Crime Scene Investigation and Reconstruction : With Guidelines for Crime Scene Search and Physical Evidence Collection

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2007-01-01
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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Crime Scene Investigation and Reconstruction, Second Edition, is a comprehensive text, designed with both the students and instructors in mind. Fundamental concepts in physical evidence examination and crime scene processing, including crime scene search principles, scene photography, scene sketches, and note taking are explained in lucid terms. This textbook is not only ideal for courses in crime scene investigation and reconstruction, but is also a necessary supplemental text for criminal investigation, criminalistics, and a wide range of other forensic science courses. Book jacket.

Table of Contents

Forewordp. xv
Prefacep. xvii
Introduction to Physical Evidencep. 1
Key wordsp. 1
Types of Evidencep. 1
Value of Physical Evidencep. 2
Some Advantages of Physical Evidencep. 5
Major Categories of Physical Evidencep. 6
Class and Individual Characteristics of Physical Evidencep. 6
Laboratory Analysis of Physical Evidencep. 9
Comparison Standards and Controlsp. 11
Ethical, Legal, and Scientific Requirements for Evidence Collectionp. 13
Review Questionsp. 16
Further Referencesp. 16
Crime Scene Search Principlesp. 17
Key wordsp. 17
Department Orders Regarding Crime Scenesp. 17
First Responder at the Scenep. 18
Crime Scene Investigatorp. 22
Contact the First Officer at the Scenep. 24
Establish a Command Center for the Operationp. 24
Establish a Plan for Processing the Scenep. 24
Data to be Compiled Before Collection Processp. 25
Crime Scene Search: Be Systematic!p. 27
Separate Areas/Collectorsp. 30
Systematic Search Methodsp. 30
Finishing the Crime Scene Search: Debriefingp. 32
Final Survey of the Crime Scenep. 33
Review Questionsp. 33
Further Referencesp. 33
Crime Scene Processing Guidelinesp. 34
Actions to be Taken by the First Responderp. 34
Actions to be Taken by the Crime Scene Investigatorp. 34
Crime Scene Searchp. 34
Finishing the Crime Scene Search: Debriefingp. 35
Customized Crime Scene Search Kitsp. 35
Level of Crime Scene Search Kit Neededp. 35
Crime Scene Photographyp. 38
Key wordsp. 38
Objectives of Crime Scene Photographyp. 38
Number of Photographs at the Scenep. 39
Conditions at the Scenep. 39
Choice of Camera Type for Crime Scene Photographyp. 39
Type of Film for Crime Scene Photographyp. 40
Videotaping of Crime Scenesp. 42
Suggested Systematic Approachp. 42
Log of All Photographs Takenp. 43
Types of Photographs of a Crime Scenep. 43
Basic Camera and Photography Informationp. 47
Summaryp. 51
Review Questionsp. 52
Further Referencesp. 52
Basic Equipment List for Crime Scene Photographyp. 53
Crime Scene Sketchesp. 54
Key wordsp. 54
Value of Sketchesp. 54
Objectives of Crime Scene Sketchesp. 54
Rules of Thumb for Sketchesp. 55
Additional Points to Keep in Mindp. 56
Types of Sketchesp. 57
Preparation of Sketches: Suggested Systematic Procedurep. 65
Measurement Techniquesp. 66
Summaryp. 71
Review Questionsp. 71
Latent Fingerprint Evidencep. 73
Key wordsp. 73
Introductionp. 73
Types of Fingerprints and Impressionsp. 74
Inked Fingerprintsp. 74
Latent Fingerprintsp. 74
Patent Printsp. 75
Age of the Latent Fingerprintp. 77
Nature of the Latent Print Depositp. 77
Contributions from the Skin Glandsp. 77
Contributions from Contaminantsp. 78
Development of Latentsp. 78
General Considerations for Latent Printsp. 78
Techniques Suitable for the Crime Scenep. 80
Laser Light, Alternate Lights, and Ultraviolet Lightp. 81
Development with Powder and Brushp. 81
Development with Cyanoacrylatep. 82
Processing with Small Particle Reagent (SPR)p. 83
Processing with Ninhydrin, Ninhydrin Analogues, or DFOp. 83
Sequential Approaches to Latent Impression Detection and Collectionp. 83
Wet Surfaces: Dry at Room Temp; Treat as for Dry Surfacesp. 85
Sequencing of Methods for Latent Developmentp. 85
All Surface/Latent Deposit Combinationsp. 86
Nonabsorbent Surfacesp. 86
Absorbent Surfacesp. 88
Adhesive Tapesp. 89
Fingerprints in Bloodp. 90
Latent and Patent Prints on Skinp. 91
Submission of Latent Print Evidence to the Laboratoryp. 92
Marking of Evidencep. 92
Collection of Elimination Printsp. 92
Submission of Inked Fingerprints for Comparisonsp. 92
Preservation of Evidencep. 93
Elimination Printsp. 93
Special Considerationsp. 93
Review Questionsp. 94
Further Referencesp. 94
Glossary of Acronyms for Table 5-1p. 94
Safety Precautions for Latent Print Developmentp. 96
General Guidelines for Safetyp. 96
Guidelines for Safety at the Crime Scenep. 96
Safety Guidelines in the Laboratoryp. 97
Guidelines for Biological Hazardsp. 98
Guidelines for Safety at Autopsiesp. 98
Trace Evidencep. 99
Key wordsp. 99
Trace Evidencep. 99
Hair Evidencep. 99
Nature of Hair Evidencep. 99
Significant Features of Hairp. 101
Microscopic Features of Human Hairp. 103
Other Comparison Characteristics in Hairp. 104
Laboratory Examinations of Hair Evidencep. 105
Collection of Hair Evidencep. 106
Standard/Control Specimens of Hairp. 108
Laboratory Reports Concerning Hair Examinationsp. 110
Fiber Evidencep. 113
Nature of Fiber Evidencep. 113
Occurrence of Fiber Evidencep. 114
Laboratory Examinations of Fiber Evidencep. 114
Collection of Fiber Evidencep. 115
Standards/Controls Needed for Laboratory Analysisp. 117
Glass Evidencep. 117
Nature of Glass Evidencep. 117
Laboratory Examinations of Glass Evidencep. 118
Collection of Glass Evidencep. 119
Paint Evidencep. 120
Nature of Paint Evidencep. 120
Hit-and-Run Cases: Vehicle to Pedestrianp. 121
Hit-and-Run Cases: Vehicle to Vehiclep. 121
Burglary Casesp. 121
Laboratory Examinations of Paint Evidencep. 122
Laboratory Reports Concerning Paint Evidencep. 122
Collection of Paint Specimensp. 122
Soil Evidencep. 124
Nature of Soil Evidencep. 124
Laboratory Examinations of Soil Evidencep. 125
Collection of Soil Evidencep. 126
Arson Accelerant Evidencep. 128
Arson Investigationsp. 128
Nature of Volatile Flammablesp. 128
At the Scenep. 129
Laboratory Analysis of Accelerant Residuesp. 132
Review Questionsp. 132
Further Referencesp. 133
Biological Fluid Stain Evidence: Blood and Semenp. 134
Key wordsp. 134
Bloodstain Evidencep. 134
Nature of Bloodstain Evidencep. 134
Genetic Markers in Bloodstainsp. 135
Crime Scene Documentation of Bloodstainsp. 140
Collection of Bloodstain Evidencep. 143
Blood Samples from Living Subjectsp. 144
Blood Samples from Postmortem Subjectsp. 145
General Commentsp. 145
Laboratory Analysis of Bloodstainsp. 145
DNA Analysis of Blood and Semen Stainsp. 146
Semen Evidencep. 150
Nature of Semen Evidencep. 150
Occurrence of Semen Evidencep. 150
Collection of Semen Evidencep. 151
Laboratory Examinations of Semen Evidencep. 152
Review Questionsp. 154
Further Referencesp. 155
How to Make a Bindlep. 155
Safety Precautions for Blood and Biological Fluidsp. 156
Firearms Evidencep. 157
Key wordsp. 157
Introductionp. 157
Firearm Cartridgesp. 157
Bulleted Cartridgesp. 157
Characteristics of Rifled Barrelsp. 162
Class Characteristics of Fired Bulletsp. 164
Field Comparisons of Bullet Class Characteristicsp. 164
Field Estimation of Bullet Caliberp. 164
Laboratory Examinations of Firearms Evidencep. 166
Collection of Firearms Evidencep. 167
Introductionp. 167
Unloading Revolversp. 168
Unloading Autoloading Firearms (Semiautomatics)p. 168
Trace Evidence and Fingerprintsp. 168
Weapons Found in Waterp. 168
Transportation to the Laboratoryp. 169
Note-Taking and Evidence Markingp. 169
Recovery of Fired Ammunition Componentsp. 169
Bullets Embedded in Wood or Plasterp. 169
Removal of Bullets from Deceased Personsp. 170
Cartridge Casesp. 170
Shot Wadsp. 170
Shot Pelletsp. 170
Live Shot Shells or Cartridgesp. 170
Gunshot Residues (GSR)p. 171
Introductionp. 171
Gunshot Residue Analysis in the Laboratoryp. 172
Collection of Gunshot Residuesp. 173
Review Questionsp. 177
Further Referencesp. 178
Class Characteristics for Some Handguns and Other Firearmsp. 178
Impression Evidencep. 191
Key wordsp. 191
Nature of Impression Evidencep. 191
Laboratory Examinations of Impression Evidencep. 192
Examination of Footwear Impressionsp. 192
Examination of Tire Tread Impressionsp. 194
Examination of Toolmark Impressionsp. 194
Collection of Impression Evidencep. 196
Collection of Footwear and Tire Tread Impressionsp. 196
Photography of Footwear and Tire Tread Impressionsp. 197
Vehicle Wheelbase and Width Measurementsp. 199
Casting and Lifting of Impressionsp. 199
Toolmark Evidence Collectionp. 206
Special Precautions for Toolmark Evidencep. 206
Documentation of Toolmark Evidencep. 207
Fracture Evidencep. 209
Laboratory Examination of Fracture Evidencep. 209
Review Questionsp. 212
Further Referencesp. 212
Drug and Alcohol Evidencep. 213
Key wordsp. 213
Drug Evidencep. 213
Introductionp. 213
DEA Schedule of Controlled Substancesp. 214
Collection of Drug Evidencep. 215
Field Testing of Drug Evidencep. 215
Clandestine Laboratoriesp. 216
Alcohol Evidencep. 217
Introductionp. 217
Tolerance to Effects of Alcoholp. 218
Evidence in Driving Under the Influence Casesp. 218
Collection and Preservation of Alcohol Specimensp. 219
Laboratory Analysis of Blood Alcohol Specimensp. 220
Review Questionsp. 220
Further Referencesp. 220
Document Evidencep. 221
Functions of the Document Examinerp. 221
Collection of Document Evidencep. 223
Review Questionsp. 224
Further Referencesp. 225
Vehicle Scene Investigationsp. 226
Key wordsp. 226
General Automobile Searchp. 226
Traffic Accident Investigationsp. 227
Photographs at the Accident Scenep. 227
Accident Scene Sketchesp. 229
Hit-and-Run Investigations: Vehicle Versus Pedestrianp. 229
Hit-and-Run Investigations: Vehicle Versus Vehiclep. 233
Vehicle Lightsp. 234
Review Questionsp. 235
Sexual Assault Investigationsp. 237
Key wordsp. 237
Development of Modern Sexual Assault Investigationp. 237
Introductionp. 238
Role of Physical Evidence in Sexual Assault Investigationsp. 238
Evidence from the Crime Scenep. 239
Evidence from the Victimp. 242
Medical Examination of the Victimp. 244
Evidence from the Suspectp. 255
Examination of Adult Male Victim of Sexual Assaultp. 260
Child Sexual Abuse Examinationp. 262
Indications of Child Abusep. 265
Summaryp. 270
Review Questionsp. 270
Further Referencesp. 271
Swab Drying Boxp. 271
Chain of Custody Formp. 272
Seal on Chain of Custody Envelopesp. 273
Homicide Crime Scene Investigationsp. 274
Key wordsp. 274
Introductionp. 274
Homicide Investigation Response Team (HIRT)p. 274
Additional Personnel Often Needed at Homicide Crime Scenesp. 275
At the Homicide Crime Scenep. 276
Precautionp. 276
Condition of Body/Clothing/Scenep. 276
Protection of the Body During Removalp. 278
Area Beneath the Bodyp. 278
Postmortem Examination (Autopsy) Guidep. 279
Preautopsy Conferencep. 279
Postmortem Examination Photographyp. 280
Trace Evidencep. 281
Procedures for Nude Bodiesp. 281
Hair Standard Samplesp. 282
Fingernail Scrapingsp. 283
Gunshot Residuesp. 283
Gunshot Woundsp. 283
Condition of Teeth/Denturesp. 285
Fingerprints/Palm Prints/Footprintsp. 285
Sexual Assault Homicidesp. 285
Vehicular Homicidesp. 285
Decomposed Remainsp. 286
Body Fluids and Toxicology Specimensp. 287
Wrap-Up Conferencep. 287
Summaryp. 270
Review Questionsp. 290
Further Referencesp. 291
Safety Precautions for Homicide Crime Scenesp. 291
Safety Precautions for Postmortem Examinations (Autopsies)p. 292
Crime Scene Reconstructionp. 293
Key wordsp. 293
Introductionp. 293
Establishment of Expertisep. 293
Critical Thinkingp. 297
Foundations for Crime Scene Reconstructionp. 298
Process of Crime Scene Reconstructionp. 299
Types of Reconstructionsp. 302
Reconstructions Classified by Evidence Type Utilizedp. 304
Reconstructions Based on Bloodstain Pattern Evidencep. 304
Information Obtained from Bloodstain Pattern Analysisp. 304
Bloodstains: Shoe Prints, Tracks, and Trailsp. 310
Bloodstain Pattern Documentationp. 311
Reconstructions Based on Firearms Evidencep. 313
Introductionp. 313
Information Available from a Shooting Incident Reconstructionp. 314
Bullet Trajectoriesp. 317
Bullet Ricochetsp. 322
Bullet Ricochets on Vehiclesp. 323
Identification of the Firearm that Fired Each Bullet or Cartridge Casep. 328
Gunshot Residues on Suspected Shootersp. 328
Distance Characteristics of Target Residuesp. 328
Laboratory Analysis of Firearm Evidence for Reconstructionsp. 331
Reconstructions Based on Other Evidence Typesp. 332
Direction of Force in Glass Pane Fracturesp. 332
Sequence of Firearm Projectile Impactsp. 334
Evidence Showing Which Occupant of a Vehicle was the Driverp. 334
Reconstructions Involving More Than One Type of Physical Evidencep. 335
Review Questionsp. 339
Further Referencesp. 340
Crime Scene Reconstruction Checklistp. 340
At the Scenep. 340
Bloodstain Pattern Reconstructionsp. 340
Firearms Shooting Incidentsp. 340
Preparation for Reconstruction Effortp. 341
Crime Scene Report Writingp. 342
Introductionp. 342
Accuracyp. 342
Brevityp. 343
Clarityp. 343
Sketches/Photo Logs/Evidence Listsp. 344
Courtroom Testimonyp. 346
Introductionp. 346
Courtroom Proceduresp. 346
Helpful Hints for the Witnessp. 347
Testimony Dos and Don'tsp. 349
Grand Juriesp. 350
Forensic Science and Latent Fingerprint Textsp. 351
Physical Evidence Chartp. 353
General Instructionsp. 353
Computer Evidencep. 358
Conducting the Search and/or Seizurep. 358
Entomological Evidencep. 359
Introductionp. 359
At the Scenep. 359
Glossaryp. 361
Endnotesp. 374
Indexp. 381
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