Cross-Cultural Psychology Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications Plus MySearchLab with eText -- Access Card Package

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Package
  • Copyright: 2012-07-15
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Dynamic author team provides comprehensive overview with focus on critical-thinking The fifth edition continues a heavy focus on applying critical thinking framework in examining, analyzing, and evaluating psychological data. With significant rewriting and additional new topics, updated references on new research, and MySearchLab with an interactive eText, Cross-Cultural Psychology keeps pace with the rapidly changing conditions of modern times. The dynamic team from two different worlds bring a unique set of experiences and perceptions in writing this book. Eric Shiraev was raised in the city of Leningrad in the former Soviet Union and David Levy is from Southern California,. Between the diverse backgrounds and having each author spent an extended period teaching in the other's home country, the authors provide a comprehensive review of theories and research in cross-cultural psychology. Learning Goals Upon completing this book, readers should be able to: Better understand the field of cross-cultural psychology Understand contemporary theories and research in cross-cultural psychology Use critical thinking to examine, analyze, and evaluate the field of cross-cultural psychology Assist current and future practitioners from a wide variety of fields and services Note:MySearchLab with eText does not come automatically packaged with this text. To purchase the MySearchLab with eText, please visit:www.mySearchLab.comor you can purchase a ValuePack of the text + MySearchLab with eText (at no additional cost): ValuePack ISBN-10: 0205844677 / ValuePack ISBN-13: 9780205844678

Author Biography

Eric Shiraev is a professor, researcher, and author. He took his academic degrees at St. Petersburg University in Russia and completed a post-doctoral program in the United States at UCLA. He served at various positions at St. Petersburg University, NVCC, Oregon State University, George Washington University, and George Mason University. His research interests are diverse. He is an author, co-author, and co-editor of twelve books and numerous publications in the fields of global studies, history of science, cross-cultural studies, and political psychology. In his publications, he develops a distinct multi-disciplinary approach to analyze human behavior. Besides teaching and scholarly work, Eric Shiraev writes opinion essays for the media around the world. He resides near Washington DC. Visit his site: www.ericshiraev.com


Dr. David A. Levy has extensive experience as a teacher, therapist, writer, and researcher. He is Professor of Psychology at Pepperdine University's Graduate School of Education and Psychology, where he has been teaching graduate courses since 1986. He received his B.A. degree in theater arts from UCLA, a M.A. degree in psychology from Pepperdine University, a second M.A. degree in psychology from UCLA, and his Ph.D. in psychology from UCLA, where he specialized in social psychology, with minors in psychological assessment and personality psychology. He served as Visiting Professor of Psychology in the Soviet Union, where he delivered lectures and workshops in psychology and psychotherapy at Leningrad (now St. Petersburg) State University, the Leningrad Academy of Science, and the Bekhterev Psychoneurological Institute. He was honored as a Harriet and Charles Luckman Distinguished Teaching Fellow at Pepperdine, and was a recipient of the Shepard Ivory Franz Distinguished Teaching Award and Charles F. Scott Fellowship at UCLA. Dr. Levy holds professional licenses both in psychology and in marriage and family therapy. He has worked in a wide range of private practice and inpatient psychiatric settings, he has supervised clinical interns, and he has utilized his expertise in psychological testing (particularly the MMPI) in forensic cases.

    His numerous theoretical and empirical research studies have been published in scientific journals and presented at professional conferences. His book, "Tools of Critical Thinking: Metathoughts for Psychology," garnered widespread acclaim in both academic and clinical settings for its innovative approaches to improving thinking skills. Levy co-authored (with Eric Shiraev) "Cross-Cultural Psychology: Critical Thinking and Contemporary Applications," which became an internationally best-selling textbook. Levy is the author of "Family Therapy: History, Theory, and Practice," which was the first textbook on the topic available to Russian readers. His Levy Optimism-Pessimism Scale (LOPS) has been utilized internationally in a variety of research contexts, and he is a member of the Board of Editors for the Journal of Humanistic Psychology.

Levy is also the author of numerous satirical articles, including "The Emperor's Postmodern Clothes: A Brief Guide to Deconstructing Academically Fashionable Phrases for the Uninitiated," "How to Be a Good Psychotherapy Patient," "Psychometric Infallibility Realized: The One-Size-Fits-All Psychological Profile," "Stinks and Instincts: An Empirical Investigation of Freud's Excreta Theory," and "A Proposed Category for the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM): Pervasive Labeling Disorder."

    As a media consultant, Levy has appeared on dozens television and radio broadcasts (including CNN, CBS, NBC, PBS, A&E, and E!), providing psychological perspectives on current events, and examining issues and trends in the mental health fields. He has also worked as a professional director, producer, writer and actor in motion pictures, television and stage. He received an Emmy nomination for Outstanding Performance in a Network Television Series, and he was a guest star on the television series "Cheers," where he portrayed the leader of Frasier's low self-esteem group.


Table of Contents

Found in this Section:

1. Brief Table of Contents

2. Full Table of Contents




Chapter 1 Understanding Cross-Cultural Psychology

Chapter 2 Methodology of Cross-Cultural Research

Chapter 3 Critical Thinking in Cross-Cultural Psychology

Chapter 4 Cognition: Sensation, Perception, and States of Consciousness 

Chapter 5 Intelligence

Chapter 6 Emotion

Chapter 7 Motivation and Behavior

Chapter 8 Human Development and Socialization

Chapter 9 Psychological Disorders

Chapter 10 Social Perception and Social Cognition

Chapter 11 Social Interaction

Chapter 12 Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology: Some Highlights




Chapter 1: Understanding Cross-Cultural Psychology

What Is Cross-Cultural Psychology? 

Basic Definitions 

Cultural Traditionalism 

Empirical Examination of Culture 

Collectivism and Individualism: Further Research 

Cultural Syndromes 

Evolutionary Approach

Sociological Approach 

Ecocultural Approach 

The Cultural Mixtures Approach

The Integrative Approach: A Summary 

Indigenous Psychology



A Brief History of the Field 


Chapter 2: Methodology of Cross-Cultural Research

Goals of Cross-Cultural Research 

Quantitative Research in Cross-Cultural Psychology 

Quantitative Approach: Measurement Scales 

Quantitative Approach: Looking for Links and Differences 

Qualitative Approach in Cross-Cultural Psychology 

Major Steps for Preparation of a Cross-Cultural Study 

Sample Selection 

Observation in Cross-Cultural Psychology

Survey Methods 

Experimental Studies 


Focus-Group Methodology 

Meta-Analysis: Research of Research 

A Hidden Obstacle of Cross-Cultural Studies: Test Translation 

Comparing Two Phenomena: Some Important Principles 

On Similarities and Differences: Some Critical Thinking Applications 

Cultural Dichotomies 

Avoiding Bias of Generalizations 

Know More about Cultures You Examine 


Chapter 3: Critical Thinking in Cross-Cultural Psychology

The Evaluative Bias of Language: To Describe Is to Prescribe 

Differentiating Dichotomous Variables and Continuous Variables: Black and White, or Shades of Gray? 

The Similarity–Uniqueness Paradox: All Phenomena Are Both Similar and Different 

The Barnum Effect: "One-Size-Fits-All" Descriptions 

The Assimilation Bias: Viewing the World through Schema-Colored Glasses 

The Representativeness Bias: Fits and Misfits of Categorization 

The Availability Bias: The Persuasive Power of Vivid Events 

The Fundamental Attribution Error: Underestimating the Impact of External Influences 

The Self-Fulfilling Prophecy: When Expectations Create Reality 

Correlation Does Not Prove Causation: Confusing "What" with "Why" 

Bidirectional Causation and Multiple Causation: Causal Loops and Compound Pathways 

The Naturalistic Fallacy: Blurring the Line between "Is" and "Should" 

The Belief Perseverance Effect: "Don’t Confuse Me with the Facts!" 

Conclusions: "To Metathink or Not to Metathink?" 


Chapter 4: Cognition: Sensation, Perception, and States of Consciousness

Sensation and Perception: Basic Principles 

How Culture Influences What We Perceive  106

How People Perceive Pictures

Perception of Depth 

Are People Equally Misled by Visual Illusions? 

Some Cultural Patterns of Drawing

Perception of Color 

Other Senses

Perception of Time 

Perception of the Beautiful 

Perception of Music 

Consciousness and Culture 

Sleep and Cultural Significance of Dreams 

Beyond Altered States of Consciousness


Chapter 5: Intelligence

Defining Intelligence 

Ethnic Differences in IQ Scores 

Explaining Group Differences in Test Scores: Intelligence and Intelligent Behavior 

Do Biological Factors Contribute to Intelligence? 

Incompatibility of Tests: Cultural Biases 

A Word about "Cultural Literacy" 

Environment and Intelligence 

Socioeconomic Factors 

The Family Factor 

"Natural Selection" and IQ Scores 

Cultural Values of Cognition 

General Cognition: What Is "Underneath" Intelligence? 

Cognitive Skills, School Grades, and Educational Systems 

Culture, Tests, and Motivation 

IQ, Culture, and Social Justice 

And in the End, Moral Values 


Chapter 6: Emotion

When We Laugh We Are Happy: Similarities of Emotional Experience 

You Cannot Explain Pain if You Have Never Been Hurt: Differences in Emotional Experience 

Emotions: Different or Universal? 

Physiological Arousal 

The Meaning of Preceding Events 

Emotion as an Evaluation 

We Are Expected to Feel in a Particular Way 

How People Assess Emotional Experience  1

When Emotions Signal a Challenge: Cross-Cultural Research on Stress and Anxiety 

Expression of Emotion 

When Emotion Hurts: Cross-Cultural Studies of Anger 

Emotion and Inclination to Act 

Emotion and Judgment 


Chapter 7: Motivation and Behavior

A Glance into Evolution 

Social Science: See the Society First 

Drive and Arousal: Two Universal Mechanisms of Motivation 

The Power of the Unconscious: Psychoanalysis 

Humanistic Theories 

Learning and Motivation

A Carrot and a Beef Tongue: Hunger and Food Preference 

When Hunger Causes Distress: Eating Disorders 

Victory and Harmony: Achievement Motivation 

Aggressive Motivation and Violence 

Culture and Sexuality 

Sex and Sexuality: Some Cross-Cultural Similarities 


Chapter 8: Human Development and Socialization

Development and Socialization 

Quality of Life and the Child’s Development 

Norms, Customs, and Child Care 

Parental Values and Expectations 

Erikson’s Stages of Psychosocial Development 

Piaget’s Stages of Cognitive Development 

Stages of Moral Development According to Kohlberg 

Developmental Stages 

Life before Birth: Prenatal Period 

First Steps: Infancy 

Discovering the World: Childhood 

Major Rehearsal: Adolescence 


Late Adulthood 


Chapter 9: Psychological Disorders

American Background: DSM-IV 

Two Views on Culture and Psychopathology 

Culture-Bound Syndromes 

Anxiety Disorders 

Depressive Disorders 


Culture and Suicide 

Personality Disorders 

Is Substance Abuse Culturally Bound? 

Psychodiagnostic Biases 


Culture Match? 


Chapter 10: Social Perception and Social Cognition


Western and Non-Western Values 

Striving for Consistency: The Cognitive Balance Theory 

Avoiding Inconsistency: Cognitive Dissonance 

Psychological Dogmatism 

Social Attribution 

Attribution as Locus of Control 

Attribution of Success and Failure 


Do Social Norms Affect the Way We See Our Own Body? 

Duty and Fairness in Individualist and Collectivist Cultures 

Stereotypes and the Power of Generalizations 

On "National Character"


Chapter 11: Social Interaction

Universal Interaction 

Direct Contacts and Body Language


Is Conformity Universal across Cultures? 

Following Orders 

Social Influence 

Feeling Good about Some Views 

Is Social Loafing Universal? 

Cooperation and Competition 



Chapter 12: Applied Cross-Cultural Psychology: Some Highlights


Spirituality, Science, and Health

Business Decisions 

Working with Immigrants 


Culture, Behavior, and the Law 

Human Rights 

Working and Serving Abroad 

Religion: A Campus Context 


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