9781559348362

Critical Thinking

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9781559348362

  • ISBN10:

    1559348364

  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 1997-08-01
  • Publisher: Mayfield Pub Co
  • View Upgraded Edition

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Table of Contents

Preface iii
PART 1: Introduction 1(68)
Chapter 1: What Is Critical Thinking?
3(28)
Claims and Critical Thinking
5(3)
Issues and Arguments
8(4)
Identifying the Issue
9(2)
Settling an Issue Through Argument
11(1)
Facts and Opinions
12(4)
Objective and Subjective Claims
13(1)
"Everyone's Entitled..."
14(1)
Beliefs, Opinions, Views, Convictions, Prejudices
15(1)
A Note About Feelings
16(15)
Chapter 2: Critical Thinking and Clear Writing
31(38)
Organization and Focus
32(4)
Principles of Organization
32(1)
Good Writing Practices
33(1)
Essay Types to Avoid
34(2)
Clarity in Writing
36(23)
Defining Terms
38(3)
Ambiguous Claims
41(8)
Vague Claims
49(2)
Claims That Make Comparisons
51(8)
Persuasive Writing
59(2)
Writing in a Diverse Society
61(8)
PART 2: Claims 69(170)
Chapter 3: Evaluating Informative Claims
71(27)
Assessing the Content of the Claim
71(8)
Does the Claim Conflict with Our Personal Observations?
71(4)
Does the Claim Conflict with Our Background Knowledge?
75(4)
Assessing the Credibility of the Source
79(19)
Experts
80(4)
Eyewitness Observers
84(1)
Reference Works
84(1)
Government Publications
84(1)
The News Media
85(2)
The Internet
87(11)
Chapter 4: Nonargumentative Persuasion
98(36)
Slanters
99(18)
Euphemisms and Dysphemisms
100(2)
Persuasive Comparisons, Definitions, and Explanations
102(3)
Stereotypes
105(1)
Innuendo
106(1)
Loaded Questions
107(1)
Weaselers
108(1)
Downplayers
109(2)
Hyperbole
111(1)
Proof Surrogates
112(5)
Information Tailoring and the News
117(9)
Where Does the News Come From?
117(4)
Who Pays for the News?
121(2)
Who Listens to the News?
123(3)
Advertising
126(8)
Chapter 5: Pseudoreasoning I
134(31)
Smokescreen Red Herring
135(1)
The Subjectivist Fallacy
136(2)
Appeal to Belief
138(1)
Common Practice
139(2)
Peer Pressure and the Bandwagon
141(1)
Wishful Thinking
142(1)
Scare Tactics
143(1)
Appeal to Pity
144(1)
Appeal Polishing
145(1)
Horse Laugh Ridicule Sarcasm
146(1)
Appeal to Anger or Indignation
147(2)
Two Wrongs Make a Right
149(16)
Chapter 6: Pseudoreasoning II
165(36)
Ad Hominem
165(3)
Personal Attack
166(1)
Circumstantial Ad Hominem
166(1)
Pseudorefutation
167(1)
Poisoning the Well
168(1)
Genetic Fallacy
168(1)
Burden of Proof
169(3)
Straw Man
172(2)
False Dilemma
174(3)
Perfectionist Fallacy
176(1)
Line-Drawing Fallacy
176(1)
Slippery Slope
177(2)
Begging the Question
179(22)
Chapter 7: Explanations
201(38)
Explanations and Arguments
201(3)
Explanations and Justifications
204(5)
Kinds of Explanations
209(9)
Physical Explanations
209(3)
Behavioral Explanations
212(3)
Functional Explanations
215(3)
Spotting Weak Explanations
218(7)
Testability
219(1)
Noncircularity
220(1)
Relevance
220(1)
Freedom from Excessive Vagueness
221(1)
Reliability
221(1)
Explanatory Power
221(1)
Freedom from Unnecessary Assumptions
222(1)
Consistency with Well-Established Theory
222(2)
Absence of Alternative Explanations
224(1)
Explanatory Comparisons (Analogies)
225(14)
PART 3: Arguments 239(214)
Chapter 8: Understanding and Evaluating Arguments
241(35)
The Anatomy of Arguments
241(8)
Good and Bad, Valid and Invalid, Strong and Weak
249(3)
Deduction and Induction
252(3)
Unstated Premises
255(2)
Identifying Unstated Premises
257(3)
Techniques for Understanding Arguments
260(5)
Clarifying an Argument's Structure
261(3)
Distinguishing Arguments from Window Dressing
264(1)
Evaluating Arguments
265(11)
Do the Premises Support the Conclusion?
265(1)
Are the Premises Reasonable?
266(10)
Chapter 9: Deductive Arguments I: Categorical Logic
276(34)
Categorical Claims
277(10)
Venn Diagrams
278(1)
Translation into Standard Form
279(6)
The Square of Opposition
285(2)
Three Categorical Operations
287(6)
Conversion
287(1)
Obversion
288(1)
Contraposition
289(4)
Categorical Syllogisms
293(17)
The Venn Diagram Method of Testing for Validity
296(6)
The Rules Method of Testing for Validity
302(8)
Chapter 10: Deductive Arguments II: Truth-Functional Logic
310(46)
Truth Tables and the Truth-Functional Symbols
311(13)
Claim Variables
311(1)
Truth Tables
311(6)
Symbolizing Compound Claims
317(7)
Truth-Functional Arguments
324(9)
Deductions
333(23)
Group I Rules: Elementary Valid Argument Patterns
333(6)
Group II Rules: Truth-Functional Equivalences
339(7)
Conditional Proof
346(10)
Chapter 11: Inductive Arguments
356(30)
Analogical Arguments
357(6)
Inductive Generalizations
363(14)
Representativeness and Bias
364(2)
Sample Size, Error Margin, and Confidence Level
366(4)
Criteria and Fallacies of Inductive Generalization
370(3)
Untrustworthy Polls
373(4)
Playing by the Numbers
377(9)
Chapter 12: Causal Arguments
386(32)
Causation Among Specific Events
386(3)
The Difference Between Two Events, or X Is the Difference
387(1)
The Common Thread Between Two Events, or X Is the Common Thread
388(1)
Four Common Types of Weak Causal Arguments
389(9)
Post Hoc, Ergo Propter Hoc
390(1)
Ignoring a Possible Common Cause
391(1)
Assuming a Common Cause
391(1)
Reversing Causation
392(6)
Causation in Populations
398(9)
Controlled Cause-to-Effect Experiments
398(5)
Nonexperimental Cause-to-Effect Studies
403(2)
Nonexperimental Effect-to-Cause Studies
405(2)
Appeal to Anecdotal Evidence
407(11)
Chapter 13: Moral, Legal, and Aesthetic Reasoning
418(35)
Moral Reasoning
418(16)
Descriptive and Prescriptive Moral Claims
419(5)
Consistency and Fairness
424(3)
Major Perspectives in Moral Reasoning
427(6)
Moral Deliberation
433(1)
Legal Reasoning
434(5)
Legal Reasoning and Moral Reasoning Compared
435(1)
Two Types of Legal Studies: Justifying Laws and Interpreting Laws
435(2)
The Role of Precedent in Legal Reasoning
437(2)
Aesthetic Reasoning
439(14)
Eight Aesthetic Principles
439(2)
Using Aesthetic Principles to Judge Aesthetic Value
441(2)
Evaluating Aesthetic Criticism: Relevance and Truth
443(2)
Why Reason Aesthetically?
445(8)
Appendix 1: Conflicting Claims 453(6)
Appendix 2: Analytic Claims 459(4)
Appendix 3: Some Common Patterns of Deductive Arguments 463(9)
Glossary 472(10)
Answers, Suggestions, and Tips for Triangle Exercises 482(62)
Essays for Analysis 544(29)
Selection 1: Bonnie and Clyde 544(1)
EDWARD C. KRUC
Selection 2: Will Ozone Blob Devour the Earth? 545(2)
Selections 3a and 3b: USA TODAY, Equal Treatment Is Real Issue--Not Marriage 547(1)
THE REV. LOUIS P. SHELDON, Gay Marriage "Unnatural" 548(2)
DON EDWARDS
Selection 4: Shorten Federal Jail Time 550(1)
MICHELLE LOCKE
Selection 5: The Death Penalty 551(2)
Selections 6a and 6b: USA TODAY, Clean Needles Benefit Society 553(1)
PETER B. GEMMA JR.
Programs Don't Make Sense 554(1)
Selections 7a and 7b: USA TODAY, Make Fast Food Smoke-Free 555(1)
BRENNAN M. DAWSON
Don't Overreact to Smoke 556(1)
Selections 8a and 8b: USA TODAY, Buying Notes Makes Sense at Lost-in-Crowd Campuses 557(1)
Buying or Selling Notes Is Wrong 558(1)
Selections 9a and 9b: USA TODAY, Next, Comprehensive Reform of Gun Laws 559(1)
ALAN M. GOTTLIEB
Gun Laws Are No Answer 560(1)
Selections 10a and 10b: USA TODAY, How Can School Prayer Possibly Hurt? Here's How 561(1)
ARMSTRONG WILLIAMS
We Need More Prayer 562(1)
BARBARA EHRENREICH
Selection 11: Planet of the White Guys 563(2)
JOANNE JACOBS
Selection 12: Do Women Really Need Affirmative Action? 565(2)
Selection 13: FOCUS ON THE FAMILY, In Defense of a Little Virginity 567(6)
Credits 573(1)
Index 574

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