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Crossroads The Multicultural Roots of America's Popular Music with Audio CD,9780131930735
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Crossroads The Multicultural Roots of America's Popular Music with Audio CD

by
Edition:
2nd
ISBN13:

9780131930735

ISBN10:
0131930737
Format:
Paperback
Pub. Date:
3/20/2006
Publisher(s):
Pearson
List Price: $108.00

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Summary

Crossroads: The Multicultural Roots of America's Popular Music, Second Edition celebrates the diversity of American music through coverage of a wide spectrum of musical styles, including folk music, the blues, jazz, Cajun and Zydeco music, and a variety of currently popular music including rock and roll, rap, hip-hop, salsa, and Tejano.

Author Biography

Dr. Elizabeth F. Barkley is a classical pianist who holds a B.A. and an M.A. from the University of California, Riverside, and a Ph.D. from the University of California, Berkeley

Table of Contents

Preface xv
Part I: The Journeys Begin
Music in Multicultural America
1(15)
The Components of American Multiculturalism
2(8)
Culture
3(1)
Ethnicity and Culture
4(1)
Race and Culture
4(2)
Acculturation and Assimilation in American Society
6(3)
The United States Today
9(1)
American Multiculturalism and American Music
10(4)
The Building Blocks of Music
10(4)
Conclusion
14(1)
Bibliography
15(1)
The Music of Native Americans
16(21)
Native American Origins
16(3)
Overview of Pre-Conquest Music Traditions
19(2)
Challenges to Studying Pre-Conquest Native American Music
19(1)
Commonalities among Native Music Traditions
20(1)
Structural Characteristics
20(1)
Native American Music within a Historical and Social Context The Fifteenth-Nineteenth Centuries
21(11)
Native American Cultural Diversity
21(3)
Contact with Europeans in the Colonial Period
24(1)
Native Americans and the United States of America
25(2)
Impact of Europeans on Native Culture and Music Traditions
27(5)
Native American Music in the Twentieth Century
32(3)
Pan-Indian Music
32(3)
Native Americans Today
35(1)
Conclusion
35(1)
Bibliography
35(2)
The Roots of European/Anglo-American Music
37(21)
European American Origins
37(4)
Overview of European-American Music Traditions
41(2)
Commonalities of European-American Music
41(2)
Early Anglo-American Music Traditions
43(1)
The Structural Characteristics of Anglo-American Folk Music
43(1)
Anglo-American Music within a Social and Historical Context
43(12)
Religious Music of the Colonial Period
43(2)
Folk Music of the Early Settlers
45(2)
The Americanization of British Folk Songs
47(3)
Instrumental Music of the Early Settlers
50(3)
Conflict and the Road to Revolution
53(1)
The Founding of a New Nation
54(1)
Conclusion
55(2)
Bibliography
57(1)
The Roots of African-American Music
58(17)
African-American Origins
58(1)
Challenges to Retaining African Culture
58(2)
Overview of African Music Traditions
60(4)
African Diversity
60(1)
African Commonalities
60(4)
African-American Music within a Historical and Social Context
64(8)
Colonial America
64(4)
Structural Characteristics of Early African-American Music
68(1)
The American Revolution and Striving for Freedom
68(1)
The Civil War, Reconstruction, and the Late Nineteenth Century
69(3)
Conclusion
72(1)
Bibliography
73(2)
The Roots of Latin American Music
75(19)
The First Mexican Americans
75(2)
Pre-Conquest and Arrival of the Europeans
77(2)
Overview of the Music of the Aztecs and Other Indigenous Peoples
79(4)
Challenges and Changes in Studying Indigenous Music of Mexico
79(2)
Commonalities of Aztec and Other Indigenous Music
81(1)
Structural Characteristics of Aztec and Other Indigenous Music
82(1)
Mexican-American Music in a Historical and Social Context
83(6)
The Spanish Colonial Period
83(2)
Influence of Colonial System on Mexican Music
85(2)
Mexican Independence
87(1)
Mexican Northern Provinces Become Part of the United States
88(1)
Mestizo Music Traditions
89(2)
Structural Characteristics
89(1)
Popular Mestizo Music Styles
89(2)
Conclusion
91(2)
Bibliography
93(1)
Part II: Encounters At The Crossroads
The Blues
94(23)
Overview of the Music Tradition of the Blues
94(3)
Origin of the Term ``The Blues''
94(1)
Stylistic Categories
95(1)
The Structural Characteristics of the Blues
96(1)
The Blues in a Historical and Social Context
97(17)
The Civil War and Reconstruction
97(1)
Origins of the Blues to 1900
98(3)
Spread of the Blues from 1900 to 1920
101(4)
The 1920s and Initial Expansion of Blues Styles
105(2)
The 1930s and the Development of Urban Blues
107(2)
The 1940s and Three Important Bluesmen
109(1)
Important Developments in the 1950s
109(1)
The 1960s and British Blues
110(2)
The 1970s to the Present
112(2)
Conclusion
114(1)
Bibliography
115(2)
Jazz
117(27)
Jazz: Primarily African American or European American?
117(2)
Overview of the Music Tradition of Jazz
119(6)
Stylistic Categories
119(4)
Structural Characteristics
123(2)
Jazz in a Historical and Social Context
125(17)
Precursors to Jazz: Ragging and Ragtime
125(1)
The ``Birth of Jazz'' in New Orleans: 1865-1917
126(5)
The 1930s and 1940s: The Swing Era
131(1)
Vocal Jazz
132(2)
The 1940s and 1950s: Bebop
134(2)
The 1950s and 1960s: Cool Jazz and Hard Bop
136(1)
The 1960s and 1970s: The Avant-Garde, Free Jazz, and Fusion
137(4)
The 1980s and 1990s: Classicism, Smooth or Contemporary Jazz, and Acid Jazz
141(1)
Conclusion
142(1)
Bibliography
143(1)
Gospel
144(13)
Overview of Gospel Music
144(3)
Distinguishing Gospel from Spirituals
144(1)
Structural Characteristics
145(2)
Gospel Music in a Historical and Social Context
147(8)
The Foundation for the Development of Gospel Music
147(2)
The Work of Thomas Dorsey in the 1920s
149(1)
The ``Birth'' of Gospel in Chicago and the 1930s and 1940s
150(1)
The Recording and Popularizing of Gospel in the 1950s
151(1)
Gospel in the Last Half of the Twentieth Century
152(3)
Conclusion
155(1)
Bibliography
156(1)
Cajun and Zydeco
157(12)
Overview of Cajun and Zydeco Music Traditions
158(1)
Structural Characteristics
158(1)
Cajun and Zydeco Music in a Social and Historical Context
159(8)
The Roots of Cajun Music
159(2)
Cajun and Creole Music Early in the Twentieth Century
161(2)
Cajun Music in the Middle of the Twentieth Century
163(2)
Zydeco
165(2)
Conclusion
167(1)
Bibliography
168(1)
Country Music
169(15)
Overview of Country Music
170(12)
Stylistic Categories
171(2)
Structural Characteristics
173(1)
Country Music in a Historical and Social Context
174(2)
The 1930s and the Emergence of ``Country Western''
176(1)
The 1940s with Honky Tonk and Bluegrass
176(1)
The 1950s and the Creation of ``The Nashville Sound''
177(1)
The 1960s and 1970s
178(2)
The 1980s to the Present
180(2)
Conclusion
182(1)
Bibliography
182(2)
The Urban Folk Revival
184(18)
Overview of the Music of the Urban Folk Revival
184(4)
Renewed Interest in Traditional Music
184(1)
Dissemination and Popularization of Traditional Music
185(2)
Trends in Folk Music in the Mid-Twentieth Century
187(1)
Structural Characteristics
188(1)
The Urban Folk Revival in a Social and Historical Context
188(11)
1900-1940
188(2)
The 1940s
190(2)
The 1950s
192(1)
The 1960s
193(6)
Conclusion
199(1)
Bibliography
200(2)
Part III: Excursions In New Directions
Rock `n' Roll
202(17)
Overview of Rock `n' Roll's Music Characteristics
202(1)
Rock `n' Roll in a Historical and Social Context
203(11)
Changes in the 1940s and 1950s
203(2)
The Birth of Rock `n' Roll
205(1)
The Primary Musical Influences on Early Rock `n' Roll
205(1)
Two Examples of the Fusion of Styles
206(1)
Rock `n' Roll's First Stars
207(2)
Conflicting Reactions to Rock `n' Roll
209(5)
Later Developments of Rock
214(3)
Conclusion
217(1)
Bibliography
218(1)
Soul, Motown, and Funk
219(13)
Overview of the Musical Characteristics of Soul, Motown, and Funk
219(2)
Soul Music
219(2)
Motown
221(1)
Funk
221(1)
Soul, Motown, and Funk in a Historical and Social Context
221(9)
Soul Music
221(1)
Early Soul Music
221(2)
Geographical Centers for Soul Music
223(4)
Motown
227(3)
Funk
230(1)
Conclusion
230(1)
Bibliography
230(2)
Salsa, Reggae, and Caribbean Latino Music
232(18)
Defining ``The Caribbean''
233(1)
Overview of Caribbean Music Traditions
234(7)
Structural Characteristics Unifying Caribbean Music
234(3)
Specific Music Traditions of Particular Importance to Puerto Rico
237(3)
Other Caribbean Music Traditions
240(1)
Caribbean Music Traditions within a Historical and Social Context
241(5)
Pre-Conquest and Establishment of Spanish Colonies
241(1)
Puerto Rico as an American Territory
242(4)
The Development of Salsa
246(2)
The Birth of ``Salsa''
246(1)
African and European Influences on Salsa
246(1)
Salsa's Increasing Popularity
247(1)
Conclusion
248(1)
Bibliography
249(1)
Tejano, Banda, and Contemporary Mexican-American Music
250(11)
Overview of Twentieth-Century Mexican-American Music Traditions
251(1)
Stylistic Categories
251(1)
Structural Characteristics
252(1)
Twentieth-Century Mexican American Music within a Social and Historical Context
252(7)
The First Half of the Twentieth Century
252(3)
The Second Half of the Twentieth Century
255(1)
The Late Twentieth Century
256(3)
Conclusion
259
Bibliography
260(1)
Asian American Music
261(17)
Challenges and Issues in Discussing Asian Americans and Asian-American Music
262(1)
The Three Periods of Asian Immigration
263(2)
Current Asian Communities in the United States
265(1)
Asian-American Music within a Social and Historical Context
266(7)
Chinese Americans
266(2)
Filipino Americans
268(1)
Indian and Pakistani Americans
269(1)
Vietnamese Americans
270(1)
Korean Americans
271(1)
Japanese Americans
271(2)
Asian-American Music in the Last Half of the Twentieth Century to the Present
273(2)
Conclusion
275(1)
Bibliography
276(2)
Hip-Hop and Rap
278(15)
Overview of Hip-Hop and Rap Music Traditions
279(4)
Defining Hip-Hop and Rap
279(1)
Stylistic Categories of Rap
280(3)
Rap and Hip-Hop in a Social and Historical Context
283(8)
Roots of Rap in African and African-American Oral Traditions
283(1)
The Earliest Hip-Hop and Rap
284(2)
The Context for the Rise in Popularity of Rap
286(1)
Shift in Rap from Party Music to Social Commentary
287(1)
Hip-Hop and Rap Become More Mainstream
288(1)
The Growth of Hardcore Rap
288(2)
The 2001 Hip-Hop Summit
290(1)
Conclusion
291(1)
Bibliography
291(2)
Epilogue 293(2)
Index 295


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