Criminal Procedure

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  • Edition: 7th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2007-07-20
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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Written with a real passion for communicating the meaning behind the principles criminal procedure, Samaha's text focuses on not just the "how to," but the "why"-providing case excerpts and meaningful legal analysis as well as emphasizing the need for a balance of government power and the liberty/privacy of individuals as a central, and very timely, theme of his book. This current Seventh Edition addresses the entire criminal procedure process, from search and seizure to post-conviction sentencing and review by appellate courts, while providing timely case updates and topic coverage in key areas such as terrorism and homeland security, the USA-PATRIOT Act, searches and seizures, military tribunals, new sentencing guidelines, and more.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xiii
Crime Control in a Constitutional Democracyp. 2
Balancing Values in Criminal Procedurep. 5
Community Security and Individual Autonomyp. 5
Ends and Meansp. 7
The History of Balancing Valuesp. 8
Balancing Values in Emergenciesp. 9
Equalityp. 9
Discretionp. 10
The Objective Basis Requirementp. 10
"Good" Evidence and "Bad" Methodsp. 11
The Text-Case Methodp. 11
The Parts of Case Excerptsp. 12
Precedent and Stare Decisisp. 14
Appellate Casesp. 15
Briefing the Casesp. 16
Criminal Procedure and the Constitutionp. 20
The U.S. Constitution and the Courtsp. 23
State Constitutions and State Courtsp. 24
Due Process of Lawp. 25
The Meaning of Due Processp. 25
Hurtado and Charging by Informationp. 26
The "Scottsboro Boys" and Due Process of Lawp. 27
Brown v. Mississippi and Coerced Confessionsp. 28
The Fundamental Fairness Doctrinep. 30
The Incorporation Doctrinep. 31
Case: Rochin v. Californiap. 33
Equal Protection of the Lawp. 36
Case: U.S. v. Armstrongp. 37
The Definition of Searches and Seizuresp. 46
The History and the Purposes of the Fourth Amendmentp. 49
Searchesp. 51
The Privacy Doctrinep. 51
Case: Katz v. U.S.p. 53
Electronic Surveillancep. 59
Case: U.S. v. Whitep. 59
Case: Kyllo v. U.S.p. 62
The Plain View Doctrinep. 65
Case: Illinois v. Caballesp. 66
The Open Fields Doctrinep. 68
Abandoned Propertyp. 68
Seizuresp. 69
Empirical Findingsp. 71
Fleeing Suspectsp. 72
Case: California v. Hodari D.p. 72
Stop and Friskp. 80
Stop-and-Frisk Lawp. 84
Two Approaches to Fourth Amendment Analysesp. 84
Terry v. Ohio and Stop and Friskp. 87
Case: Terry v. Ohiop. 88
Stop and Frisk after Terryp. 93
Case: Adams v. Williamsp. 94
Stops and the Fourth Amendmentp. 97
Reasonable Suspicion to Back Up Stopsp. 98
Case: U.S. v. Cortexp. 99
Case: Florida v. J. L.p. 102
Case: Illinois v. Wardlowp. 106
Case: U.S. v. Brignoni-Poncep. 111
Case: U.S. v. Sokolowp. 115
The Scope of Reasonable Stopsp. 118
Case: U.S. v. Sharpe and Savagep. 119
Case: People v. Courtneyp. 122
Frisks and the Fourth Amendmentp. 123
Case: U.S. v. McCargop. 124
Reasonable Suspicion to Back Up Frisksp. 127
The Scope of Reasonable Frisksp. 128
Case: Minnesota v. Dickersonp. 129
Special Situation Stops and Frisksp. 131
Removing Passengers from Stopped Vehiclesp. 131
Case: Maryland v. Wilsonp. 132
Detentions at International Bordersp. 135
Case: U.S. v. Montoya de Hernandezp. 135
Checkpoints and Roadblocksp. 139
Case: Michigan v. Sitzp. 139
Seizure of Persons: Arrestp. 148
The Definition of Arrestp. 150
A Reasonable Arrestp. 151
Probable Causep. 152
Direct Informationp. 152
Hearsayp. 153
Case: Draper v. U.S.p. 154
The Manner of Arrestp. 158
The Warrant Requirementp. 158
Case: U.S. v. Watsonp. 159
Case: Payton v. New Yorkp. 162
Arrest by Forcep. 169
Case: Tennessee v. Garnerp. 170
Case: Graham v. Connorp. 173
Case: Kuha v. City of Minnetonkap. 176
After Arrestp. 178
Case: Atwater v. City of Lago Vistap. 179
Searches for Evidencep. 188
Searches with Warrantsp. 191
The Particularity Requirementp. 191
The Probable Cause Affidavitp. 192
The "Knock-and-Announce" Rulep. 192
Case: Wilson v. Arkansasp. 192
Case: U.S. v. Banksp. 196
Searches without Warrantsp. 199
Searches Incident to (at the Time of) Arrestp. 200
Case: Chimel v. Californiap. 201
Case: New York v. Beltonp. 203
Case: Knowles v. Iowap. 209
Case: Whren v. U.S.p. 211
Consent Searchesp. 214
Case: Schneckloth v. Bustamontep. 216
Case: U.S. v. Rodneyp. 222
Case: U.S. v. Grayp. 225
Case: Illinois v. Rodriguezp. 226
Vehicle Searchesp. 231
Case: Wyoming v. Houghtonp. 233
Emergency Searchesp. 236
Special-Needs Searchesp. 242
Inventory Searchesp. 245
Balancing Interestsp. 245
Objective Basisp. 245
Case: Colorado v. Bertinep. 246
International Border Searchesp. 248
Airport Searchesp. 249
Custody-Related Searchesp. 249
Prisonersp. 250
Strip and Body-Cavity Searchesp. 251
Case: Mary Beth G. v. City of Chicagop. 251
Testing and Storing DNAp. 253
Probationers and Paroleesp. 254
Case: Samson v. Californiap. 255
Employee Drug Searchesp. 259
Student Searchesp. 261
Drug Testing of High-School Studentsp. 261
Case: Board of Education of Independent School District No. 92 of Pottawatomie County v. Earlsp. 262
Searches of College Studentsp. 265
Case: Commonwealth v. Neilsonp. 265
Self-Incriminationp. 272
The Nature and the Role of Confessionsp. 274
The Self-incrimination Settingp. 275
The Importance of Confessions and Interrogationp. 276
False Confessions and Videotaping Interrogationsp. 277
The Constitution and Self-Incriminationp. 279
The Due Process Approachp. 280
The Right-to-Counsel Approachp. 282
The Self-Incrimination Approachp. 283
Case: Schmerber v. Californiap. 284
Miranda v. Arizonap. 286
Case: Miranda v. Arizonap. 286
The Miranda "Bright-Line" Rulesp. 289
The Meaning of "Custody"p. 291
Case: Berkemer, Sheriff of Franklin County, v. McCartyp. 292
The Public Safety Exceptionp. 293
The Meaning of "Interrogation"p. 294
Case: Brewer v. Williamsp. 296
The Waiver of the Right to Remain Silentp. 300
Case: Moran, Superintendent, Rhode Island Department of Corrections, v. Burbinep. 302
Voluntary Self-Incriminationp. 304
Case: Colorado v. Connellyp. 306
Identification Proceduresp. 316
Mistaken Eyewitness Identificationp. 318
Memory and Mistaken Identification of Strangersp. 319
The Power of Suggestionp. 320
Identification Proceduresp. 321
Lineupsp. 321
Show-Upsp. 323
"Mug Shot" (Photo) Identificationp. 324
The Constitution and Identification Proceduresp. 324
Reliability Is the Linchpinp. 325
"Very Substantial Likelihood of Misidentification"p. 325
Case: Manson v. Brathwaitep. 325
DNA Profile Identificationp. 330
The Reliability of DNA Testingp. 331
Legal Standards for Admitting DNA Profile Evidencep. 331
Remedies for Constitutional Violations I: The Exclusionary Rule and Entrapmentp. 338
The Exclusionary Rulep. 341
Historyp. 341
Case: Mapp v. Ohiop. 343
Justificationsp. 345
Scopep. 347
Persons Seized Illegallyp. 350
The Reasonable, Good-Faith Exceptionp. 350
Case: U.S. v. Leonp. 350
"Bad Methods" by Non-Law Enforcement Government Officialsp. 354
Case: Arizona v. Evansp. 355
Social Costs and Deterrencep. 359
The Defense of Entrapmentp. 361
The Subjective Testp. 363
Case: Jacobson v. U.S.p. 364
The Objective Testp. 368
Constitutional Violations II: Other Remedies Against Official Misconductp. 372
Criminal Actionsp. 374
Civil Actionsp. 374
Suing U.S. Officers and the U.S. Governmentp. 375
Case: Anderson v. Creightonp. 376
Suing State Officersp. 379
Suing State and Local Governmentsp. 380
Law Enforcement Failure to Protectp. 381
Case: Finder v. Johnsonp. 382
Suing Judges and Prosecutorsp. 386
Hurdles to Suing Officers and Governmentsp. 389
Administrative Remediesp. 389
Internal Reviewp. 390
External Reviewp. 392
Court Proceedings I: Before Trialp. 400
The Decision to Chargep. 402
Probable Cause to Detain Suspectsp. 404
Case: County of Riverside v. McLaughlinp. 405
The First Appearancep. 408
Bail and Pretrial Detentionp. 409
Bail and the Constitutionp. 410
Preventive Detentionp. 411
Case: U.S. v. Salernop. 412
Conditions of Pretrial Confinementp. 414
Case: Bell v. Wolfishp. 414
The Right to Counselp. 417
Case: Gideon v. Wainwrightp. 419
When the Right to Counsel Attachesp. 420
The Meaning of "All Criminal Prosecutions"p. 421
The Standard of Indigencep. 423
The Right to "Effective" Counselp. 424
Testing the Government's Casep. 425
The Preliminary Hearingp. 427
Grand Jury Reviewp. 428
Arraignmentp. 430
Pretrial Motionsp. 431
Double Jeopardyp. 431
A Speedy Trialp. 434
A Change of Venuep. 435
The Suppression of Evidencep. 437
Court Proceedings II: Trial and Convictionp. 444
Trial by Juryp. 446
The Moral Seriousness Standardp. 447
The 12-Member Jury Requirementp. 447
Case: Ballew v. Georgiap. 448
Jury Selectionp. 450
Case: Lockhart v. McCreep. 451
The Right to a Public Trialp. 453
The Stages and Rules of Jury Trialsp. 454
Opening Statementsp. 455
Presenting Evidencep. 455
Closing Argumentsp. 457
Jury Instructionsp. 459
Jury Deliberationsp. 459
The "Unanimous Verdict" Requirementp. 459
Jury Nullificationp. 460
Conviction by Guilty Pleap. 461
The Debate over Conviction by Guilty Pleap. 461
The Constitution and Guilty Pleasp. 462
Case: North Carolina v. Alfordp. 463
After Convictionp. 468
Sentencingp. 471
The History of Sentencingp. 471
The Division of Sentencing Authorityp. 473
Sentencing Guidelines and Mandatory Minimum Sentencesp. 473
The Constitution and Sentencingp. 477
Case: Ewing v. Californiap. 478
Case: Blakely v. Washingtonp. 484
Appealsp. 488
Habeas Corpus (Collateral Attack)p. 490
Criminal Procedure in Crisis Timesp. 498
The History of Criminal Procedure in Wartimep. 500
Surveillance and Terrorismp. 502
"Real Time" Electronic Surveillancep. 503
Surveiliing Stored Electronic Communicationsp. 504
Secret "Caller ID"p. 504
Controversial Government Surveillancep. 505
"Sneak and Peek" Searchesp. 507
Detaining Terrorist Suspectsp. 508
The Sources Authorizing Terrorist Suspect Detentionp. 509
Conditions of Detentionp. 512
Torture during Detentionp. 512
Trials of Suspected Terroristsp. 513
The Sources of Military Commission Authorityp. 514
The Jurisdiction of Military Commissionsp. 514
Trial Proceedings of Military Commissionsp. 515
Case: Hamdan v. Rumsfeldp. 515
Selected Amendments of the Constitution of the United Statesp. 527
Glossaryp. 529
Bibliographyp. 541
Case Indexp. 549
Indexp. 555
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