9780781727594

Critical Care Nursing A Holistic Approach

by ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780781727594

  • ISBN10:

    0781727596

  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2004-12-06
  • Publisher: LWW
  • View Upgraded Edition

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

A classic in its field, this popular text provides clinical coverage of critical care nursing, with an emphasis on holism in practice to provide students with a solid grasp of the scientific and clinical knowledge they need to deliver safe and effective care. Beginning with the psychosocial concepts of care, the text progresses through assessment and management of a variety of disorders. Its comprehensive yet concise writing offers students a wealth of information and can be used as a future reference. Now under the head authorship of Tricia Morton, Critical Care Nursing maintains its popular holistic approach to the complexities of adult health and critical care. The Eighth Edition is now in full-color, and has been thoroughly updated to reflect recent changes and advances in critical care nursing. A CD-ROM in the back of this edition has common Critical Care Drug Monographs, Crisis Values of Lab Tests, Critical Care Nursing Procedures, Animations, and comprehensive critical care exams.

Author Biography

Patricia Gonce Morton, RN, PhD, ACNP, FANN: Editor-in-Chief, AACN Clinical Issues: Advanced Practice in Acute and Critical Care, Professor, Assistant Dean for Master's Studies, and Coordinator of the Acute Care Nurse Practitioner and Clinical Nurse Specialist Master's Program in Trauma, Critical Care, and Emergency Nursing University of Maryland School of Nursing, Baltimore, Maryland Dorrie Fontaine, RN, DNSc, FAAN: Immediate Past-President, American Association of Critical-Care Nurses (AACN) Associate Dean for Academic Programs, University of California, San Francisco School of Nursing, San Francisco, California Carolyn M. Hudak, RN, PhD: Adult Nurse Practitioner, Denver, Colorado Barbara M. Gallo, RN, MS, CNAA: Clinical Educator and Manager of Infusion Services, Visiting Nurse Association of Central Connecticut, Inc. New Britain, Connecticut

Table of Contents

PART 1 The Concept of Holism Applied to Critical Care Nursing Practice
1(74)
Critical Care Nursing Practice: An Integration of Caring, Competence, and Commitment to Excellence
3(9)
Evidence-Based Critical Care Nursing Practice
4(1)
Critical Thinking is Essential to Critical Care
4(1)
Certification and Critical Care Nursing Practice
5(1)
The Synergy Model
6(2)
Collaboration
7(1)
The Family, Critical Illness, and Current Evidence
8(1)
Spirituality and Caring During Critical Illness and at the End of Life
8(1)
Professional Organizations and Resources
8(1)
American Association of Critical-Care Nurses: A Commitment to Excellence
8(1)
The Future of Critical Care Nursing
9(3)
The Patient's Experience With Critical Illness
12(15)
Perception of Critical Illness
13(1)
Patients' Experiences
13(1)
Anxiety
14(1)
Causes of Anxiety
14(1)
Responses to Anxiety
14(1)
Patterns of Adaptation
14(1)
Nursing Assessment
15(1)
Nursing Interventions
15(3)
Creating a Healing Environment
15(1)
Fostering Trust
15(1)
Providing Information
15(1)
Allowing Control
16(1)
Cultural Sensitivity
16(1)
Presencing and Reassurance
16(1)
Cognitive Techniques
16(1)
Guided Imagery and Relaxation Training
17(1)
Deep Breathing
17(1)
Music Therapy
17(1)
Humor
18(1)
Massage and Therapeutic Touch
18(1)
Meridian Therapy
18(1)
Animal-Assisted Therapy
18(1)
Restraints in Critical Care
18(2)
Physical Restraints
18(1)
Chemical Restraint
19(1)
Alternatives to Restraints
19(1)
Loss and Responses to Loss
20(2)
Shock and Disbelief
20(1)
Development of Awareness
21(1)
Restitution
21(1)
Resolution
22(1)
Spirituality and Healing
22(2)
Care at the End of Life
24(3)
A Good Death
24(1)
Barriers to Care
24(1)
Nursing Interventions
25(2)
The Family's Experience With Critical Illness
27(9)
Stress, Critical Illness, and the Impact on the Family
28(1)
Coping Mechanisms
28(1)
The Family and the Nursing Process
29(3)
Nursing Assessment
29(1)
Nursing Interventions
29(1)
Visitation Advocacy
30(1)
Use of the Nurse-Family Relationship
31(1)
Problem Solving With the Family
31(1)
Collaborative Management
32(1)
End-of-Life Issues in Critical Care
32(2)
Nursing Interventions at the End of Life
32(1)
After the Patient's Death
33(1)
Cultural Issues Related to Critical Illness
34(1)
Conclusion
34(2)
Impact of the Critical Care Environment on the Patient
36(10)
The Environment of the Health Care System and the Intensive Care Unit
36(4)
The Intensive Care Unit: Physical Features
37(2)
The Intensive Care Unit: Emotional Features
39(1)
Assessment of the Patient--Environment Interface
40(2)
Anxiety Assessment
40(1)
Sleep Assessment
40(1)
Delirium Assessment
41(1)
The Vicious Cycle: Anxiety, Pain, and Sleeplessness
42(1)
Creating A Healing Intensive Care Unit Environment
42(4)
Controlling Excessive Noise and Lights
42(1)
Using Nonpharmacological Therapies
42(1)
Promoting Sleep
43(1)
Family Visiting
44(1)
Family Presence at the End of Life
44(2)
Relieving Pain and Providing Comfort
46(16)
Pain Defined
46(1)
Pain in the Critically Ill
47(1)
Procedural Pain
47(1)
Consequences of Pain
48(1)
Barriers to Effective Pain Control
48(1)
Resources to Promote Effective Pain Control
49(1)
Clinical Practice Guidelines
49(1)
The Support Trial
50(1)
Joint Commission on Accreditation of Healthcare Organizations Standards for Pain
50(1)
Pain Assessment
50(3)
Patient Self-Report
50(2)
Observation
52(1)
Physiological Parameters
52(1)
Pain Intervention
53(6)
Pharmacological Interventions
53(5)
Nonpharmacological Comfort Measures
58(1)
Patient Education
59(1)
Pain Management in Special Populations
59(3)
Patient and Family Education in Critical Care
62(13)
Barriers to Learning
63(2)
Critical Illness and Stress
63(1)
Prolonged Illness and Stress
64(1)
Environmental Stress
64(1)
Cultural and Language Barriers
64(1)
Education and Learning
65(2)
Three Domains of Learning
65(1)
Adult Learning Principles
66(1)
The Process of Adult Education
67(2)
Assessing Learning Needs in a Time of Crisis
67(1)
Intervention: Effective Teaching Strategies in Critical Care
68(1)
Evaluating the Learning Process
69(1)
The Standards of Patient and Family Education
69(6)
PART 2 Professional Practice Issues in Critical Care
75(50)
Ethical Issues in Critical Care Nursing
77(12)
Ethics and the Nurse
78(1)
The Tools of Ethics
79(6)
Approaches to Ethics
79(1)
Principles of Bioethics and the Ethics of Care
79(6)
Ethical Decision Making Within a Nursing Process Model
85(1)
Gather the Relevant Facts
85(1)
Identify the Problem
85(1)
Analyze the Problem Using Ethical Principles and Rules
85(1)
Analyze Alternatives and Act
86(1)
Evaluate and Reflect
86(1)
Bioethics Resources and Services
86(3)
Ethics Committees and Consultant Services
86(1)
Professional Nursing Organizations
86(3)
Legal Issues in Critical Care Nursing
89(11)
An Overview of Major Areas of the Law
89(1)
Administrative Law
90(1)
Civil Law
90(1)
Criminal Law
90(1)
Nursing Negligence in Critical Care
90(5)
Duty and Breach of Duty
90(1)
Causation
91(1)
Injury
91(1)
Vicarious Liability
92(1)
Establishment of Protocols
93(1)
The Questionable Medical Order
94(1)
Liability for Defective Medical Equipment
94(1)
The Need for Consent
94(1)
Issues That Involve Life-Support Measures
95(5)
Do Not Resuscitate (DNR) Orders
95(1)
Refusal of Treatment for Religious Reasons
96(1)
Advance Directives: Living Wills and Powers of Attorney
96(1)
Patient Self-Determination Act
96(1)
Withdrawal of Life-Support Measures
97(1)
Brain Death
98(1)
Organ Donation
98(2)
Genetic Issues in Critical Care Nursing
100(14)
Human Genome Project
100(1)
Overview
100(1)
Significance in Nursing
101(1)
Core Competencies in Genetics (NCHPEG)
101(1)
Role of the Nurse
101(2)
Raising Client Awareness
101(1)
Risk Reduction
101(1)
Screening
101(2)
Concepts in Genetics
103(3)
Cells Contain DNA
103(1)
Chromosomes Contain DNA
103(1)
Segments of DNA Are Called Genes
103(1)
Genes Code for Proteins
104(1)
Mutations Can Cause Disease
105(1)
Mitochondrial DNA
106(1)
Genetically Determined Diseases
106(5)
Chromosomal Disorders
106(1)
Monogenic Conditions
106(4)
Multifactorial Disorders
110(1)
Somatic Cell Disorders
111(1)
Mitochondrial Disease
111(1)
Pharmacogenetics
111(3)
Building a Professional Practice Model for Excellence in Critical Care Nursing
114(11)
Defining the Critical Care Nurse
114(1)
Defining Nursing Professionalism
115(1)
Defining Nursing Excellence
116(6)
Values
117(1)
Vision
117(1)
Mastery
118(2)
Passion
120(1)
Action
121(1)
Balance
121(1)
Conclusion
122(3)
PART 3 Special Populations in Critical Care
125(72)
The Critically III Pediatric Patient
127(11)
Prominent Anatomical and Physiological Differences and Implications
127(4)
Vital Signs
127(1)
Neurological System
128(1)
Cardiovascular System
128(1)
Respiratory System
128(1)
Gastrointestinal System
129(1)
Renal System
129(1)
Endocrine System
130(1)
Selected Pediatric Challenges
131(3)
Ventilatory Issues
131(2)
Medication Administration
133(1)
Pain Management
133(1)
Interaction with Children and Families
134(4)
The Critically Ill Pregnant Woman
138(12)
Physiological Changes in Pregnancy
138(2)
Cardiovascular Changes
138(2)
Respiratory Changes
140(1)
Renal Changes
140(1)
Gastrointestinal and Metabolic Changes
140(1)
Hematological Changes
140(1)
Fetal and Placental Development Considerations
140(1)
Critical Care Conditions in Pregnancy
140(7)
Severe Preeclampsia
142(3)
HELLP Syndrome
145(1)
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
145(1)
Amniotic Fluid Embolism
146(1)
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
146(1)
Trauma
147(1)
Providing Emotional Support
147(1)
Conclusion
148(2)
The Critically Ill Older Patient
150(25)
Normal Psychobiological Characteristics of Aging
151(1)
Biological Issues
151(1)
Psychosocial Issues
151(1)
Physical Challenges
152(14)
Auditory Changes
152(1)
Visual Changes
152(4)
Other Sensory Changes
156(1)
Sleep Changes
157(1)
Skin Changes
158(1)
Cardiovascular Changes
159(1)
Respiratory Changes
160(1)
Renal Changes
161(2)
Gastrointestinal Changes
163(1)
Musculoskeletal Changes
164(1)
Endocrine Changes
164(1)
Immunological Changes
165(1)
Psychological Challenges
166(4)
Cognitive Changes
166(2)
Abuse of the Older Person
168(2)
Alcohol Abuse
170(1)
Challenges in Medication Use
170(5)
Drug Absorption
170(1)
Drug Distribution
171(1)
Drug Metabolism
171(1)
Drug Excretion
172(3)
The Postanesthesia Patient
175(14)
Collaboration Between the Anesthesia Provider and Nurse
175(1)
Moderate Sedation
176(1)
Potential Problems in the Postanesthesia Patient
177(12)
Hypoxemia
177(2)
Hypoventilation
179(2)
Hypotension
181(2)
Hypertension
183(1)
Cardiac Dysrhythmias
184(1)
Hypothermia
184(1)
Hyperthermia
184(1)
Malignant Hyperthermia
184(2)
Nausea and Vomiting
186(1)
Postoperative Pain
186(3)
Interfacility Transport of the Critically Ill Patient
189(8)
Modes of Transport
189(1)
Air Transport of the Critically Ill Patient
190(1)
Transfer Guidelines and Legal Implications
190(2)
Phases of Transport
192(5)
Phase One: Notification and Acceptance by the Receiving Facility
192(2)
Phase Two: Preparation of the Patient by the Transport Team
194(1)
Phase Three: The Transport Process
195(1)
Phase Four: Turnover of the Patient to the Receiving Facility
195(1)
Phase Five: Post-transport Continuous Quality Improvement Monitoring
195(2)
PART 4 Cardiovascular System
197(278)
Anatomy and Physiology of the Cardiovascular System
199(12)
Cardiac Microstructure
199(1)
Mechanical Events of Contraction
200(1)
Electrical Events of Depolarization
200(1)
Physiological Basis of the Resting Potential
201(1)
Physiological Basis of the Action Potential
201(1)
Cardiac Macrostructure
202(1)
Cardiac Conduction
203(2)
Electrocardiograms
203(1)
Rhythmicity and Pacing
204(1)
Cardiac Output
205(2)
Regulation of Heart Rate
205(1)
Regulation of Stroke Volume
206(1)
Coronary Circulation
207(1)
Peripheral Circulation
207(4)
Blood Volume
208(1)
Blood Pressure
208(3)
Patient Assessment: Cardiovascular System
211(81)
Cardiac History and Physical Examination
212(9)
History
212(3)
Physical Examination
215(6)
Cardiac Laboratory Studies
221(8)
Routine Laboratory Studies
221(2)
Enzyme Studies
223(4)
Biochemical Markers: Myocardial Proteins
227(1)
Neurohumoral Hormones: Brain-type Natriuretic Peptide
228(1)
Newer Diagnostic Markers
228(1)
Cardiac Diagnostic Studies
229(15)
Noninvasive Techniques
229(11)
Invasive Techniques
240(4)
Electrocardiographic Monitoring
244(4)
Equipment Features
244(3)
Procedure
247(1)
Troubleshooting Electrocardiogram Monitor Problems
248(1)
Arrhythmias and the 12-Lead Electrocardiogram
248(19)
Evaluation of a Rhythm Strip
248(4)
Normal Sinus Rhythm
252(1)
Arrhythmias Originating at the Sinus Node
252(2)
Atrial Arrhythmias
254(2)
Junctional Arrhythmias
256(1)
Ventricular Arrhythmias
257(3)
Atrioventricular Blocks
260(3)
The 12-Lead Electrocardiogram
263(4)
Effects of Serum Electrolyte Abnormalities on the Electrocardiogram
267(2)
Potassium
268(1)
Calcium
268(1)
Hemodynamic Monitoring
269(23)
Pressure Monitoring System
269(2)
Arterial Pressure Monitoring
271(2)
Central Venous Pressure Monitoring
273(2)
Pulmonary Artery Pressure Monitoring
275(7)
Determination of Cardiac Output
282(3)
Evaluation of Oxygen Delivery and Demand Balance
285(7)
Patient Management: Cardiovascular System
292(86)
Pharmacological Therapy
294(1)
Fibrinolytics, Anticoagulants, and Platelet Inhibitors
294(4)
Fibrinolytics
294(1)
Anticoagulants
295(1)
Platelet Inhibitors
296(2)
Antidysrhythmics
298(4)
Class I Antidysrhythmic Drugs
298(1)
Class II Antidysrhythmic Drugs
298(3)
Class III Antidysrhythmic Drugs
301(1)
Class IV Antidysrhythmic Drugs
301(1)
Unclassified Antidysrhythmic Drugs
301(1)
Inotropes
302(1)
Dopamine
302(1)
Dobutamine
303(1)
Epinephrine
303(1)
Isoproterenol
303(1)
Norepinephrine
303(1)
Amrinone
303(1)
Milrinone
303(1)
Vasodilators
303(1)
Nitrates
303(1)
Nitroprusside Sodium
304(1)
Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Inhibitors
304(1)
Antihyperlipidemics
304(2)
Percutaneous Coronary Interventions and Percutaneous Balloon Valvuloplasty
306(1)
Percutaneous Coronary Interventions
306(18)
Historical Background
306(1)
Physiological Principles
306(1)
Comparisons Between PTCA and CABG
306(1)
Diagnostic Tests for PTCA and CABG Patient Selection
307(1)
Equipment Features
307(2)
Indications for and Contraindications to Percutaneous Transluminal Coronary Angioplasty
309(1)
Procedure
310(3)
Results
313(1)
Assessment and Management
313(3)
Complications
316(2)
Other Interventional Cardiology Techniques
318(6)
Percutaneous Balloon Valvuloplasty
324(4)
Historical Background
324(1)
Pathophysiology of Stenotic Valves
324(1)
Diagnostic Tests for Percutaneous Balloon Valvuloplasty and Valve Replacement
324(1)
Equipment Features
324(1)
Indications for and Contraindi cations to Percutaneous Balloon Valvuloplasty
325(1)
Procedure
325(1)
Results
326(1)
Assessment and Management
326(2)
Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Counterpulsation and Mechanical Circulatory Support
328(1)
Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Counterpulsation
328(7)
Physiological Principles
328(1)
Equipment Features
329(1)
Indications for Intra-aortic Balloon Pump Counterpulsation
329(1)
Contraindications to Intra-aortic Balloon Pump Counterpulsation
330(1)
Procedure
330(1)
Interpretation of Results
331(1)
Assessment and Management
332(3)
Complications Specific to Intra-aortic Balloon Pump Therapy
335(1)
Mechanical Circulatory Support
335(5)
Physiological Principles
336(1)
Devices
336(3)
Nursing Implications
339(1)
Complications Associated with Intra-Aortic Balloon Pump Therapy and Circulatory Support
340(2)
Bleeding
340(1)
Thromboembolic Events
341(1)
Right Ventricular Failure
341(1)
Infection
341(1)
Dysrhythmias
342(1)
Nutritional Deficits
342(1)
Psychosocial Factors
342(1)
Management of Dysrhythmias
342(1)
Cardioversion
342(2)
Procedure
343(1)
Radiofrequency Catheter Ablation
344(2)
Indications for Ablation
344(1)
Procedure
345(1)
Nursing Management
345(1)
Cardiac Pacemakers
346(15)
Indications for Cardiac Pacing
346(1)
The Pacemaker System
347(2)
Temporary Pacing Systems
349(2)
Pacemaker Functioning
351(1)
The Pacemaker Code
352(2)
Pacing Modes
354(1)
Pacemaker Malfunction
354(3)
Pacemaker Complications
357(1)
Nursing Management
358(3)
Implantable Cardioverter--Defibrillators
361(3)
Indications for Implantable Cardioverter--Defibrillators
361(1)
The Implantable Cardioverter--Defibrillator System
361(1)
Implantable Cardioverter-Defibrillator Functioning
362(1)
The Implantable Cardioverter--Defibrillator Code
363(1)
Nursing Management
363(1)
Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation
364(1)
Causes of Cardiopulmonary Arrest
364(1)
Assessment and Management of the Patient in Cardiopulmonary Arrest
365(2)
Determine Responsiveness
365(1)
Position the Patient
365(1)
Airway
366(1)
Breathing
366(1)
Circulation
366(1)
Role of Resuscitation Team Members
367(1)
Equipment Used in Cardiopulmonary Arrest
367(1)
Medications
368(1)
Defibrillation
368(2)
Automated External Defibrillator
370(1)
Transcutaneous Pacing
371(1)
Therapeutic Hypothermia
371(1)
Family Presence in Cardiac Arrest Situations
372(6)
Common Cardiovascular Disorders
378(15)
Infection and Inflammation of the Heart
378(4)
Pericarditis
378(1)
Myocarditis
379(2)
Endocarditis
381(1)
Cardiomyopathies
382(2)
Pathophysiology
382(1)
Assessment
383(1)
Management
383(1)
Peripheral Vascular Disease
384(2)
Arterial Disease
384(1)
Venous Disease
385(1)
Aortic Disease
386(4)
Aortic Aneurysm
386(3)
Aortic Dissection
389(1)
Hypertensive Crisis
390(3)
Pathophysiology
390(1)
Assessment
390(1)
Management
390(3)
Heart Failure
393(29)
Definition
394(1)
Classification
394(1)
Acute Versus Chronic
394(1)
Left-Sided Heart Failure Versus Right-Sided Heart Failure
394(1)
Classification Systems
395(1)
Factors that Determine Cardiac Output
395(2)
Oxygen Demand
395(1)
Mechanical Factors
395(1)
Neurohormonal Mechanisms
396(1)
Pathophysiology
397(3)
Cardiomyopathy
397(2)
Dysrhythmia
399(1)
Acute Exacerbation of Chronic Heart Failure
400(1)
Assessment
400(8)
History
400(2)
Physical Examination
402(2)
Laboratory Studies
404(1)
Diagnostic Studies
404(2)
Hemodynamics
406(1)
Pulse Oximetry
407(1)
Management of Chronic Heart Failure
408(5)
Pharmacological Treatment
408(4)
Nonpharmacological Treatment
412(1)
Management of Acute Exacerbations of Heart Failure
413(9)
Airway and Breathing
413(1)
Circulation
414(2)
Discharge Planning and Patient Education
416(6)
Acute Myocardial Infarction
422(26)
Atherosclerosis
423(2)
Pathophysiological Principles
423(1)
Risk Factors
424(1)
Acute Coronary Syndrome
425(1)
Angina Pectoris
425(4)
Pathophysiological Principles
425(1)
Classification of Angina
426(1)
Assessment
426(2)
Management
428(1)
Myocardial Infarction
429(19)
Pathophysiological Principles
429(2)
Assessment
431(4)
Management
435(7)
Complications
442(3)
Cardiac Rehabilitation
445(3)
Cardiac Surgery
448(27)
Indications for Cardiac Surgery
448(7)
Coronary Artery Disease
448(3)
Valvular Disease
451(4)
Cardiac Surgery
455(15)
Preoperative Phase
455(1)
Intraoperative Phase
455(3)
Postoperative Phase
458(12)
Carotid Endarterectomy
470(5)
Indications for Carotid Endarterectomy
470(1)
Surgical Procedure
470(1)
Postoperative Care
471(1)
Home Care Considerations
472(3)
PART 5 Respiratory System
475(152)
Anatomy and Physiology of the Respiratory System
477(15)
Anatomy of the Respiratory System
477(5)
The Thorax
477(3)
The Conducting Airways
480(1)
The Respiratory Airways
480(1)
The Lung Circulation
481(1)
The Pulmonary Lymphatics
482(1)
Physiology of the Respiratory System
482(10)
Ventilation
482(3)
Diffusion
485(1)
Perfusion
486(1)
Relationship of Ventilation to Perfusion
487(1)
Gas Transport
488(1)
Regulation of Respiration
489(3)
Patient Assessment: Respiratory System
492(25)
History
492(4)
Dyspnea
493(1)
Chest Pain
493(1)
Sputum Production
493(1)
Cough
493(3)
Physical Examination
496(10)
Inspection
496(2)
Palpation
498(1)
Percussion
499(1)
Auscultation
499(7)
Respiratory Monitoring
506(7)
Pulse Oximetry
506(1)
End-Tidal Carbon Dioxide Monitoring
507(1)
Arterial Blood Gases
508(4)
Mixed Venous Oxygen Saturation
512(1)
Respiratory Diagnostic Studies
513(4)
Chest Radiography
513(1)
Ventilation--Perfusion Scanning
514(1)
Pulmonary Angiography
514(1)
Bronchoscopy
514(1)
Thoracentesis
514(1)
Sputum Culture
514(1)
Pulmonary Function Tests
514(3)
Patient Management: Respiratory System
517(49)
Bronchial Hygiene
518(2)
Methods of Bronchial Hygiene
518(2)
Oxygen Therapy
520(3)
Patient Assessment
520(1)
Oxygen Delivery Systems
521(1)
Complications of Oxygen Delivery
522(1)
Artificial Airways
523(4)
Nasopharyngeal and Oropharyngeal Airways
523(1)
Endotracheal Tubes
524(3)
Chest Tubes
527(5)
Physiological Principles
527(1)
Equipment
527(1)
Chest Tube Placement
528(2)
Assessment and Management
530(1)
Complications
531(1)
Transporting the Patient With Chest Tubes
532(1)
Pharmacological Agents
532(4)
Bronchodilator Therapy
532(3)
Antibiotics
535(1)
Sedative Agents
535(1)
Neuromuscular Blocking Agents
536(1)
Ventilatory Support
536(30)
Physiological Principles
537(1)
Equipment
538(1)
Ventilator Modes
539(4)
Use of Mechanical Ventilators
543(3)
Complications of Mechanical Ventilation
546(2)
Assessment and Management
548(9)
Weaning From Mechanical Ventilation
557(4)
Home Care and Mechanical Ventilation
561(2)
New Frontiers and Challenges for Ventilated Patients
563(3)
Common Respiratory Disorders
566(42)
Pneumonia
567(5)
Etiology
567(1)
Pathophysiology
567(2)
Assessment
569(1)
Management
570(1)
Prevention
571(1)
Pleural Effusion
572(2)
Pathophysiology
572(1)
Assessment
573(1)
Management
574(1)
Pneumothorax
574(1)
Pathophysiology
574(1)
Assessment
574(1)
Management
575(1)
Pulmonary Embolism
575(3)
Pathophysiology
575(1)
Assessment
576(1)
Management
576(2)
Prevention
578(1)
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
578(14)
Pathophysiology
578(1)
Assessment
579(3)
Management
582(6)
Prevention
588(1)
Chronic Bronchitis
589(1)
Emphysema
590(2)
Acute Asthma
592(5)
Pathophysiology
592(1)
Assessment
593(1)
Management
594(1)
Status Asthmaticus
595(2)
Acute Respiratory Failure
597(11)
Pathophysiology
597(1)
Classification
598(2)
Assessment
600(2)
Management
602(6)
Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
608(19)
Diagnostic Criteria and Incidence
608(1)
Pathophysiology
609(4)
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
610(1)
Pathological Changes in Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
610(1)
Stages of Acute Respiratory Distress Syndrome
610(3)
Assessment
613(3)
History
613(1)
Physical Examination
613(1)
Diagnostic Studies
614(2)
Management
616(5)
Oxygenation and Ventilation
616(3)
Pharmacological Therapy
619(1)
Nutritional Support
620(1)
Prevention of Complications
621(6)
PART 6 Renal System
627(88)
Anatomy and Physiology of the Renal System
629(11)
Macroscopic Anatomy of the Renal System
629(2)
Microscopic Anatomy of the Renal System and Normal Renal Physiology
631(5)
Juxtaglomerular Apparatus
632(1)
Glomerulus
633(2)
Tubules
635(1)
Hormonal Influences
636(1)
Antidiuretic Hormone
636(1)
Renin
636(1)
Aldosterone
636(1)
Functions of the Renal System
636(4)
Renal Clearance
636(1)
Regulation
637(2)
Other Renal Functions
639(1)
Patient Assessment: Renal System
640(18)
History
640(1)
Physical Examination
641(2)
Assessment of Renal Function
643(4)
Laboratory Studies
643(3)
Diagnostic Studies
646(1)
Assessment of Electrolytes and Acid--Base Balance
647(6)
Sodium Balance
649(1)
Potassium Balance
649(1)
Calcium and Phosphate Balance
649(1)
Magnesium Balance
650(1)
Acid-Base Balance
650(3)
Assessment of Fluid Balance
653(5)
Weight
653(1)
Intake and Output
653(1)
Hypovolemia and Hypervolemia
654(1)
Hemodynamic Monitoring
655(3)
Patient Management: Renal System
658(30)
Physiology
659(1)
Extracorporeal Therapies
659(2)
Access to Circulation
659(2)
Anticoagulation
661(1)
Intermittent Hemodialysis
661(6)
Indications for Hemodialysis
662(1)
Contraindications to Hemodialysis
662(1)
Equipment
662(1)
Assessment and Management
663(3)
Complications
666(1)
Continuous Renal Replacement Therapies
667(6)
Indications for Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy
668(1)
Contraindications to Continuous Renal Replacement Therapy
668(1)
Equipment
668(1)
Assessment and Management
669(2)
Technical Complications in Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration With Dialysis
671(1)
Physiological Complications in Continuous Venovenous Hemofiltration With Dialysis
672(1)
Psychological Aspects of Renal Replacement Therapies
672(1)
Hemodialysis Applied to Other Therapies
672(1)
Peritoneal Dialysis
673(4)
Equipment
673(1)
Assessment and Management
673(2)
Technical Complications
675(1)
Physiological Complications
675(1)
Peritoneal Dialysis as a Chronic Treatment
676(1)
Pharmacological Management of Renal Dysfunction
677(1)
Diuretics
677(1)
Vasoactive Drugs
677(1)
Disorders of Fluid Volume
678(4)
Fluid Volume Deficit
679(3)
Fluid Volume Excess
682(1)
Management of Electrolyte Imbalances
682(6)
Sodium
682(1)
Potassium
682(3)
Calcium
685(1)
Magnesium
686(1)
Phosphorus
686(2)
Renal Failure
688(27)
Acute Renal Failure
689(7)
Causes of Acute Renal Failure
689(1)
Pathophysiology of Acute Renal Failure
689(5)
Clinical Course of Acute Tubular Necrosis
694(1)
Diagnosis of Acute Renal Failure
694(2)
Chronic Renal Failure
696(3)
Pathophysiology of Chronic Renal Failure
697(1)
Preventing the Progression of Chronic Renal Failure
698(1)
Clinical Course of Chronic Renal Failure
699(1)
Management of Renal Failure
699(16)
Managing Fluid Balance Alterations
699(5)
Managing Acid-Base Alterations
704(1)
Managing Cardiovascular Alterations
704(2)
Managing Pulmonary Alterations
706(1)
Managing Gastrointestinal Alterations
707(1)
Managing Neuromuscular Alterations
707(1)
Managing Hematological Alterations
707(2)
Managing Alterations in Drug Elimination
709(1)
Managing Skeletal Alterations
709(1)
Managing Integumentary Alterations
709(2)
Managing Alterations in Dietary Intake
711(1)
Managing Alterations in Psychosocial Functioning
712(3)
PART 7 Nervous System
715(176)
Anatomy and Physiology of the Nervous System
717(33)
Cells of the Nervous System
718(1)
Neuroglia
718(1)
Neurons
718(1)
Characteristics of Neurons
718(3)
Resting Membrane Potential
718(1)
Synaptic Transmission
719(2)
Neuronal Thresholds and the Action Potential
721(1)
Nerve Regeneration
721(1)
Central Nervous System
722(5)
Cerebrospinal Fluid
722(2)
Brain
724(3)
Spinal Cord
727(1)
Peripheral Nervous System
727(11)
Cranial Nerves
728(1)
Spinal Nerves
729(1)
Sensory Division
729(4)
Motor Division
733(5)
Reflexes
738(3)
Brain Reflexes
739(1)
Spinal Cord Reflexes
739(2)
Pain
741(2)
Pain Pathways and Their Modulation
742(1)
Referred Pain
742(1)
The Neurohormonal Stress Response
743(4)
Homeostasis
743(1)
Disruption of Homeostasis
744(3)
Conclusion
747(3)
Patient Assessment: Nervous System
750(25)
History
751(2)
Analysis of the Current Problem
752(1)
Review of Systems
752(1)
Pertinent Medical History
752(1)
Physical Examination
753(12)
Mental Status
753(1)
Motor Function
754(3)
Pupillary Changes
757(1)
Vital Signs
757(2)
Cranial Nerve Function
759(4)
Reflexes
763(1)
Sensation
763(1)
Signs of Trauma or Infection
764(1)
Signs of Increased Intracranial Pressure
764(1)
Evaluation of Dysfunction in the Patient's Living Patterns
765(1)
Neurodiagnostic Studies
765(10)
Neuroradiological Techniques
765(4)
Computed Tomography
769(1)
Magnetic Resonance Imaging
770(1)
Positron Emission Tomography and Single-Photon Emission Computed Tomography
770(1)
Angiography and Digital Subtraction Angiography
770(1)
Cerebral Blood Flow Studies
771(1)
Myelography
771(1)
Ultrasonography and Noninvasive Cerebrovascular Studies
771(1)
Electrophysiological Studies
772(1)
Lumbar Puncture for Cerebrospinal Fluid Examination
773(2)
Patient Management: Nervous System
775(21)
Physiological Principles
775(2)
Intracranial Dynamics
775(2)
Volume-Pressure Curve
777(1)
Cerebral Perfusion Pressure
777(1)
Causes of Increased Intracranial Pressure
777(1)
Cushing's Syndrome
777(1)
Cerebral Edema
778(1)
Herniation
778(1)
Intracranial Pressure Monitoring
778(5)
Intracranial Pressure Monitoring Devices
778(2)
Results of Intracranial Pressure Monitoring
780(3)
Indications for Intracranial Pressure Monitoring
783(1)
Management of Increased Intracranial Pressure
783(13)
First-Tier Therapy
783(3)
Second-Tier Therapy
786(2)
Nursing Management
788(4)
Seizure Prophylaxis
792(4)
Common Neurosurgical and Neurological Disorders
796(43)
Neuroanatomy
796(2)
Cerebrum
796(1)
Cerebellum
797(1)
Brainstem
797(1)
Ventricles
797(1)
Brain Vasculature
797(1)
Neuromuscular Junction
797(1)
Neurological Surgery
798(17)
Brain Tumors
798(10)
Aneurysms
808(4)
Arteriovenous Malformations
812(1)
Surgical Approaches
813(2)
Neurological Disorders
815(24)
Cerebrovascular Disease
815(1)
Stroke
815(8)
Seizures
823(5)
Guillain-Barre Syndrome
828(3)
Myasthenia Gravis
831(8)
Head Injury
839(22)
Mechanisms of Head Injury
839(2)
Pathophysiology
841(5)
Primary Brain Injury
841(2)
Secondary Brain Injury
843(3)
Assessment
846(4)
Physical Examination
846(3)
Diagnostic Testing
849(1)
Management
850(6)
Monitoring and Controlling Intracranial Pressure
850(1)
Maintaining Cerebral Perfusion
851(1)
Preventing and Treating Seizures
851(1)
Monitoring Fluid and Electrolyte Status
852(2)
Managing Cardiovascular Complications
854(1)
Managing Pulmonary Complications
854(1)
Ensuring Optimal Nutrition
855(1)
Managing Musculoskeletal and Integumentary Complications
855(1)
Caring for the Family
855(1)
Brain Death
856(5)
Spinal Cord Injury
861(30)
Classification of Injury
862(1)
Mechanism of Injury
862(1)
Type of Vertebral Injury
862(1)
Level of Injury
862(1)
Cause of Injury
862(1)
Spinal Cord Syndromes
862(1)
Central Cord Syndrome
862(1)
Brown-Sequard Syndrome
862(1)
Anterior Cord Syndrome
863(1)
Posterior Cord Syndrome
863(1)
Autonomic Nervous System Syndromes
863(1)
Spinal Shock
863(1)
Neurogenic Shock
864(1)
Orthostatic Hypotension
864(1)
Pathophysiology
864(1)
Primary Injury
864(1)
Secondary Injury
864(1)
Initial Assessment and Management
864(5)
Prehospital Management
864(3)
In-Hospital Management
867(2)
Ongoing Assessment and Management
869(14)
Realignment and Stabilization of the Spine
869(2)
Prevention of Respiratory Problems
871(2)
Restoration of Hemodynamic Stability
873(3)
Neurological Management
876(1)
Pain Management
876(1)
Medication Administration
876(1)
Thermoregulation
876(1)
Nutrition
876(2)
Mobilization and Skin Care
878(2)
Urinary Management
880(1)
Bowel Management
880(2)
Psychological Support
882(1)
Addressing Concerns About Sexuality
882(1)
Complications
883(2)
Autonomic Dysreflexia
883(1)
Pulmonary Complications
884(1)
Paralytic Ileus and Stress Ulcers
885(1)
Heterotropic Ossification
885(1)
Spasticity
885(1)
Patient Teaching and Discharge Planning
885(6)
PART 8 Gastrointestinal System
891(102)
Anatomy and Physiology of the Gastrointestinal System
893(18)
Structure of the Gastrointestinal System
893(6)
Macroscopic Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System
893(3)
Microscopic Anatomy of the Gastrointestinal System
896(1)
Innervation
896(2)
Circulation
898(1)
Function of the Gastrointestinal System
899(12)
Oropharynx
899(2)
Esophagus
901(1)
Stomach
902(2)
Pancreas
904(1)
Gallbladder
904(1)
Small Intestine
905(1)
Large Intestine
906(1)
Liver
907(4)
Patient Assessment: Gastrointestinal System
911(21)
History
912(1)
Physical Examination
913(8)
Oral Cavity and Throat
913(2)
Abdomen
915(5)
Anus and Rectum
920(1)
Nutritional Assessment
921(1)
Laboratory Studies
922(2)
Laboratory Studies Relating to Liver Function
922(1)
Laboratory Studies Relating to Pancreatic Function
922(2)
Other Laboratory Studies
924(1)
Diagnostic Studies
924(8)
Radiological and Imaging Studies
924(5)
Endoscopic Studies
929(1)
Other Diagnostic Studies
929(3)
Patient Management: Gastrointestinal System
932(21)
Enteral Nutrition
938(8)
Methods of Enteral Nutrition Delivery
938(5)
Types and Delivery of Enteral Formulas
943(1)
Complications of Enteral Nutrition
944(2)
Parenteral (Intravenous) Nutrition
946(4)
Methods of Parenteral Nutrition Delivery
946(2)
Complications of Parenteral Nutrition
948(2)
Terminating Parenteral Nutrition
950(1)
Role of the Nurse in Nutritional Support
950(3)
Common Gastrointestinal Disorders
953(40)
Acute Gastrointestinal Bleeding
953(9)
Upper Gastrointestinal Bleeding
953(7)
Lower Gastrointestinal Bleeding
960(2)
Intestinal Obstruction and Ileus
962(7)
Small Bowel Obstruction
963(3)
Colonic Obstruction
966(1)
Ileus
967(2)
Acute Pancreatitis
969(8)
Etiology
969(1)
Pathophysiology
969(1)
Clinical Presentation
969(1)
Assessment
970(1)
Complications
971(2)
Management
973(4)
Hepatitis
977(6)
Etiology
977(3)
Pathophysiology
980(1)
Assessment
980(2)
Management
982(1)
Complications of Liver Disease
983(10)
Cirrhosis
983(5)
Hepatic Encephalopathy
988(1)
Hepatorenal Syndrome
989(1)
Spontaneous Bacterial Peritonitis
989(4)
PART 9 Endocrine System
993(66)
Anatomy and Physiology of the Endocrine System
995(18)
The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
996(5)
Posterior Pituitary (Neurohypophysis) Hormones
998(2)
Anterior Pituitary (Adenohypophysis) Hormones
1000(1)
The Thyroid and Parathyroid Glands
1001(3)
Thyroid Hormones
1002(1)
Calcitonin and Parathyroid Hormone
1003(1)
The Endocrine Pancreas
1004(2)
Insulin
1004(1)
Glucagon
1005(1)
Somatostatin
1006(1)
Pancreatic Polypeptide
1006(1)
The Adrenal Glands
1006(4)
Medullary Hormones
1007(1)
Cortical Hormones
1008(2)
Atrial Natriuretic Peptide (Natriuretic Hormone)
1010(3)
Patient Assessment: Endocrine System
1013(13)
The Hypothalamus and Pituitary Gland
1014(2)
History and Physical Examination
1014(1)
Laboratory Studies
1014(2)
Diagnostic Studies
1016(1)
The Thyroid Gland
1016(4)
History and Physical Examination
1017(2)
Laboratory Studies
1019(1)
Diagnostic Studies
1020(1)
The Parathyroid Gland
1020(1)
History and Physical Examination
1020(1)
Laboratory Studies
1021(1)
Diagnostic Studies
1021(1)
The Endocrine Pancreas
1021(2)
History and Physical Examination
1021(1)
Laboratory Studies
1021(2)
The Adrenal Gland
1023(3)
History and Physical Examination
1023(1)
Laboratory Studies
1023(2)
Diagnostic Studies
1025(1)
Common Endocrine Disorders
1026(33)
Thyroid Dysfunction
1026(5)
Thyroid Crisis
1026(4)
Myxedema Coma
1030(1)
Adrenal Gland Dysfunction
1031(2)
Adrenal Crisis
1031(2)
Antidiuretic Hormone Dysfunction
1033(4)
Syndrome of Inappropriate Antidiuretic Hormone Secretion
1033(2)
Diabetes Insipidus
1035(2)
Diabetic Emergencies
1037(22)
Diabetic Ketoacidosis
1038(12)
Hyperosmolar Hyperglycemic State
1050(4)
Hypoglycemia
1054(5)
PART 10 Hematological and Immune Systems
1059(134)
Anatomy and Physiology of the Hematological and Immune Systems
1061(13)
Hematological System
1061(6)
Blood and Its Functions
1061(1)
Components of Blood
1062(3)
Blood Coagulation
1065(2)
Immune System
1067(7)
Immune Response
1067(3)
Impaired Host Resistance
1070(4)
Patient Assessment: Hematological and Immune Systems
1074(14)
Assessment
1074(2)
History
1074(1)
Physical Examination
1075(1)
Diagnostic Studies and Results Interpretation
1076(9)
Tests to Evaluate Red Blood Cells
1076(2)
Tests to Evaluate White Blood Cells
1078(2)
Tests to Evaluate Disorders of Primary Hemostasis
1080(3)
Tests to Evaluate Disorders of Secondary Hemostasis
1083(1)
Tests to Evaluate Hematological and Immune Disorders
1084(1)
Assessment of the Immunocompromised Patient
1085(3)
History
1085(1)
Risk Factors for Immunocompromise
1085(3)
Organ and Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
1088(48)
Indications for Transplantation
1089(1)
Patient Evaluation and Contraindications to Transplantation
1089(1)
Donor Selection
1090(5)
Determining Compatibility
1092(1)
Living Donors
1093(1)
Cadaveric Donors
1094(1)
Assessment and Management in Organ Transplantation
1095(6)
Preoperative Phase
1095(1)
Surgical Procedure
1095(1)
Postoperative Phase
1096(5)
Assessment and Management in Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
1101(4)
Stem Cell Harvesting, Mobilization, and Collection
1101(2)
Conditioning Regimen
1103(1)
Transplantation/Hematopoietic Stem Cell Infusion
1104(1)
Engraftment
1104(1)
Immunosuppressive Therapy
1105(1)
Complications of Transplantation
1105(16)
Organ Transplantation
1105(10)
Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation
1115(6)
Long-Term Considerations
1121(15)
Common Immunological Disorders
1136(38)
Human Immunodeficiency Virus Infection
1136(18)
Epidemiology
1137(1)
Pathophysiology
1137(4)
Assessment
1141(4)
Management
1145(9)
Oncological Complications and Emergencies
1154(20)
General Principles in the Critical Care of Patients With Cancer
1154(1)
Hematological Complications
1155(4)
Anatomical-Structural Complications
1159(8)
Metabolic Complications
1167(7)
Common Hematological Disorders
1174(19)
Disorders of Red Blood Cells
1174(4)
Deficiency Anemias
1174(1)
Hemolytic Anemias
1175(2)
Sickle Cell Anemia
1177(1)
Polycythemia
1178(1)
Disorders of White Blood Cells
1178(3)
Neutropenia
1179(1)
Lymphoproliferative Disorders
1179(2)
Myeloproliferative Disorders
1181(1)
Disorders of Bone Marrow Failure
1181(1)
Aplastic Anemia
1181(1)
Myelodysplastic Syndrome
1182(1)
Myelofibrosis
1182(1)
Disorders of Hemostasis
1182(3)
Bleeding Disorders
1183(1)
Immune Thrombocytopenic Purpura
1183(1)
Thrombotic Thrombocytopenic Purpura
1183(2)
Disseminated Intravascular Coagulation
1185(8)
Pathophysiology
1185(1)
Assessment
1186(1)
Management
1187(6)
PART 11 Integumentary System
1193(56)
Anatomy and Physiology of the Integumentary System
1195(5)
Epidermis
1195(1)
Dermis
1195(1)
Hypodermis
1196(1)
Skin Appendages
1196(2)
Sweat Glands
1196(1)
Sebaceous Glands
1196(1)
Hair
1196(1)
Nails
1197(1)
Functions of the Skin
1198(1)
Skin of the Older Adult
1198(1)
Skin of the Child
1198(2)
Patient Assessment: Integumentary System
1200(11)
History
1200(1)
Physical Examination
1200(5)
Inspection
1200(4)
Palpation
1204(1)
Assessment of Pressure Ulcers
1205(1)
Assessment of Skin Tumors
1205(3)
Assessment of the Skin in Older Adults
1208(1)
Assessment of the Skin in Children
1209(2)
Patient Management: Integumentary System
1211(15)
Types of Wounds
1211(2)
Pressure Ulcers
1212(1)
Leg Ulcers
1212(1)
Wound Healing
1213(1)
Phases of Wound Healing
1213(1)
Methods of Wound Healing
1214(1)
Wound Assessment
1214(2)
Wound Care
1216(3)
Wound Closure
1216(1)
Wound Drainage
1216(1)
Wound Dressings
1217(1)
Wound Debridement
1217(1)
Wound Cultures
1218(1)
Use of Pressure-Relieving Devices
1218(1)
Pain Management
1218(1)
Pharmacotherapy
1218(1)
Care of Specific Wounds
1219(1)
Pressure Ulcers
1219(1)
Burns
1219(1)
High-Volume Draining Wounds
1219(1)
Nutrition and Wound Healing
1219(3)
Patient Teaching and Discharge Planning
1222(4)
Burns
1226(23)
Classification of Burn Injuries
1226(4)
Causative Agent
1227(1)
Depth
1227(2)
Severity
1229(1)
Pathophysiology
1230(2)
Localized Tissue Response
1230(1)
Systemic Response
1230(2)
Concomitant Problems
1232(3)
Pulmonary Injury
1232(2)
Infection
1234(1)
Trauma
1234(1)
Management
1235(14)
Resuscitative Phase
1235(1)
Reparative Phase
1236(10)
Rehabilitative Phase
1246(3)
PART 12 Multisystem Dysfunction
1249(70)
Shock, Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome, and Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome
1251(26)
Pathophysiology of Shock
1252(3)
Tissue Oxygenation and Perfusion
1252(1)
Compensatory Mechanisms
1253(2)
Classification of Shock
1255(1)
Hypovolemic Shock
1255(2)
Etiology
1255(1)
Pathophysiology
1255(1)
Assessment
1255(1)
Management
1256(1)
Complications
1257(1)
Cardiogenic Shock
1257(4)
Etiology
1257(1)
Pathophysiology
1258(1)
Assessment
1258(1)
Management
1259(2)
Anaphylactic Shock
1261(1)
Etiology
1261(1)
Pathophysiology
1261(1)
Assessment
1262(1)
Management
1262(1)
Neurogenic Shock
1262(1)
Septic Shock
1263(7)
Etiology
1263(1)
Pathophysiology
1263(3)
Assessment
1266(1)
Management
1266(4)
Features Common to all Shock States
1270(1)
Stages of Shock
1270(1)
Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome
1270(1)
Etiology
1270(1)
Pathophysiology
1270(1)
Multiple Organ Dysfunction Syndrome
1271(6)
Etiology
1271(1)
Pathophysiology
1271(2)
Assessment: Monitoring Organ Function
1273(1)
Management
1273(4)
Trauma
1277(24)
Mechanism of Injury
1277(3)
Blunt Injury
1278(1)
Penetrating Injury
1278(2)
Stab Wounds and Impalements
1280(1)
Initial Assessment and Management
1280(4)
Prehospital Management
1280(1)
In-Hospital Management
1281(3)
Assessment and Management of Specific Injuries
1284(12)
Thoracic Trauma
1284(5)
Abdominal Trauma
1289(4)
Musculoskeletal Injuries
1293(2)
Maxillofacial Trauma
1295(1)
Complications of Multiple Trauma
1296(5)
Early Complications
1296(1)
Late Complications
1296(5)
Drug Overdose and Poisoning
1301(18)
The Poisoned or Overdosed Patient
1301(1)
Poisoning
1302(1)
Substance Abuse and Overdose
1302(1)
Assessment
1302(1)
Triage
1302(1)
History
1302(1)
Physical Examination
1303(1)
Laboratory Studies
1303(1)
Management
1303(16)
Stabilization
1303(2)
Initial Decontamination
1305(1)
Gastrointestinal Decontamination
1305(2)
Enhanced Elimination of the Drug or Toxin
1307(1)
Antagonists, Antitoxins, and Antivenins
1307(1)
Continuous Patient Monitoring
1308(1)
Patient Teaching
1309(10)
Appendix 1 ACLS Guidelines 1319(12)
Appendix 2 Answer Key to Study Questions With Rationales 1331(16)
Index 1347

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Reviews for Critical Care Nursing A Holistic Approach (9780781727594)