Mathematical basisp. 32
Filtered backprojectionp. 35
Implementation: Resolution and complexityp. 37
Implementation and rebinningp. 38
2D Rebinningp. 39
3D filtered backprojectionp. 40
Limitationsp. 40
Discrete algorithmsp. 40
ART-Algebraic reconstruction techniquep. 41
EMp. 42
Computing the system matrixp. 44
List modep. 45
Summaryp. 47
Referencesp. 47
Correction Techniques in PET and SPECTp. 49
Basics of PET and SPECT Imagingp. 51
Introductionp. 51
Interaction of photons with matterp. 52
Photoelectric effectp. 52
Compton scatteringp. 52
Photon attenuationp. 54
Scatterp. 57
Variation in detector efficiency, normalizationp. 58
Dead time effects (loss of count rate) (PET and SPECT)p. 59
Partial volume effects (PET and SPECT)p. 59
Spill outp. 60
Spill inp. 60
Time resolution and randoms (PET only)p. 61
Collimator effects-Distance dependent spatial resolution (SPECT only)p. 62
Positron range and annihilation (PET only)p. 63
Referencesp. 64
Corrections for Physical Factorsp. 67
Introductionp. 67
Decay correctionp. 69
Randoms correctionp. 71
Singles-based correctionp. 72
Delayed window correctionp. 72
Attenuation correctionp. 73
Stand-alone emission tomography systemsp. 77
PET/CT and SPECT/CT systemsp. 80
Attenuation correction artifactsp. 82
Scatter correctionp. 90
Energy windowing methodsp. 91
Analytical methodsp. 92
Direct calculation methodsp. 94
Iterative reconstruction methodsp. 95
Concluding remarksp. 95
Referencesp. 95
Corrections for Scanner-Related Factorsp. 105
Positron emission tomographyp. 105
Introductionp. 105
Data normalizationp. 107
Noise equivalent count ratesp. 108
System dead timep. 108
Partial volumep. 110
Single photon emission computed tomographyp. 112
Linearity, center of rotation, and whole body imagingp. 112
Motion correctionp. 114
Referencesp. 115
Image Processing Techniques in Emission Tomographyp. 119
Introductionp. 119
Denoisingp. 121
Image domainp. 122
Fourier transform domainp. 123
Wavelet transform domainp. 124
Interpolationp. 126
Registrationp. 129
Categorizationp. 130
Nature of transformationp. 132
Similarity measurep. 133
Validationp. 135
Softwarep. 137
Partial volume correctionp. 137
The partial volume effect in PET imagingp. 138
Correction methodsp. 140
Super-resolutionp. 144
Validationp. 146
Intensity-based measuresp. 146
Phantomsp. 148
Hardwarep. 148
Softwarep. 149
Referencesp. 150
Motion Correction in Emission Tomographyp. 157
Introductionp. 157
Magnitude of motionp. 158
Patient motionp. 158
Respiratory motionp. 158
Cardiac motionp. 159
Motion correction on 3D PET datap. 160
Overviewp. 161
Rigid motion correctionp. 162
Elastic motion correctionp. 163
Optical flowp. 164
Image constraint equationp. 164
Optical flow methodsp. 166
Optical flow in medical imagingp. 167
Lucas-Kanade optical flowp. 168
Horn-Schunck optical flowp. 169
Bruhn optical flowp. 170
Preserving discontinuitiesp. 172
Correcting for motionp. 173
Mass conservation-based optical flowp. 174
Correcting for motionp. 175
Referencesp. 177
Combined Correction and Reconstruction Methodsp. 185
Introductionp. 186
Parameter identificationp. 187
Compartment modelingp. 187
4D methods incorporating linear parameter identificationp. 189
4D methods incorporating nonlinear parameter identificationp. 190
Combined reconstruction and motion correctionp. 192
The advantages of the list mode formatp. 193
Motion correction during an iterative reconstruction algorithmp. 194
Approaches based on a rigid or affine motion modelp. 194
Approaches based on a non-rigid motion modelp. 196
Combination of parameter identification and motion estimationp. 198
Referencesp. 200
Recent Developmentsp. 207
Introduction Hybrid Tomographic Imagingp. 209
Introductionp. 209
Combining PET and SPECTp. 210
The combination with MRp. 211
Combining ultrasound with PET and SPECTp. 214
Referencesp. 215
MR-based Attenuation Correction for PET/MRp. 217
Introductionp. 218
MR-AC for brain applicationsp. 220
Segmentation approachesp. 220
Atlas approachesp. 221
Methods for torso imagingp. 224
Discussionp. 229
The presence of bonep. 230
MR imaging with ultrashort echo time (UTE)p. 231
Required PET accuracyp. 232
Validation of MR-AC methodsp. 232
Truncated field-of-viewp. 232
MR coils and positioning aidsp. 233
User interventionp. 233
Potential benefits of MR-ACp. 234
Additional potential benefits of simultaneous PET/MR acquisitionp. 234
Conclusionp. 234
Referencesp. 235
Optical Imagingp. 241
Introductionp. 241
Fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT)p. 244
Light propagation modelp. 244
Photon interaction with biological tissuep. 244
The diffusion approximationp. 246
Model for a fluorescence heterogeneityp. 248
Reconstruction of the fluorochrome distributionp. 249
FMT and hybrid FMT systemsp. 251
Instrumentationp. 251
Illuminationp. 251
Detectionp. 252
360 projectionsp. 252
Multimodal optical imagingp. 253
Optical tomography and MRIp. 253
FMT-XCTp. 254
Referencesp. 257
Indexp. 263
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