Cruise Tourism in Polar Regions

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  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-07-07
  • Publisher: Routledge

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Cruises are the primary form of tourism in the Polar Regions and cruise ship tourism in both the Arctic and Antarctic is expanding rapidly. Yet little is known about the practices, implications and challenges of tourism in remote polar seas. Climate change is dramatically altering the impact and potential for such forms of tourism. Recent incidents, such as the sinking of one cruise ship and the grounding of two other cruise vessels in the Antarctic Peninsula in 2007, highlight the need for a critical examination of the implications of polar cruise tourism. A specific critical study of polar cruise tourism is therefore timely. The industry has moved beyond its infancy, and is now entering a maturing phase with increased numbers and types of vessels, more demanding routes, and more regular and predictable patterns of activity. A range of factors is likely to support this maturing phase, including increasing tourist demand for travel to remote places, overall popularity of cruising worldwide, more sophisticated promotional activities by tour agencies, increasing awareness at the political and community levels about the benefits and costs of cruise tourism, and changing ice regimes in the polar regions. The increase in cruise activities, and the associated risks of accidents, as well as the potential and actual impacts of the large numbers of tourists in the polar regions bring with it management challenges for sustainable use of these regions. This book discusses critically the issues around environmental and social sustainability of the cruise industry in Polar Regions. Authors from Canada, USA, Europe, Australia and New Zealand are experts in their respective fields and take an innovative, critical and at times controversial approach to the subject.

Author Biography

Michael Lck is Associate Professor and Head of Department (Tourism and Events) in the School of Hospitality and Tourism, and Associate Director for the Coastal and Marine Tourism Research program area at the New Zealand Tourism Research Institute, both at AUT University in Auckland, New Zealand. Patrick T. Maher is an Associate Professor in the Outdoor Recreation and Tourism Management Program at the University of Northern British Columbia. Emma J. Stewart is a senior lecturer in Tourism and Parks at Lincoln University, New Zealand, and is a Research Associate at the Arctic Institute of North America (AINA).

Table of Contents

List of figures, tables and boxesp. ix
List of contributorsp. xii
Acknowledgementsp. xviii
Forewordp. xx
List of acronyms and abbreviationsp. xxv
Setting the Scene: Polar Cruise Tourism in the 21st Centuryp. 1
Introductionp. 1
The cruise industry and the polar regionsp. 2
Sustainable tourism and the polar regionsp. 7
Market Dimensionsp. 11
Polar Yacht Cruisingp. 13
Introductionp. 13
The past: Adventurers and explorersp. 13
The present: The polar regions and yachtsp. 15
Important issues regarding impactsp. 20
Conclusionsp. 22
Cruising to the North Pole aboard a Nuclear Icebreakerp. 25
Introductionp. 25
Logisticsp. 25
The icebreakersp. 30
Inceptionp. 32
The first full-scale voyagep. 33
The northbound voyagep. 33
The North Polep. 34
Ice and weather conditionsp. 35
Environmental considerationsp. 36
Wildlife records and observationsp. 37
Passengersp. 37
Lectures and other activitiesp. 38
Helicoptersp. 39
Other locations: Eurasian Arctic archipelagos and the Northeast Passagep. 39
Pole of relative inaccessibilityp. 40
Operating companiesp. 41
Conclusionsp. 41
Selling the Adventure of a Lifetime: An Ethnographic Report on Cruising in the Antarcticp. 43
The ocean cruise industry: An American form of tourismp. 44
Categories of ocean cruise linesp. 44
Specialty cruise lines to Antarcticap. 45
A mainstream cruise to Antarctica on the Star Princessp. 46
Specialty cruise ships to Antarcticap. 48
Luxury adventure cruisesp. 49
The sacred, the profane and Antarcticap. 51
The myth model and Antarctic travelp. 52
Landing on Antarcticap. 53
The fortunate few and Antarctica's good fortunep. 54
Human Dimensionsp. 55
Cruises and Bruises: Safety, Security and Social Issues on Polar Cruisesp. 57
Introductionp. 57
Safety and securityp. 58
Sensitivityp. 64
The issue of carrying capacityp. 66
Economics of cruise tourismp. 67
The cruise ship virusp. 69
Cruises and bruisesp. 70
Exploring the Ethical Standards of Alaska Cruise Ship Tourists and the Role they Inadvertently Play in the Unsustainable Practices of the Cruise Ship Industryp. 75
Introductionp. 75
Background to the studyp. 76
Research methodologyp. 77
Findingsp. 80
Discussion of the resultsp. 86
Conclusions and recommendationsp. 88
Students on Ice: Learning in the Greatest Classrooms on Earthp. 93
Introductionp. 93
Foundations and raison d'Ítre (mandate)p. 94
Education programmep. 95
Student success storiesp. 98
Awe and wonderp. 101
Comments from students and staffp. 101
Future plansp. 103
Conclusionsp. 104
Environmental Dimensionsp. 107
Environmental Impacts of Polar Cruisesp. 109
Introductionp. 109
Environmental impacts of cruises in polar regionsp. 111
Regulationsp. 114
The holistic approachp. 127
Conclusionsp. 128
Monitoring Patterns of Cruise Tourism across Arctic Canadap. 133
Introductionp. 133
Cruise tourism across Arctic Canadap. 133
Monitoring cruise ship activity in Arctic Canadap. 135
Cruise tourism in the High Arcticp. 135
Cruise tourism in the Northwest Passagep. 137
Cruise tourism in the Baffin Bay regionp. 138
Cruise tourism in the Hudson Bay regionp. 140
Discussionp. 142
Conclusionsp. 144
Climate Change and its Implications for Cruise Tourism in the Polar Regionsp. 147
Introductionp. 147
Climate change in the polar regions: An overviewp. 149
A typology of impacts of climate change on tourismp. 149
Impacts on polar cruise tourismp. 153
Discussionp. 157
Conclusionsp. 159
Policy and Governance Dimensionsp. 165
Stakeholder Perspectives on the Governance of Antarctic Cruise Tourismp. 167
Introductionp. 167
'Governing the governors': A story of controlling self-regulationp. 169
Ways forward - practically and conceptuallyp. 176
Port Readiness Planning in the Arctic: Building Community Supportp. 181
Introductionp. 181
The Newfoundland and Labrador contextp. 183
Building port readiness: Approach and findingsp. 186
Conclusions and recommendationsp. 200
Beyond the Cruise: Navigating Sustainable Policy and Practice in Alaska's Inland Passagep. 205
Introductionp. 205
Current policy and practicep. 209
Sustainable Alaskan cruise tourismp. 213
Conclusionsp. 215
Conclusionsp. 225
Moving Forwardp. 227
Returning to the beginningp. 227
Lessons from the bookp. 228
Cross-cutting themesp. 231
Research directionsp. 232
Indexp. 237
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