Criminal Justice Ethics : Theory and Practice

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2012-03-12
  • Publisher: SAGE Publications, Inc

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In the Third Edition of Criminal Justice Ethics, author Cyndi Banks once again examines the criminal justice system through an ethical lens identifying ethical issues in practice and in theory, exploring ethical dilemmas, and proposing means through which criminal justice professionals might resolve ethical issues and dilemmas. The text adopts a critical perspective in the sense that the constituent parts of the criminal justice system are scrutinized within a framework where questions are raised about moral and ethical conduct and standards. Readers are drawn into a unique discussion of ethical issues by exploring moral dilemmas faced by professionals in the criminal justice system first, then presented with an examination of the major theoretical foundations of ethics. This distinct organization allows readers to understand real life ethical issues before grappling with philosophical approaches to the resolution of those issues.

Table of Contents

About the Authorp. xi
Prefacep. xii
The Interaction Between Ethics and The Criminal Justice Systemp. 1
The Importance of Ethics in Criminal Justicep. 2
The Meaning of Ethicsp. 2
The Value of Ethicsp. 2
Police Brutality in New Orleansp. 4
Police Brutality During Katrinap. 5
Normative Ethicsp. 5
Ethical Relativismp. 5
Death Row Inmate Set Freep. 6
Cultural Relativismp. 6
Ethical Absolutismp. 7
Ethical Pluralismp. 8
Religion and Ethical Standardsp. 9
Conduct Is Right Because God Commands Itp. 9
God Commands Right Conduct Because It Is Rightp. 10
Ethics and Natural Lawp. 10
Ethics and Lawp. 10
Ethical Dilemmasp. 11
Ethical Issues in Criminal Justicep. 14
Ethical Problems in the Use of Authorityp. 14
Ethical Problems in the Relationship Between Personal and Professional Interestsp. 14
Ethical Problems in Personal and Professional Commitments to Clientsp. 14
Ethical Issues in Criminal Justice and Public Policyp. 14
Ethical Issues Resulting From Policing Policiesp. 15
Ethical Problems in Information Sharingp. 15
Ethical Problems Dealing With Human Rights Issues in the Criminal Justice Systemp. 15
Ethical Issues in the Media Reporting of Crimep. 15
Summaryp. 15
Discussion Casep. 16
Discussion Questionsp. 16
Ethics and the Policep. 17
Ethics and Policingp. 17
The Nature of Policingp. 18
Police as an Institutionp. 19
Police Culturep. 19
Police Discretionp. 23
Ethics and Codes of Ethicsp. 24
Police Use of Forcep. 27
Cop Gets 15 Years in Torture Casep. 31
Blowing the Whistle on Police Violencep. 32
Dirty Harry/Dirty Handsp. 33
Police Officer Shown Hitting Man With Baton on Videop. 34
Police Corruptionp. 35
Conditions Contributing to Police Corruptionp. 38
Combating Corruptionp. 44
Whistle-Blowingp. 49
Punished for Whistle-Blowing?p. 49
Discrimination as Corruptionp. 50
"Looking Mexican"p. 51
Racial Profiling: When Color Signals Dangerousnessp. 52
Ethical Issues in Investigation, Interrogation, and Custodyp. 54
Rights of Suspectsp. 54
Privacyp. 55
Entrapmentp. 55
Deceptionp. 58
Lyingp. 59
Explanations for Police Corruptionp. 61
Summaryp. 63
Discussion Questionsp. 64
Web Resourcesp. 64
Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice Systemp. 65
Ethical Backgroundp. 65
Historical Contextp. 66
Is There Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System?p. 67
Police Encounters With Citizens and Police Arrestp. 69
Bailp. 70
Jury Selectionp. 71
In Dallas, Dismissal of Buck Jurors Leads to Appeal by Death Row Inmatep. 72
Conviction and Sentencingp. 73
Imprisonment Disparitiesp. 74
Death Penalty Disparitiesp. 76
Hate Crimesp. 78
Explanations for Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice Systemp. 81
How Do We Explain the Existence of Racial Discrimination in the Criminal Justice System?p. 81
Summaryp. 84
Discussion Questionsp. 85
Web Resourcesp. 85
Lawyers and Ethicsp. 86
Legal Ethics: Historical Contextp. 86
The Nature of Professional Ethicsp. 87
The Principle of Partisanshipp. 88
The Principle of Neutralityp. 88
The Lawyer- Client Relationshipp. 89
Confidentialityp. 90
Client Perjuryp. 91
Client Crimep. 91
Buried Bodies Casep. 92
Defense Lawyersp. 92
The Prosecutorp. 96
The Duty to Ensure Justice Is Donep. 96
Prosecutor Misconductp. 97
Discretion to Bring Chargesp. 98
Prosecution Disclosure of Evidence to the Defensep. 99
Plea Bargainingp. 100
Prosecutorial Misconductp. 102
Wrongful Conviction Paymentp. 104
Convict's DNA Sways Labs, Not a Determined Prosecutorp. 106
Prosecutor Withholds Evidencep. 106
Release After 14 Yearsp. 107
Judicial Ethicsp. 107
Ethical Rules Governing Judgesp. 109
Prosecutor Says Tape Shows Brooklyn Judge Took a Bribep. 110
Judge Receives 28-Year Sentence for Taking Bribesp. 110
Judicial Misfeasancep. 111
Federal Judges and Financial Interest Conflictsp. 111
Appearance of Partialityp. 111
Judicial Briberyp. 111
Gross Abuse of Powerp. 112
Texas Judge Reprimandedp. 112
Summaryp. 112
Discussion Questionsp. 113
The Purpose of Criminal Punishmentp. 114
What Is Punishment?p. 114
Theoretical Approaches to Punishmentp. 115
Why Punish? The Philosophical Approachp. 116
The Nature of the Punishment: Corporal Punishmentp. 117
Deterrencep. 117
Retributionp. 120
Just Desertsp. 123
Reconciling Utilitarian and Retributive Theoriesp. 125
Rehabilitationp. 125
Incapacitationp. 127
Restorative Justicep. 128
Why Punish? The Sociological Approachp. 130
Summaryp. 133
Discussion Questionsp. 133
Ethics in Correctionsp. 135
The Prison Explosionp. 135
Maximum Securityp. 140
Women's Incarcerationp. 145
Medium Securityp. 146
Minimum Securityp. 146
Stateville Prison: The Changing State of Correctionsp. 147
Guarding Ethicallyp. 150
Male Prison Rape and "Deliberate Indifference"p. 152
The Experience of Guardingp. 152
Corruption of Authorityp. 153
Power and Authority in Prison: Controlling the Inmatesp. 154
The Battle for Compliancep. 156
Evaluating Guardsp. 156
Rewards and Punishmentsp. 156
Enforcing Rule Violationsp. 157
Informal Controlsp. 158
Guarding With Discretionp. 159
The Gray Wall of Silence: Prison Guard Subculturep. 160
Subculture and Socializationp. 162
Guard Typesp. 163
Use of Forcep. 164
Sex Offenders and Use of Forcep. 167
The Court's View of Correctional Officer Use of Forcep. 169
Correctional Policy on the Use of Forcep. 170
Prisoner "Power"p. 170
Unethical Situationsp. 171
Rape in Prisonp. 171
Rape in Prisonp. 172
Transgender Experiences of Prison Rapep. 173
Guard Forces Transgender Inmate to Have Sex With Himp. 173
Transgender Prisonersp. 174
Corruptionp. 175
Jail Guards Charged With Smugglingp. 177
Fixing a Drink in Prisonp. 177
Ex-S.C. Correctional Officer Sentencedp. 178
Whistle-Blowing in Corrections 178 Ethical Considerations in Probation and Parolep. 179
Arming Probation Officersp. 181
Treatment or Control?p. 182
Parolep. 182
Summaryp. 183
Discussion Questionsp. 184
Web Resourcesp. 185
The Ethics of Criminal Justice Policy Makingp. 187
The Ethics of Policy Makingp. 187
An Example of Unethical Policy Making?p. 190
Morality Policyp. 190
Public Opinion About Punishmentp. 192
Mandatory Minimum Sentencingp. 195
The War on Drugsp. 198
Truth in Sentencingp. 200
Predators and Superpredatorsp. 201
Sexual Predatorsp. 201
Superpredatorsp. 204
Capital Punishmentp. 205
Public Opinion on Capital Punishmentp. 207
Private Prisonsp. 211
Private Prisons-A Good Policy Choice?p. 215
Disenfranchising Inmates of Their Voting Rightsp. 215
Summaryp. 217
Discussion Questionsp. 218
Web Resourcesp. 218
Ethics and the "War on Terrorism"p. 220
Defining Terrorismp. 220
Warfare or Crime Control?p. 222
What Are the Morally Justifiable Constraints and Restrictions That a Government Should Be Permitted to Impose on Its Citizens in a War on Terrorism?p. 227
What Moral Restrictions Apply to the Conduct of Counter-terrorist Operations?p. 232
Is Torture Morally Permissible as a Counterterrorist Strategy?p. 234
The Morality of Targeted Killingp. 239
Summaryp. 242
Discussion Questionsp. 243
Media Ethics and Criminal Justicep. 244
Reporting the Truthp. 246
Avoiding Biasp. 251
Avoiding Harmp. 252
Serving the Publicp. 254
Maintaining Trustp. 255
Manipulationp. 256
Summaryp. 257
The Application of Ethical Theories to the Criminal Justice Systemp. 258
Duty and Principlep. 263
Hypothetical and Categorical Imperativesp. 264
The Principle of Universalityp. 264
Respect for All Personsp. 265
Kingdom of Endsp. 267
Conflicting Dutiesp. 267
Applying Deontological Theoryp. 268
Rough Justice in a Juvenile Institutionp. 268
Summaryp. 271
Discussion Casep. 272
Discussion Questionsp. 273
Considering the Consequencesp. 274
Pleasure and Happinessp. 276
Act Consequentialismp. 276
Rule Consequentialismp. 277
Public Policy and Utilitarianismp. 277
Arguments Criticizing Utilitarianismp. 277
Applying Utilitarian Theoryp. 281
Good Friends Are Hard to Findp. 281
Summaryp. 285
Discussion Casep. 285
Discussion Questionsp. 286
The Importance of Characterp. 287
Virtuesp. 288
Aristotle and Happinessp. 290
The Golden Meanp. 291
Practical Wisdomp. 292
What's Wrong With Virtuep. 292
Applying Virtue Theoryp. 296
Profiling in the Neighborhoodp. 297
Summaryp. 299
Discussion Casep. 300
Discussion Questionsp. 301
Egoism, Pleasure, and Indifferencep. 302
Stoicismp. 302
Hedonismp. 304
Ethical Egoismp. 305
Psychological Egoismp. 305
Ethical Egoismp. 306
Applying the Theory of Ethical Egoismp. 307
Giving Your Own Punishmentp. 307
Summaryp. 310
Discussion Questionsp. 311
A Sense of Justicep. 312
Application of the Principlesp. 313
Justice as Fairnessp. 315
Moral Developmentp. 315
Applying Rawlsian Theoryp. 316
Summaryp. 318
Discussion Questionsp. 318
Caring for Othersp. 320
Kohlberg and Gilliganp. 320
A Theory of Moral Developmentp. 320
"In a Different Voice": Carol Gilliganp. 322
Gender and the Ethic of Carep. 324
An Ethic of Carep. 324
Developing the Ethic of Carep. 325
The Ethic of Care and Justicep. 327
Peacemakingp. 328
Applying the Ethic of Carep. 330
Tough Lovep. 330
Summaryp. 333
Discussion Casep. 334
Discussion Questionsp. 335
Referencesp. 336
Indexp. 359
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