Critical Thinking, Thoughtful Writing

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-01-10
  • Publisher: Wadsworth Publishing
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Critical Thinking, Thoughtful Writing begins with the premise that thinking well involves using language well, and vice versa. This rhetoric with readings--written by critical-thinking scholar John Chaffee and English professors Christine McMahon and Barbara Stout--provides thorough coverage of the writing process, going beyond the traditional rhetoric to teach students how to evaluate sources, images, and arguments. Each chapter focuses on a critical-thinking skill--such as problem solving or analysis of complex issues--that is explored through Thinking-Writing Activities and thematically linked readings. The text helps students develop these skills through carefully sequenced pedagogy and a cross-disciplinary approach that asks them to complete writing assignments and critically evaluate readings drawn from a variety of disciplines. The Fourth Edition features an enhanced discussion of plagiarism with critical-thinking exercises, as well as a special focus on using and documenting Internet sources appropriately. Students receive the most up-to-date information on MLA documentation with the enclosed tri-fold card providing NEW 2009 MLA Handbook formats.

Table of Contents

Tools For Thinking, Reading, And Writing
Thinking Through Writing
Thinking and Writing in College
Becoming a Critical Thinker and Thoughtful Writer
Qualities of a Thoughtful Writer
The Thinking-Writing Model
Rhetoric and the Writing Situation
From My American Journey
Writing Thoughtfully, Thinking Creatively, Thinking Critically
The Writing Process
The Recursive Nature of the Writing Process
Generating Ideas
Keeping a Journal or Blog
Defining a Focus
Organizing Ideas
Revising, Editing, and Proofreading
"Writing Is Not a McDonald's Hamburger"
Chapter Summary
Reading Actively, Reading Critically
Reading in College
Reading Actively
Review the Table of Contents or Chapter Outlines
Read the Introductory Paragraphs and the Concluding Paragraphs or Summary
Scan the Reading Assignment, Taking Particular Note of Section Headings, Illustrations, and Diagrams
Reading Critically
Asking Questions
Using a Problem-Solving Approach
Practicing Active and Critical Reading: One Student's Approach
"On Plato's Cave"
Using Metacognitive Strategies
"Grounds for Fiction"
Making Meaning
Semantic Meaning (Denotation)
Perceptual Meaning (Connotation)
Syntactic Meaning
Pragmatic Meaning
Chapter Summary
Thinking Critically, Writing Thoughtfully
From Insight to Writing to Informed Beliefs (and Back Again)
Thinking Actively and Writing
Influences on Your Thinking
Thinking Independently
Viewing a Situation from Different Perspectives
Supporting Diverse Perspectives with Reasons and Evidence
Developing Informed Beliefs
Experiences That Affected Beliefs
From An American Childhood
"Reversing Established Orders"
"The Case Against Chores"
Writing Project: An Experience That Influenced a Belief
The Writing Situation
The Writing Process
Eli Sharp's Writing Process
"An Argument for Chores"
Alternative Writing Projects
Chapter Summary
Viewing Critically, Thinking Creatively
Creative Thinking, Critical Viewing, and Writing
Creativity in Topic Selection
Moving from Topic to Thesis
Creativity in Generating Ideas
Creative and Critical Thinking About Images
Images and the Writing Situation
Additional Tips for Generating Ideas
Reading Images Critically
Semantic Meaning (Denotation)
Perceptual Meaning (Connotation)
Syntactic Meaning
Pragmatic Meaning
Living Creatively
Becoming More Creative: Understand and Trust the Process
Eliminate the Voice of Judgment
Establish a Creative Environment
Make Creativity a Priority
Where Do Ideas Come From?
"Revenge of the Right Brain"
"The 6 Myths of Creativity"
Writing Project: Imagining Your Life Lived More Creatively
The Writing Situation
The Writing Process
Jessie Lange's Writing Process: Freewriting Student Writing
"Discovering Creativity by Not Looking for It"
Alternative Writing Projects
Chapter Summary
Making Decisions and Drafting
Decisions While Drafting
Decide What Your Purpose for Writing Is
Decisions in Your Life
An Organized Approach to Making Decisions
Define the Decision and Its Goals Clearly (Audience)
Consider All Possible Choices (Subject)
Gather All Relevant Information and Evaluate the Pros and Cons of Each Possible Choice (Purpose)
Select the Choice That Seems Best Suited to the Situation
Implement a Plan of Action and Monitor the Results, Making Necessary Adjustments
Analyzing Decisions
From Narrative of the Life of Frederick Douglass, an American Slave
"The Solution to World Hunger"
Writing Project: Analyzing a Decision to Be Made
The Writing Situation
The Writing Process
Student Writing: Wendy Agudo's Writing Process
Student Writing: Cynthia Brown's Writing Process
"Freedom and the Constraint of Time"
Alternative Writing Projects
Chapter Summary
Revising Thoughtfully, Using Language Ethically
Recognizing Effective Use of Language
From The Autobiography of Malcolm Making: Decisions When Revising Drafts
Specific Decisions to Make at Several Levels
"The Maker's Eye: Revising Your Own Manuscripts"
"If You Can't Master English, Try Globish"
Using Language Ethically
Improving Vague Language
Using Figurative Language
"I Have a Dream"
Using Language to Influence
Euphemistic Language
"Beslan Atrocity: They're Terrorists -- Not Activists"
Emotive Language
Writing Project: The Impact of Language on Our Lives
The Writing Situation
The Writing Process
Student Writing: Jessie Lange's Writing Process
"The Power of Language"
Alternative Writing Projects
Chapter Summary
Thinking And Writing To Shape Our World
Exploring Perceptions: Writing to Describe and Narrate
Thinking Critically About Perceptions
Becoming Aware of Your Own Perceptions
Actively Selecting, Organizing, and Interpreting Sensations
Noting Differences in People's Perceptions
Writing Thoughtfully About Perceptions
Writing Objectively and Subjectively
Contrasting Objective and Subjective Writing
"Animal Feelings"
Chronological Relationships
Writing About Processes
Examples of Process Writing
"The Learning Curve"
Writing Project: A Narrative Showing the Effect of a Perception
The Writing Situation
The Writing Process
Joshua Chaffee's Writing Process
"We're All at Ground Zero"
Alternative Writing Projects
Chapter Summary
Exploring Concepts: Writing to Classify and Define
What Are Concepts?
The Importance of Concepts
The Structure of Concepts
The Process of Classifying
Forming Concepts
Applying Concepts
Determining the Requirements of a Concept
Analyzing Complex Concepts
A Casebook on Gender and Sexuality
"Choosing Clothes, but Not Husbands"
"Women and Femininity in U.S. Popular Culture"
"The Second Coming of the Alpha Male"
"My Papa's Waltz"
"Men and Their Hidden Feelings"
Using Concepts to Classify
Classifying People and Their Actions
Writing and Classifying
Defining Concepts
Writing Thoughtfully to Define Concepts
Writing Project: Defining an Important Concept
The Writing Situation
The Writing Process
Nawang Doma Sherpa's Writing Process
"Freedom for Enlightenment"
Jordan Carlsen's Writing Process
"Masculinity Makes a Good Man"
Alternative Writing Projects
Chapter Summary
Exploring Perspectives and Relationships: Writing to Compare and Evaluate
Perceptions and Perspectives
Selecting Perceptions: Why Do We Notice the Things We Notice?
Organizing Perceptions
Interpreting Perceptions
Casebook: Perception and Perspective on Reporting the Earthquake in Haiti
"Making Sense of Haiti"
Changes in Perceptions and Perspectives
Obtaining More Accurate Perceptions: Adjusting the Lenses
Develop Awareness
Get Input from Others
Find Evidence
Keep an Open Mind
"Remarks Concerning the Savages of North America"
(Gertrude Simmons Bonnin) from "The School Days of an Indian Girl"
Writing Thoughtfully About Perspectives
Comparison and ContraSt. Thinking in Comparisons
"A Natural Disaster, and a Human Tragedy"
Writing Project: Comparing Perspectives on an Issue or Event
The Writing Situation
The Writing Process
Student Writing: Jennifer Wade's Writing Process
"Where Did All of the Cherokees Go?"
Alternative Writing Project: Comparing Two Reviews
Chapter Summary
Exploring Cause and Effect: Writing to Speculate
Kinds of Causal Relationships
Causal Chain
Contributory Causes
Interactive Causes
Ways of Testing Causes
Necessary Condition and Sufficient Condition
Immediate Cause and Remote Cause
Identifying Causal Fallacies
Questionable Cause
Misidentification of the Cause
Post Hoc Ergo Propter Hoc
Slippery Slope
Detecting Causal Claims
Exploring Cause and Effect: Human Longevity and Social Impact
"Playing God in the Garden"
Writing Thoughtfully About Causal Relationships
Writing Project: Exploring Some Causes of a Recent Event
The Writing Situation
The Writing Process
Student Writing: Daniel Eggers's Writing Process
"Was It Only a Dream?"
Alternative Writing Projects: Utopias and Dystopias
Chapter Summary
Thinking And Writing To Explore Issues And Take Positions
Believing and Knowing: Writing to Analyze
Ways of Forming Beliefs
Beliefs Based on Personal Experience
B. C. "Homeless in Prescott, Arizona"
"For Katrina Evacuee, Getting Help Is a Full-Time Job"
Beliefs Based on Indirect Experience
Evaluating Sources and Information
How Reliable Is the Source?
What Are the Source's Purposes and Interests?
How Knowledgeable or Experienced Is the Source?
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