9780534645571

Criminal Justice (with InfoTrac)

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780534645571

  • ISBN10:

    0534645577

  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2005-06-17
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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Summary

Samaha's CRIMINAL JUSTICE, Seventh Edition has retained its role as a leader in the introduction to criminal justice market. It offers a unique decision-making approach that engages students and promotes critical thinking while providing a thorough and engaging introduction to the field. This edition retains and enhances these strengths with such features as "Fact or Fiction?"-a new feature that gets students thinking about the major topics at the beginning of each chapter, "Make Your Decision"-a new multi-page section that concludes each chapter, and "Criminal Justice and Technology" -a new feature that highlights the impact of rapidly changing technology on the system. The new format includes a rich variety of full-color illustrations and photos that add to the engaging writing to hold students' interest. Also, the book features up-to-the-minute coverage of the hottest topics in the field, including the impact of world terrorism and rapidly changing technologies. This manageable 15-chapter text now includes separate chapters on the explanations of criminal behavior (Chapter 3), on trial and guilty pleas (Chapter 10) and on juvenile justice (Chapter 15).

Table of Contents

PART 1 Criminal Justice
Criminal Justice in the United States
2(32)
Crime Control in a Constitutional Democracy
5(2)
CJ & Technology: Government Thermal Imaging of Your Home: An Invasion of Privacy?
7(1)
Criminal Justice Decision Making
8(7)
The Criminal Justice Structure
8(1)
The Criminal Justice Process
9(1)
Producers and Products
9(1)
Interdependent Decision Making
10(1)
Formal and Informal Decision Making
10(2)
Formal Decision Making
12(1)
Informal (Discretionary) Decision Making
13(1)
The Complexity of Decision Making
13(1)
Legitimate versus Discriminatory Decision Making
14(1)
In Focus: Crime and Punishment in New Haven: A Gender Gap?
15(1)
Criminal Justice Models
16(6)
The Wedding Cake Model
16(2)
The Funnel Model
18(1)
The Crime Control and Due Process Models
19(1)
The Crime Control Model
19(2)
The Due Process Model
21(1)
The History of Crime Control and Due Process
22(5)
The Early History of Criminal Justice
24(1)
Colonial America
25(1)
Revolution and the Early Republic
25(1)
Industrialization, Urbanization, and Immigration
26(1)
The Due Process Revolution
26(1)
The Return to Crime Control
26(1)
Research and Criminal Justice
27(1)
Make Your Decision: Is There a Wartime Exception to the Bill of Rights?
28(4)
Facts
28(1)
Majority Opinion
29(1)
Dissenting Opinion
30(2)
Chapter Summary
32(1)
Key Terms
32(1)
Web Resources
32(1)
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33(1)
Crime, Criminals, and Victims
34(34)
The Types of Crime
36(7)
Crimes against the State
38(1)
Old Crimes against the State: Treason, Sedition, Sabotage, and Espionage
38(1)
Antiterrorist Crimes
39(1)
White-Collar Crimes
40(1)
Recent Cases
41(2)
CJ & Technology: Hot Off the Wireless
43(2)
Definitions
43(1)
Hate Crimes
44(1)
Measuring Crime
45(6)
Official Police Reports
45(1)
Crime Index (Part I) Offenses
45(1)
Part II Offenses
45(1)
National Incident-Based Reporting System (NIBRS)
45(3)
Victim Surveys
48(1)
Self-Reports
49(2)
Trends in Crime
51(2)
Criminals
53(5)
Female Criminals
53(2)
White and Black Criminals
55(2)
The Relationship between Criminals and Victims
57(1)
Crime Victims
58(4)
The Types of Victim
59(1)
Victim Protection and Assistance
60(2)
Make Your Decision: Can We Identify Career Criminals before Their Careers Start?
62(4)
Does the Evidence Support the Need for a Career Criminal Policy?
62(1)
Are Super Predators Born That Way?
62(2)
Do We Know the Path to Becoming a Super Predator?
64(2)
Chapter Summary
66(1)
Key Terms
66(1)
Web Resources
67(1)
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67(1)
Explanations of Criminal Behavior
68(38)
Classical Theories
72(6)
The Rational Choice Theory
72(2)
Motivation
74(1)
Risk
75(2)
Policy Implications
77(1)
The Routine Activities Theory
77(1)
Elements
77(1)
In Focus: Rational Choice Theory: A Sound Basis for Policy?
78(2)
Policy Implications
79(1)
The Seductions of Crime Theory
79(1)
Biological Theories
80(6)
Genetics
81(1)
Biological Markers of Violent Behavior
82(1)
Hormones and Male Violence
82(1)
Hormones and Female Violence
82(1)
Neurotransmitters
83(1)
Brain Abnormalities and Dysfunctions
83(1)
Diet
84(1)
Criminal Justice Policy Implications
85(1)
Psychological Theories
86(2)
Low Intelligence
86(1)
Personality
87(1)
Sociological Theories
88(7)
Social Structure Theories
88(1)
The Strain Theory
88(2)
Strain and Illegitimate Opportunity Theory
90(1)
Social Process Theories
90(1)
Social Learning Theories
90(1)
The Social Control Theory
91(1)
The Labeling Theory
91(1)
Developmental Theories
92(1)
Early Childhood Theories
92(1)
The Life-Course Theory
93(1)
Desistance Theories and the Life Course
93(2)
Criminal Law Theories
95(5)
The Consensus Theory
96(2)
The Conflict Theory
98(1)
The Radical Theory
98(2)
Make Your Decision: Do Broken Windows Cause Serious Crime?
100(4)
Do Broken Windows Lead to Serious Crime?
100(4)
Chapter Summary
104(1)
Key Terms
104(1)
Web Resources
105(1)
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105(1)
Criminal Justice and the Law
106(30)
Criminal Law
109(6)
Constitutional Limits on Criminal Law
109(2)
The Elements of Crime
111(1)
The Criminal Act
111(1)
The Criminal Intent
112(1)
The Concurrence of Act and Intent
113(1)
Causing a Criminal Harm
113(1)
The Defenses to Crime
114(1)
The Defenses of Justification
114(1)
In Focus: Should Evidence of Rape Victims' Sexual Activities Be Off Limits in Rape Trials?
115(4)
The Defenses of Excuse
116(3)
In Focus: Was He Too Drunk to Be Guilty of Murder?
119(4)
Classifying and Grading Crimes
122(1)
Felony, Misdemeanor, and Violation
122(1)
In Focus: Are Some Crimes Inherently Evil?
123(1)
Mala in Se and Mala Prohibita
123(1)
Crimes and Torts
124(1)
The Law of Criminal Procedure
124(1)
CJ & Technology: Privacy and Terrorism: The Naked Crowd
125(5)
Due Process of Law
125(3)
The Equal Protection of the Law
128(2)
Make Your Decision: Are Battered Women Justified in Killing Their Batterers?
130(4)
Judy Ann Norman
130(2)
Pros and Cons of a Battered Woman's Self-Defense
132(2)
Chapter Summary
134(1)
Key Terms
134(1)
Web Resources
134(1)
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135(1)
PART 2 The Police
Missions and Roles of the Police
136(48)
The History of Police and Policing
138(9)
The Constable/Night Watch System, 1066--1850
139(1)
The Municipal Police Department Era, 1851--1920
139(3)
The Reform Model Era, 1921--1960
142(1)
The Turbulent 1960s
143(1)
The Community Policing Era, 1970--
144(1)
The History of Policewomen and Women Policing
144(1)
Policewomen as Social Workers, 1900-1930
145(1)
From Social Workers to Crime Fighters, 1931--Present
146(1)
Police Structure and Organization
147(3)
Federal Law Enforcement Agencies
148(1)
Federal Bureau of Investigation (FBI)
148(2)
CJ & Technology: The DEA ``Operation Web Tryp''
150(8)
Drug Enforcement Administration (DEA)
150(1)
Other Federal Law Enforcement Agencies
151(1)
Department of Homeland Security (DHS)
151(1)
State Law Enforcement Agencies
152(1)
County Law Enforcement Agencies
153(1)
Municipal Police Departments
153(1)
Formal Police Structure
154(1)
The Informal Police Decision-Making Process
154(1)
Private (Nongovernment) Police and Policing
155(1)
Business Nongovernment Police
155(1)
Residential Community Nongovernment Police
156(1)
The Private Security Business
157(1)
Private Security Personnel
157(1)
Police Missions
158(1)
Criminal Law Enforcement
158(1)
In Focus: Which Laws Should the Police Enforce?
159(3)
Order Maintenance
159(1)
Public Service
160(1)
The Overlapping of Missions
160(1)
Possible Shifts in Mission Priorities
161(1)
Police Officers
162(3)
Officer Selection, Training, and Promotion
162(2)
The Police Academy
164(1)
Field Training
164(1)
In Focus: Does Field Training Make Better Cops?
165(15)
Higher Education
166(2)
The Police ``Working Personality''
168(1)
How Police Look at the World
168(1)
Police Stress
169(2)
The Working Personality and Discretionary Decision Making
171(1)
Adventure/Machismo
171(1)
Safety
171(1)
Competence
171(1)
Morality
172(1)
Solidarity
173(2)
Law
175(1)
Women and Minority Officers
176(1)
Women Officers
176(2)
Minority Officers
178(2)
Make Your Decision: Are Business Improvement Districts Good Public Policy?
180(3)
Business Improvement Districts (BID), New York City
180(1)
Strengths and Weaknesses of Privatization
181(2)
Chapter Summary
183(1)
Key Terms
183(1)
Web Resources
183(1)
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183(1)
Policing Strategies
184(36)
Patrol: The ``Backbone'' of Policing
187(3)
Mobilizing Patrol
187(1)
Types of Preventive Patrol
188(1)
Vehicle Patrol
188(1)
Foot Patrol
189(1)
In Focus: Is Preventive Patrol a Waste of Police Time and Taxpayers' Money?
190(1)
Single-Officer Patrol
190(1)
Criminal Investigation
191(2)
Preliminary Investigation
192(1)
Follow-Up Investigation
193(1)
Proactive Policing
193(3)
``Hot Spots'' Patrol
194(1)
Crackdowns
194(1)
Field Interrogation
195(1)
Specific Crime Attack
195(1)
Gun Violence
195(1)
In Focus: Were the Field Interrogations Appropriate?
196(3)
Drug Hot Spots
197(1)
Domestic Violence
198(1)
Community-Oriented (COP) and Problem-Oriented (POP) Policing
199(5)
Community-Oriented Policing (COP)
200(2)
Problem-Oriented Policing (POP)
202(1)
Evaluating Community- and Problem-Oriented Policing
203(1)
In Focus: Problem-Oriented Policing in Chicago
204(2)
Law Enforcement Technology
206(4)
DNA
207(3)
CJ & Technology: 3-D Mug Shot
210(6)
Solving Crimes
212(1)
Cost-Effectiveness
212(1)
Compstat (Computerized Statistics)
213(3)
Make Your Decision: Are the Streets ``Less Mean'' Because of Compstat?
216(2)
Yes
216(1)
We Need More Information
216(2)
Chapter Summary
218(1)
Key Terms
218(1)
Web Resources
218(1)
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219(1)
Police and the Law
220(48)
Law Enforcement and the Constitution
223(2)
Arrest
225(1)
The Definition of Arrest
225(1)
Probable Cause
225(1)
Arrest Warrants
225(1)
In Focus: Was There Probable Cause to Arrest?
226(1)
Searches
226(5)
The Definition of Search
227(1)
The Meaning of Unreasonable Search
228(1)
Searches of Homes
229(1)
Searches at the Time of Arrest
229(1)
Consent Searches
230(1)
Stops and Frisks
230(1)
In Focus: Do You Have to Identify Yourself to Police Officers?
231(5)
``Knock and Announce'' Rule: U.S. v. Banks, 124 S. Ct. 521 (2003)
232(1)
Car Search: Thornton v. U.S., 124 S. Ct. 2127 (2004)
233(1)
Border Searches: U.S. v. Flores-Montano, 124 S.Ct. 1582 (2004)
234(1)
Roadblock: Illinois v. Lidster, 124 S. Ct. 885 (2004)
235(1)
Interrogation
236(4)
Miranda v. Arizona
236(1)
Delay in Giving Warnings: Missouri v. Seibert, 124 S.Ct. 2601 (2004)
237(1)
Warnings to a 17-Year-Old: Yarborough v. Alvarado, 124 S.Ct. 2140 (2004)
237(1)
Suspect Interrupts Warnings, Says He Knows His Rights: U.S. v. Patane, 124 S.Ct. 2620 (2004)
238(1)
Incriminating Statements at Home before Warnings at Jail: Fellers v. U.S., 124 S. Ct. 1019 (2004)
238(1)
The Ban on ``Compelled'' Self-Incrimination
239(1)
In Focus: Do Officers Have to Mirandize Suspects When It Would Endanger an Officer or Someone Nearby?
240(1)
Eyewitness Identification of Strangers
240(4)
The Dangers of Mistaken Identifications
241(1)
Lineups and Mistaken Identifications
242(1)
The Makeup of Lineups
242(1)
Administering Lineup Identification
243(1)
Due Process and Lineup Misidentifications
243(1)
Police Use of Force
244(3)
The Types of Force
245(1)
Knockdown Force
245(1)
Deadly Force
246(1)
CJ & Technology: Are Tasers Safe?
247(5)
High-Speed Chases
248(1)
The Use of Force and the Constitution
249(2)
Race and Deadly Force
251(1)
In Focus: Interrogating Terrorist Suspects: Does the Constitution Allow It?
252(1)
Racial Profiling
252(3)
``Driving While Black or Brown''
253(2)
Profiling and the Constitution
255(1)
Police Misconduct
255(7)
Police Corruption
255(1)
Remedies for Police Misconduct
256(1)
Criminal Punishment
257(1)
Civil Lawsuits
257(1)
Internal Review
258(1)
External Review
259(1)
The Exclusionary Rule
260(1)
Other Responses to Misconduct
261(1)
Make Your Decision: Did Ethnicity Infect the Decision to Stop?
262(4)
Facts
262(1)
North Carolina's Brief
263(1)
Villeda's Brief
264(2)
Chapter Summary
266(1)
Key Terms
266(1)
Web Resources
266(1)
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267(1)
PART 3 The Courts
Courts and Courtroom Work Groups
268(26)
The Criminal Court Structure
270(2)
Lower Courts
271(1)
In Focus: Does Speed Trump Justice?
272(3)
Felony Courts
274(1)
Appellate Courts
274(1)
The U.S. Supreme Court
274(1)
Criminal Court Missions
275(2)
The Due Process Mission
276(1)
The Crime Control Mission
276(1)
In Focus: Gun Courts: Breaking the Cycle?
277(1)
The Social Justice Mission
277(1)
The Organizational Mission
278(1)
The Courtroom Work Group
278(1)
In Focus: Drug Courts: A Good Idea for the Federal Justice System?
279(6)
Judges
280(2)
Prosecutors
282(2)
Formal and Informal Missions
284(1)
In Focus: Is Police-Prosecutor Cooperation Worth the Effort?
285(5)
Structure and Management
286(1)
Community Prosecution
286(1)
Defense Counsel
287(3)
Make Your Decision: How Can You Defend These People?
290(3)
Confessions of a Criminal Lawyer
290(2)
The Best Defense
292(1)
Chapter Summary
293(1)
Key Terms
293(1)
Web Resources
293(1)
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293(1)
Proceedings before Trial
294(32)
The Decision to Charge
296(5)
The Influences on the Decision to Charge
298(1)
The Strength of the Case
298(1)
Informal Influences
299(2)
CJ & Technology: If You Can't Measure It, You Can't Manage It
301(2)
Race, Gender, and the Decision to Charge
301(1)
The Consequences of the Decision to Charge
302(1)
The First Appearance
303(6)
The Appointment of Defense Counsel
303(2)
When the Right to Counsel ``Kicks In''
305(1)
The Meaning of ``All Criminal Prosecutions''
306(1)
The Right to ``Effective'' Counsel
307(1)
The Standard of Indigence
308(1)
The Reality of the Criminal Defense of the Poor
308(1)
In Focus: Did His Lawyer Represent Him ``Effectively''?
309(6)
Bail and Detention
310(1)
The Money Bail System
311(1)
Race and Gender Bias in Bail Decisions
312(1)
Preventive Detention
312(2)
Defendant Misconduct during Pretrial Release
314(1)
Testing the Government's Case
315(2)
The Preliminary Hearing
315(1)
The Indictment
316(1)
The Information
316(1)
In Focus: Grand Jury: Sword against Terror and Corporate Crime or Shield against Government Power?
317(1)
A Summary of the Tests
318(1)
Arraignment and Pretrial Motions
318(2)
Make Your Decision: Are Decisions to Charge in Sexual Assault Cases Infected by Race and Stereotypes of Women?
320(4)
The Decision to Charge, Dade County (Miami), Florida
320(4)
Chapter Summary
324(1)
Key Terms
324(1)
Web Resources
324(1)
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325(1)
Conviction by Trial and Guilty Plea
326(36)
Disposition by Trial
328(8)
Juries
329(1)
The Jury as a Political Institution
329(1)
Jury Nullification
330(1)
Jury Selection
331(1)
12-Member Juries and Unanimous Verdicts
332(1)
A Fair Trial
333(1)
Proving Guilt ``Beyond a Reasonable Doubt''
333(2)
Opening Statements
335(1)
Calling and Examining Witnesses
335(1)
CJ & Technology: The Remote Defendant
336(2)
Admissible Evidence
337(1)
Closing Arguments
338(1)
Charging the Jury
338(1)
Jury Deliberations
338(1)
Disposition by Negotiation
338(12)
The Types of Guilty Pleas
339(1)
Straight Pleas
339(2)
Negotiated Pleas
341(2)
Plea-Bargaining Criteria
343(1)
The Strength of the Case
343(1)
The Seriousness of the Offense
344(1)
The Dangerousness of the Defendant
344(1)
Heavy Caseloads
345(1)
The Prosecutor and Plea Bargaining
345(1)
Defense Counsel and Plea Bargaining
346(1)
Judges and Plea Bargaining
347(1)
Defendants and Plea Bargaining
348(1)
The U.S. Supreme Court and Guilty Pleas
349(1)
In Focus: ``Guilty but Not Guilty Because I'm Innocent'': A Voluntary Plea?
350(6)
The Plea-Bargaining Debate
350(2)
Punishing Innocent Defendants
352(1)
Punishing Guilty Defendants Less Than They Deserve
353(1)
Pretrial Settlement Conferences
354(1)
Administrative Rule Making
354(1)
Ban on Plea Bargaining
355(1)
Make Your Decision: Should Plea Bargaining Be Banned?
356(4)
The Impropriety of Plea Agreements: A Tale of Two Counties
356(1)
Caseloads, Work Avoidance, and Coercion
356(2)
Workgroup Pathologies
358(1)
Other Negative Aspects of Plea Bargaining
358(1)
Convicting the Innocent
358(1)
Conclusion
359(1)
Chapter Summary
360(1)
Key Terms
360(1)
Web Resources
360(1)
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361(1)
Sentencing
362(42)
The Purposes of Sentencing
365(3)
Retribution
365(1)
Prevention
366(1)
Restitution and Restorative Justice
367(1)
The History of Sentencing
368(3)
Determinate and Indeterminate Sentencing, Before 1870
369(1)
Indeterminate Sentencing, 1870--1970
369(1)
The Return to Determinate Sentencing, 1971-Present
370(1)
The Types of Determinate Sentencing
371(8)
Mandatory Minimum Sentencing Laws
371(2)
Do Mandatory Minimum Sentence Laws Work?
373(2)
``Truth in Sentencing'' and ``Three Strikes and You're Out'' Laws
375(4)
In Focus: Three-Strikes Law: Time for Change?
379(3)
Sentencing Guidelines
380(1)
The Types of Guidelines
380(1)
The Minnesota Sentencing Guidelines
381(1)
In Focus: Sentencing Guidelines: Denial of the Right to a Jury Trial?
382(2)
The Presentence Investigation
384(1)
Disparity and Discrimination in Sentencing
384(3)
Blacks and Disparity
385(1)
Hispanics and Disparity
385(1)
Women and Disparity
386(1)
The Death Sentence
387(5)
Facts about the Death Sentence
387(1)
The Death Penalty and the Constitution
387(2)
Executing Mentally Retarded Offenders
389(1)
Executing Juvenile Offenders
390(2)
In Focus: U.S. Supreme Court Ban on Capital Punishment for Juveniles: Who's Next?
392(2)
Public Opinion and the Death Penalty
392(2)
CJ & Technology: Crime, Culpability, and the Adolescent Brain
394(4)
Four Tough Questions about Capital Punishment
396(1)
Is the Death Penalty Right? (The Moral Question)
396(1)
Does It Work? (The Utilitarian Question)
396(1)
Does the Death Penalty Kill Innocent People? (The Fallibility Question)
397(1)
In Focus: To Kill or Not to Kill?
398(2)
Does the Death Penalty Discriminate? (The Fairness Question)
399(1)
Make Your Decision: Is It Time to Lift the Moratorium on the Death Penalty in Illinois?
400(2)
Chapter Summary
402(1)
Key Terms
402(1)
Web Resources
402(1)
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403(1)
PART 4 Corrections
Community Corrections
404(32)
Probation and Parole
406(8)
The History of Probation and Parole
407(1)
The History of Probation
407(1)
The History of Parole
408(1)
The Missions of Probation and Parole
409(1)
The Missions of Probation
409(1)
The Missions of Parole
410(1)
Granting Probation and Parole
410(1)
Granting Probation
410(1)
Felons on Probation
411(1)
Granting Parole
411(2)
The Conditions of Probation and Parole
413(1)
In Focus: Required Church Attendance: An Unconstitutional Condition of Probation?
414(4)
Revoking Probation and Parole
414(2)
Probation, Parole, and the Law
416(1)
The Effectiveness of Probation and Parole
416(1)
The Effectiveness of Probation
416(1)
The Effectiveness of Parole
417(1)
In Focus: Is Probation Dreaded More than Prison?
418(2)
The Side Effects of Parole
419(1)
Race, Ethnicity, Gender, and Community Corrections
419(1)
Intermediate Punishments
420(6)
The Types of Intermediate Punishments
421(1)
Intensive Supervised Probation (ISP)
422(1)
Home Confinement: Electronic Monitoring
423(1)
Correctional Boot Camps
424(1)
Fines
424(2)
In Focus: Boot Camps: Do They ``Work''?
426(4)
Community Service
427(1)
Day Reporting Centers
428(1)
Evaluating Intermediate Punishments
429(1)
Make Your Decision: Satellite Monitoring of Probationers: Does It Work? Is It Constitutional?
430(4)
Global Positioning Systems (GPS)
430(1)
GIS Crime Mapping
431(1)
Is It Effective?
432(1)
Civil Liberties Concerns
432(1)
The Future
432(2)
Chapter Summary
434(1)
Key Terms
434(1)
Web Resources
435(1)
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435(1)
Prisons, Jails, and Prisoners
436(42)
The History of U.S. Prisons
439(4)
The Penitentiary, 1785--1890
439(1)
The Massachusetts System
439(1)
The Pennsylvania System
440(1)
The Auburn System
441(1)
The ``Correctional'' Institution, 1891--1970
442(1)
Prisons, 1971--Present
443(1)
The Prison Population Boom
443(3)
Public Response to the Crime Boom
444(1)
Political Opportunism
444(1)
The ``War'' on Drugs
445(1)
Improved Criminal Justice System Efficiency
445(1)
Race and Ethnicity
446(1)
The Side Effects of Imprisonment
446(3)
Diverting Resources from Other Public Services
447(1)
Diverting Resources to Other Communities
447(1)
The Loss of Income
447(1)
The Effects on Offenders' Children
448(1)
The Effects of Incarcerated Fathers
448(1)
The Effects of Incarcerated Mothers
449(1)
Prisons
449(1)
Prison Security Levels
449(1)
CJ & Technology: Corrections Data Mining
450(12)
Maximum Security Prisons
450(5)
Medium and Minimum Security Prisons
455(1)
Women's Prisons
456(1)
Private Prisons
456(2)
Prison Management
458(2)
Corrections Officers
460(1)
The Supervision Hierarchy
460(1)
Women and Minority Corrections Officers
461(1)
Officer Training
462(1)
Corrections Officers' Unions
462(1)
Jails
462(4)
Women in Jail
463(1)
Jail Programs
463(1)
Jail Conditions
463(2)
New-Generation Jails
465(1)
In Focus: Atlanta Jail: Time for the Sheriff to Go?
466(3)
Prisoners
469(2)
Women Prisoners
469(1)
Repeat Offenders
469(2)
Special-Management Prisoners
471(1)
The Length of Imprisonment
471(1)
Make Your Decision: Does Sending More People to Prison Reduce Crime Rates?
472(4)
What Recent Studies Do (and Don't) Tell Us about Imprisonment and Crime
472(4)
Chapter Summary
476(1)
Key Terms
477(1)
Web Resources
477(1)
Search Online with InfoTrac College Edition
477(1)
Prison Life
478(50)
Male Prison Society
481(3)
Indigenous and Importation Theories
481(1)
The ``Pains'' of Men's Imprisonment
482(1)
Enforced Poverty
483(1)
CJ & Technology: Is There a Doctor in the House?
484(2)
Ban on Sex
485(1)
In Focus: Ban Sex in Prison?
486(14)
Coping with Stress from the Pains of Imprisonment
487(1)
Individual Male Violence
488(1)
Prisoner-Officer Violence
488(1)
Sexual Assault
489(1)
Prison Gangs and Violence
489(1)
Race, Ethnicity, and Violence in Men's Prisons
490(1)
Coping with Violence
491(1)
Collective Male Violence (Riots)
492(1)
Men's Prison Programs
493(1)
Education in Men's Prisons
494(2)
Work in Prison
496(1)
Prison Work Programs
497(1)
Recreation
498(1)
Religious Programs
498(1)
Drug Treatment
498(1)
The Cognitive Model of Rehabilitation
499(1)
Program Debate
500(1)
Life in Women's Prisons
500(7)
The ``Pains'' of Women's Imprisonment
501(1)
Female Prisoners' Control over Their Lives
502(1)
Continuity and Change in Women Prisoners' ``Doing Time''
503(2)
Women's Prison Programs
505(1)
Needs of and Programs for Women Prisoners
505(1)
What ``Works'' in Women's Prison Programs?
506(1)
Law in Prison Society
507(3)
The Hands-Off Doctrine
508(1)
Overview of Prisoners' Rights
508(1)
The Right to Go to Court
509(1)
Due Process of Law
509(1)
In Focus: Do Death Row Prisoners Have a ``Right'' to Watch TV?
510(2)
Equal Protection of the Laws
510(1)
Free Speech, Association, and Religion
511(1)
In Focus: Do Prisoners Have a Right against Unreasonable Searches and Seizures?
512(6)
Right against Cruel and Unusual Punishment
512(1)
Right against Unreasonable Searches and Seizures
513(1)
Prisoners' Rights in Operation
514(1)
Internal Grievance Mechanisms
515(1)
Common Grievances and Disciplinary Violations
515(1)
Grievance Procedures and Their Effects
516(2)
Leaving Prison
518(6)
Where Do Released Prisoners Go?
519(1)
Which Reentry Programs ``Work''?
520(2)
The Right to Vote and Reentry
522(2)
Make Your Decision: A Provocative Proposal: Reentry Courts
524(2)
Judges as Reentry Managers
524(1)
Incarceration as a Prelude to Reentry
524(1)
Setting the Terms of Release
525(1)
Making the Contract Work
525(1)
Chapter Summary
526(1)
Key Terms
526(1)
Web Resources
527(1)
Search Online with InfoTrac College Edition
527(1)
PART 5 Juvenile Justice
Juvenile Justice
528(24)
The History of Juvenile Justice
530(2)
Juvenile Justice and the U.S. Constitution
532(1)
In Focus: Life Sentence for 12-Year-Old?
533(1)
Juvenile Delinquency
534(1)
Measuring Delinquency
534(1)
In Focus: Juvenile Delinquency: Arrest or Detention for Wearing a Low-Cut Midriff Top?
535(2)
Juvenile Arrests
535(2)
The Juvenile Justice System: Law Enforcement, the Courts, and Corrections
537(3)
Law Enforcement and Juveniles
537(3)
In Focus: Arrest a 13-Year-Old for DWI?
540(7)
Juvenile Court
540(1)
Intake
541(1)
Adjudicatory Hearing
541(1)
Disposition
541(1)
Transfer to Adult Criminal Court
542(2)
Juvenile Corrections
544(1)
Probation
544(1)
Institutional Corrections
544(3)
In Focus: Juvenile Detention of Mentally Ill Juveniles: Substitute for Mental Health Care?
547(1)
Make Your Decision: Juvenile Corrections: Rehabilitation or Punishment?
548(3)
Chapter Summary
551(1)
Key Terms
551(1)
Web Resources
551(1)
Search Online with InfoTrac College Edition
551(1)
Appendix: Constitution of the United States 552(8)
Glossary 560(6)
Bibliography 566(20)
Case Index 586(2)
Name Index 588(4)
Subject Index 592(16)
Photo Credits 608

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