The Curious Writer

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2010-01-03
  • Publisher: Longman
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The Curious Writer by Bruce Ballenger is an assignment-oriented, all-in-one rhetoric-reader-handbook that stresses the connections between personal and academic writing. Offering a unique, entertaining, and personal author voice, The Curious Writer is sure to grab the reader's interest and motivates them to write. Also distinctive is The Curious Writerrs"s emphasis on inquiry as both a driving force behind the writing process and a method of discovery and learning. The book operates on the principle that writers who begin with questions, rather than answers, achieve better results in their work. It treats research, revision, and critical reading skills (of both texts and visuals) as organic components of every writing process. Each of the eight writing assignment chapters offers integrated coverage of these three key activities and also provides special attention to the Web as a resource for invention and research.

Table of Contents

Preface xxxi

Acknowledgments xxxviii




Motives for Writing 4

Beliefs About Writing 5

  EXERCISE 1.1 What Do You Believe? 5

    ONE STUDENT’S RESPONSE Bernice’s Journal 6


    Unlearning Unhelpful Beliefs 7

    The Beliefs of This Book 8


Writing Situations and Rhetorical Choices 9

Habits of Mind 11

    Start with Questions, Not Answers 11

    Suspend Judgment 12

    Search for Surprise 14

  EXERCISE 1.2 A Roomful of Details 14

    ONE STUDENT’S RESPONSE Bernice’s Journal 15

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Invention Strategies 16

Writing as a Process 17

  EXERCISE 1.3 What Is Your Process? 18

    Thinking About Your Process 22

  EXERCISE 1.4 Literacy Narrative Collage 22

    Writing Creatively, Writing Critically: A Process of Writing 23

  EXERCISE 1.5 Alternating Currents of Thought: Generating and Judging 25

    Thinking and Writing Dialectically 26

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Organizing Your Computer Files 27

    Opening Questions 29

Questions, Creativity, and Critical Thinking: A Strategy for Inquiry 30

EXERCISE 1.6 Writing with the Wrong Hand and Other Ways of Thinking About Yourself as a Writer 32


Inquiry Project: The Writing Literacy Memoir 35

    SAMPLE STUDENT ESSAY Bernice Olivas, Writing a New path 36

  EXERCISE 1.7 Taking a Reflective Turn 38

Using What You Have Learned 39



Motives for Reading 42

Beliefs About Reading 43

  EXERCISE 2.1 What Do You Believe? 43

    ONE STUDENT’S RESPONSE Briana’s Journal 44

Reading Situations and Rhetorical Choices 45

    ONE STUDENT’S RESPONSE Briana’s Journal 47

  EXERCISE 2.2 Reading Autobiography 50

Reading as a Process 51

    Reading to Write 51

    Goal-Directed Reading 53

  EXERCISE 2.3 What Do You Know and When Did You Know It? 55

    ONE STUDENT’S RESPONSE Briana’s Journal 56

    Inquiry Questions for Reading to Write 56

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Reading Perspectives 57

Reading Dialectically 61

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Visual Literacy: Reading Photographs 64

  EXERCISE 2.4 Reading Creatively, Reading Critically 64

    READINGS Bruce Ballenger, “The Importance of Writing Badly” 65

    ONE STUDENT’S RESPONSE Briana’s Journal 67

    Read to Write and Write to Read 69


Inquiry Project: The Reading Literacy Memoir 70

    STUDENT ESSAY Briana Duquette-Shackley, Reading Literacy Memoir 71

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS The Double-Entry Journal 73

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Encountering Unfamiliar Genres 74

    Using What You Have Learned 75





Writing About Experience 79

Motives for Writing a Personal Essay 80

The Personal Essay and Academic Writing 81

Features of the Form 82


    PERSONAL ESSAY 1 Scott Russell Sanders, “Buckeye” 83

Inquiring into the Essay 88

    PERSONAL ESSAY 2 Laura Zazulak, “Every Morning for Five Years” 89

    Inquiring into the Essay 90

    PERSONAL ESSAY 3 Judith Ortiz Cofer, “One More Lesson” 91

    Inquiring into the Essay 94

    SEEING THE FORM Nautilus Shell 95

    WRITING IN THE DISCIPLINES The Personal Academic Essay 96

    WRITING IN YOUR LIFE Essaying “This I Belive” 97


Inquiry Project: Writing a Personal Essay 98

    Thinking About Subjects 98

    Generating Ideas 98

    ONE STUDENT’S RESPONSE Margaret’s Journal 99

   Listing Prompts 99

   Fastwriting Prompts 99

   Visual Prompts 100

   Research Prompts 101

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Clustering or Mapping 101

    Judging What You Have 103

   What’s Promising Material and What Isn’t? 103

   Questions About Purpose and Audience 103

   Questions for Reflection 103

    Writing the Sketch 104

    STUDENT SKETCH Amanda Stewart, “Earning a Sense of Place” 105

    Moving from Sketch to Draft 106

   Evaluating Your Own Sketch 106

   Questions for Peer Review 107

   Reflecting on What You’ve Learned 107

Research and Other Strategies: Gathering More Information 107

    Composing the Draft 108

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS More than One Way to Tell a Story 109

   Methods of Development 110

   Using Evidence 111

    Workshopping the Draft 111

   Reflecting on the Draft 111

   Questions for Readers 111

    Revising the Draft 112

    Polishing the Draft 113

    STUDENT ESSAY Julia C. Arredondo, “Beet Field Dreams” 114

    Evaluating the Essay 116

Using What You Have Learned 117



Writing About People 119

Motives for Writing a Profile 120

The Profile and Academic Writing 121

Features of the Form 122


    PROFILE 1 Sonja Livingston, “Thumb-Sucking Girl” 123

    Inquiring into the Essay 123

    PROFILE 2 Anonymous, “Soup” 124

    Inquiring into the Essay 126

    PROFILE 3 Timothy Egan, “Alfalfa Bill” 128

    Inquiring into the Essay 130

    PROFILE 4 Gib Akin, “Learning About Work from Joe Cool” 131

    Inquiring into the Essay 135

    SEEING THE FORM Roy Takeno Reading Paper in Front of Office by Ansel Adams 136


Inquiry Project: Representative Profile 137

    Thinking About Subjects 137

    Generating Ideas 137

   Listing Prompts 138

    ONE STUDENT’S RESPONSE Jennifer’s Journal 138

   Fastwriting Prompts 139

   Visual Prompts 139

   Research Prompts 140

    ONE STUDENT’S RESPONSE Bruce’s Journal 140

    Judging What You Have 140

   What’s Promising Material and What Isn’t? 141

   Questions About Audience and Purpose 141

   Interviewing 142

   Making Contact 142

    WRITING IN YOUR LIFE Digital Profiles 143

   Conducting the Interview 145

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Recording Interviews 146

   Listening and Watching 146

    INTERVIEW NOTES Margaret Parker, “Medical Student” 147

    Writing the Sketch 149

    Moving from Sketch to Draft 149

   Evaluating Your Own Sketch 150

   Questions for Peer Review 150

   Reflecting on What You’ve Learned 150

    Research and Other Strategies: Gathering More Information 151

    Composing the Draft 151

    WRITING IN THE DISCIPLINES Giving History a Face and a

Voice 151

   Methods of Development 152

   Using Evidence 152

    Workshopping the Draft 152

   Reflecting on the Draft 153

   Questions for Readers 153

    Revising the Draft 153

   Polishing the Draft 154

    STUDENT ESSAY Margaret Parker, “Medical Student” 156

    Evaluating the Essay 158

Using What You Have Learned 159



Writing That Evaluates 161

Motives for Writing a Review 162

The Review and Academic Writing 163

    WRITING IN THE DISCIPLINES Evaluation Across the Disciplines 163

Features of the Form 164


    REVIEW 1 Mark Kermode, “Pirates of the Caribbean: Dead Man’s

Chest” 166

    Inquiring into the Essay 168

    REVIEW 2 Ezra Dyer, “A Ton (Just Barely) of Fun” 170

    Inquiring into the Essay 172

    REVIEW 3 Seth Schiesel, “Grand Theft Auto Takes on New York” 173

    Inquiring into the Essay 176

    SEEING THE FORM Choosing the Best Picture 176


Inquiry Project: Writing a Review 178

    Thinking About Subjects 178

    Generating Ideas 178

   Listing Prompts 178

   Fastwriting Prompts 179

   Visual Prompts 179

   Research Prompts 179

    Judging What You Have 180

    WRITING IN YOUR LIFE Online Product Reviews 180

   What’s Promising Material and What Isn’t? 181

   Questions About Audience and Purpose 182

  EXERCISE 5.1 From Jury to Judgment 182

    ONE STUDENT’S RESPONSE Sam’s Journal 184

    Thinking About Criteria 184

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Collaborating on Criteria 185

    Writing the Sketch 186

    STUDENT SKETCH Sam Battey, “River Birch: A Diamond in the

Rough” 186

    Moving from Sketch to Draft 188

   Evaluating Your Own Sketch 188

   Questions for Peer Review 189

   Reflecting on What You’ve Learned 189

    Research and Other Strategies: Gathering More Information 189

   Re-Experience 189

   Interview 189

   Read 190

    Composing the Draft 190

   Methods of Development 191

   Using Evidence 191

    Workshopping the Draft 191

   Reflecting on the Draft 191

    ONE STUDENT’S RESPONSE Christy’s Journal 192

   Questions for Readers 192

    Revising the Draft 193

Polishing the Draft 193

    STUDENT ESSAY Sam Battey, “River Birch: A Diamond in the

Rough” 195

    Evaluating the Essay 197

Using What You Have Learned 197



Writing About Problems and Solutions 199

    Problems of Consequence 200

    Problems of Scale 201

Motives for Writing a Proposal 202

The Proposal and Academic Writing 202

Features of the Form 203


    PROPOSAL 1 David S. Johnston, “Housing and Our Military” 205

    Inquiring into the Essay 207

    PROPOSAL 2 UC Santa Cruz Dining Services, “Green Dining” 208

Inquiring into the Essay 210

    PROPOSAL 3 Michael Pollan, “Why Bother?” 211

    Inquiring into the Essay 216

    WRITING IN THE DISCIPLINES Writing a Research Proposal 216

    SEEING THE FORM A Problem in Pictures: “No Space for Bikes” 217


Inquiry Project: Writing a Proposal 219

    Thinking About Subjects 219

    Generating Ideas 219

   Listing Prompts 219

    ONE STUDENT’S RESPONSE Caesar’s Journal 220

   Fastwriting Prompts 220

    ONE STUDENT’S RESPONSE Gina’s Journal 221

   Visual Prompts 222


   Research Prompts 223

    Judging What You Have 223

   What’s Promising Material and What Isn’t? 223

   Questions About Audience and Purpose 224

   Questions of Form 224

   Research Considerations 224

    Writing the Sketch 225

    STUDENT SKETCH Gina Sinisi, “Clothing Optional” 226

    Moving from Sketch to Draft 227

   Evaluating Your Own Sketch 227

    ONE STUDENT’S RESPONSE Gina’s Journal 227

   Questions for Peer Review 228

   Reflecting on What You Learned 228

    Research and Other Strategies: Gathering More Information 228

    WRITING IN YOUR LIFE Grant Proposals and Group Ethos 229

    Composing the Draft 230

   Methods of Development 230

   Using Evidence 231

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Evidence–A Case Study 232

    Workshopping the Draft 232

   Reflecting on the Draft 232

   Questions for Readers 233

    Revising the Draft 233

    Polishing the Draft 235

    STUDENT ESSAY Gina Sinisi, “Clothing Optional” 235

    Evaluating the Essay 238

Using What You Have Learned 238



Writing to Persuade People 241

    What Is Argument? 242

    Two Sides to Every Argument? 243

    Argument and Inquiry 246

   Suspending Judgment 246

   Making Judgments 246

    Analyzing Argument 247

   Using Toulmin 249

   Using Logical Fallacies 251

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Common Logical Fallacies 251

Motives for Writing an Argument 252

The Argument and Academic Writing 253

Features of the Form 254

    WRITING IN YOUR LIFE Public Argument in a Digital Age 256


    ARGUMENT 1 Khalid Sheikh Mohammed, “The Language of War Is

Killing” 257

    Inquiring into the Essay 258

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Some Basic Argument Strategies 259

    ARGUMENT 2 Jeff Jacoby, “A Teacher with Faith and Reason” 260

    Inquiring into the Essay 261

    ARGUMENT 3 Loye Young, “Is Humiliation an Ethically Appropriate

Response to Plagiarism?” 263

    Inquiring into the Essay 264

    SEEING THE FORM The “Imagetext” as Argument 265


Inquiry Project: Writing a Public Argument 266

    Thinking About Subjects 266

    Generating Ideas 267

   Listing Prompts 267

   Fastwriting Prompts 267

   Visual Prompts 268

    ONE STUDENT’S RESPONSE Ben’s Journal 268

   Research Prompts 269

    Judging What You Have 270

   What’s Promising Material and What Isn’t? 270

   Questions About Audience and Purpose 271

   Research Considerations 271

   Narrowing the Question 273

    Writing the Sketch 273

    STUDENT SKETCH Ben Bloom, “How to Really Rock the Vote” 274

    Moving from Sketch to Draft 275

   Evaluating Your Own Sketch 275

   Questions for Peer Review 275

   Reflecting on What You’ve Learned 276

    Research and Other Strategies: Gathering More Information 276

    Composing the Draft 278

   Methods of Development 279

   Using Evidence 280

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS What Evidence Can Do 280

    Workshopping the Draft 281

   Reflecting on the Draft 281

   Questions for Readers 281

    Revising the Draft 281

    WRITING IN THE DISCIPLINES Argument in Academic Disciplines 282

    Polishing the Draft 283

    STUDENT ESSAY Kelly Sundberg, “I Am Not a Savage” 284

    Evaluating the Essay 286

Using What You Have Learned 286



Writing About Literature 289

Motives for Writing a Critical Essay 290

The Critical Essay and Academic Writing 291

Features of the Form 292


    SHORT STORY 1 Ursula Le Guin, “The Ones Who Walk Away from

Omelas” 293

    Inquiring into the Story 298

    ONE STUDENT’S RESPONSE Bernice’s Double-Entry Journal 298

    SHORT STORY 2 Leslie Marmon Silko, “Lullaby” 300

    Inquiring into the Story 307

    ONE STUDENT’S RESPONSE Noel’s Journal 308

    WRITING IN THE DISCIPLINES Why Literary Theory Is Not a Sleep Aid 308

    ESSAY Sarah Vowell, “Shooting Dad” 310

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS How to Read Nonfiction 315

    Inquiring into the Essay 316

    SEEING THE FORM Christina’s World by Andrew Wyeth 316


Inquiry Project: Writing a Critical Essay 319

    Thinking About Subjects 319

    Generating Ideas 320

   Listing Prompts 320

   Fastwriting Prompts 320

   Visual Prompts 321

   Research Prompts 321

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Common Literary Devices 322

    Judging What You Have 323

   What’s Promising Material and What Isn’t? 323

   Questions About Audience and Purpose 324

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS What Is a “Strong Reading”? 325

    Writing the Sketch 326

    STUDENT SKETCH Bernice Olivas, “Who Are ‘The Ones Who Walk Away

from Omelas’?” 327

    Moving from Sketch to Draft 328

   Evaluating Your Own Sketch 328

   Questions for Peer Review 328

   Reflecting on What You’ve Learned 328

    Research and Other Strategies: Gathering More Information 329

    Composing the Draft 329

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Literature on the Web 330

   Methods of Development 331

   Using Evidence 331

    Workshopping the Draft 331

    WRITING IN YOUR LIFE Book Groups 332

   Reflecting on the Draft 332

   Questions for Readers 332

    Revising the Draft 333

    Polishing the Draft 333

    STUDENT ESSAY Bernice Olivas, “Can You Really Walk Away?” 335

    Evaluating the Essay 337

Using What You Have Learned 337



Writing About Culture 339

Motives for Writing Ethnography 340

Ethnography and Academic Writing 340

Features of the Form 341


    ETHNOGRAPHIC ESSAY 1 Judith Ortiz Cofer, “The Myth of the Latin

Woman: Just Met a Girl Named Maria” 344

    Inquiring into the Essay 348

    ETHNOGRAPHIC ESSAY 2 Patricia Leigh Brown, “For the Muslim Prom

Queen, There are no Kings Allowed” 350

    Inquiring into the Essay 353

    ETHNOGRAPHIC ESSAY 3 Rebekah Nathan, “My Freshman Year:

Worldliness and Worldview” 354

    Inquiring into the Essay 357

    SEEING THE FORM Mrs. Smith’s Kitchen Table and Vanity the Day After

She Died 358


Inquiry Project: Writing an Ethnographic Essay 359

    Thinking About Subjects 359

    WRITING IN YOUR LIFE Commercial Ethnography 360

    Generating Ideas 360

   Listing Prompts 360

   Fastwriting Prompts 361

   Visual Prompts 362

   Research Prompts 362

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Researching Trends and Subcultures on

the Web 363

    Judging What You Have 363

   What’s Promising Material and What Isn’t? 363

   Questions About Audience and purpose 364

   Research Considerations 365

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Questions Ethnographers Ask 365

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Ethnography and Ethics 366

    FIELD NOTES Rita Guerra, “Field Notes on Friday Afternoon at Emerald

Lanes” 368

    Writing the Sketch 370

    Moving from Sketch to Draft 371

   Evaluating Your Own Sketch 371

   Questions for Peer Review 371

   Reflecting on What You’ve Learned 371

    Research and Other Strategies: Gathering More Information 372

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Useful Library Databases for

Ethnography 372

    Composing the Draft 373

   Methods of Development 373

    WRITING IN THE DISCIPLINES Digital Ethnography 373

   Using Evidence 374

    Workshopping the Draft 375

   Reflecting on the Draft 375

   Questions for Readers 375

    Revising the Draft 375

    Polishing the Draft 377

    STUDENT ESSAY Kersti Harter, “Beyond ‘Gaydar’: How Gay Males

Identify Other Gay Males” 378

    Evaluating the Essay 388

Using What You Have Learned 388





Writing with Research 391

Research Essays, Research Papers, and Research Reports 392

Motives for Writing a Research Essay 393

The Research Essay and Academic Writing 394

Features of the Form 395


    UNDOCUMENTED RESEARCH ESSAY Brian Doyle, “Joyas Voladoras” 397

    Inquiring into the Essay 399

    DOCUMENTED RESEARCH ESSAY Beth Bailey, “The Worth of a

Date” 400

    Inquiring into the Essay 404

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Reading Academic Research Essays 404

    DOCUMENTED RESEARCH PAPER Tracy Lambert, Arnold Kahn, and

Kevin Apple, “Pluralistic Ignorance and Hooking Up” 405

    Inquiring into the Essay 414

    SEEING THE FORM Idaho State Penitentiary, Women’s Prison 415


Inquiry Project: Write a Research Essay 417

    Thinking About Subjects 417

    Generating Ideas 418

   Listing Prompts 418

   Fastwriting Prompts 418

    ONE STUDENT’S RESPONSE Julian’s Journal 419

   Visual Prompts 419

   Research Prompts 419

    Judging What You Have 420

   What’s Promising Material and What Isn’t? 421

   Is It a Researchable Question? 421

   Questions About Audience and Purpose 422

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Finding the Focusing Question 423

    ONE STUDENT’S RESPONSE Julian’s Journal 424

    Writing the Sketch 424

    STUDENT SKETCH Amy Garrett-Brown, “Why Do People Tan?” 425

    Moving from Sketch to Draft 426

   Evaluating Your Own Sketch 426

   Questions for Peer Review 427

   Reflecting on What You’ve Learned 427

    Research and Other Strategies: Gathering More Information 427

    Composing the Draft 428

   Methods of Development 429

   Using Evidence 430

    Workshopping the Draft 431

   Reflecting on the Draft 432

    WRITING IN THE DISCIPLINES Being a Stranger in the Village 432

   Questions for Readers 433

    Revising the Draft 433

    WRITING IN YOUR LIFE Everyday Research 435

    Polishing the Draft 436

    STUDENT ESSAY Gordon E. Seirup, “College Dating” 437

    Evaluating the Essay 447

Using What You Have Learned 447



Methods of Collecting 449

Research in the Electronic Age 449

    Magic Words That Open Doors 451

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS The Big Red Books (Online) 451

    Google Your Boole 452

Developing Working Knowledge 456

    A Strategy for Developing Working Knowledge 458

Developing Focused Knowledge 459

    A Strategy for Developing Focused Knowledge 460

   Library Research 460

   Web Research 462

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Full-Text Articles and the

Convenience Trap 464

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Methods of Recording Information 465

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS The Working Bibliography 465

Evaluating Library Sources 466

Evaluating Web Sources 467

    Writing in the Middle: Synthesizing Source Information and Your Own

Ideas 470

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS How to Annotate a Book 470

   Double-Entry Journal 471

   Research Log 471

    ONE STUDENT’S RESPONSE Claude’s Research Log 472

Interviews 474

    Arranging Interviews 474

    Conducting the Interview 475

    Using the Interview in Your Writing 477

Surveys 478

    Defining a Survey’s Goals and Audience 478

    Types of Survey Questions 478

    Crafting Survey Questions 479

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Types of Survey Questions 480

    Conducting a Survey 481

    Using Survey Results in Your Writing 482

Using What You Have Learned 483



Controlling Information 485

Using Sources 486

    Summarizing 487

    Paraphrasing 488

    Quoting 489

Citing Sources 491

    Avoiding Plagiarism 493

  EXERCISE 12.1 The Accidental Plagiarist 494

MLA Documentation Guidelines 496

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS The Common Knowledge Exception 496

    Citing Sources 497

   Where to Put Citations 498

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Citations That Go with the Flow 498

   When You Mention the Author’s Name 499

   When There Is No Author 499

   Works by the Same Author 500

   When One Source Quotes Another 501

   Personal Interviews 501

   Several Sources in a Single Citation 501

   Sample Parenthetical References for Other Sources 502

    Format 504

   The Layout 504

    Preparing the Works Cited Page 507

   Format 508

   Citing Books 509

   Sample Book Citations 511

   Citing Periodicals 514

   Sample Periodical Citations 516

   Citing Nonprint and Other Sources 518

   A Sample Paper in MLA Style 522

APA Documentation Guidelines 522

    How the Essay Should Look 522

   Page Format 522

   Title Page 523

   Abstract 523

   Body of the Paper 523

   References Page 526

   Appendix 526

   Notes 526

   Tables and Figures 526

   Language and Style 527

    Citing Sources in Your Essay 527

   When the Author Is Mentioned in the Text 527

   When the Author Isn’t Mentioned in the Text 527

   When to Cite Page Numbers 528

   A Single Work by Two or More Authors 528

   A Work with No Author 528

   Two or More Works by the Same Author 528

   An Institutional Author 529

   Multiple Works in the Same Parentheses 529

   Interviews, E-Mail, and Letters 529

   New Editions of Old Works 530

   A Web Site 530

    Preparing the References List 530

   Order of Sources 530

   Order of Information 530

   Sample References: Articles 533

Sample References: Books 534

Sample References: Other 538

A Sample Paper in APA Style 541

Using What You Have Learned 541





Re-seeing Your Topic 545

Divorcing the Draft 546

Strategies for Divorcing the Draft 547

Photography as a Metaphor for Revision 548

Five Categories of Revision 550

Problems of Purpose 551

    Revision Strategy 13.1: The Motive Statement 552

    Revision Strategy 13.2: What Do You Want to Know About What You

Learned? 553

    ONE STUDENT’S RESPONSE Julia’s Draft 554

    Revision Strategy 13.3: Finding the Focusing Question 554

    Revision Strategy 13.4: What’s the Relationship? 556

Problems with Meaning 557

    Where Does Meaning Come From? 557

    Methods for Discovering Your Thesis 558

    Revision Strategy 13.5: Find the “Instructive Line” 558

    Revision Strategy 13.6: Looping Toward a Thesis 559

    Revision Strategy 13.7: Reclaiming Your Topic 560

    Revision Strategy 13.8: Believing and Doubting 561

    Methods for Refining Your Thesis 562

    Revision Strategy 13.9: Questions as Knives 562

    Revision Strategy 13.10: Qualifying Your Claim 564

Problems with Information 564

    Revision Strategy 13.11: Explode a Moment 565

    Revision Strategy 13.12: Beyond Examples 566

    Revision Strategy 13.13: Research 567

    Revision Strategy 13.14: Backing up Your Assumptions 568

Problems with Structure 568

    Formal Academic Structure 569

    Revision Strategy 13.15: Beginnings, Middles, Ends, and the Work They Do 570

    Revision Strategy 13.16: Reorganizing Around Thesis and Support 571

    Revision Strategy 13.17: Multiple Leads 573


    Revision Strategy 13.18: The Frankenstein Draft 574

    Revision Strategy 13.19: Make a PowerPoint Outline 576

Problems of Clarity and Style 577

    Solving Problems of Clarity 578

    Revision Strategy 13.20: The Three Most Important Sentences 578

   The First Sentence 578

   The Last Line of the first Paragraph 578

   The Last line of the Essay 579

    Revision Strategy 13.21: Untangling Paragraphs 579

    Revision Strategy 13.22: Cutting Clutter 581

    INQUIRING INTO THE DETAILS Transition Flags 582

    Revision Strategy 13.23: The Actor and the Action Next Door 583

    Improving Style 584

    Revision Strategy 13.24: Actors and Actions 584

    Revision Strategy 13.25: Smoothing the Choppiness 585

    Revision Strategy 13.26: Fresh Ways to Say Things 586

Using What You Have Learned 587



Making the Most of Peer Review 589

    Being Read 589

    Divorcing the Draft 590

    Instructive Talk 591

Models for Writing Workshops 592

    Full-Class Workshops 592

    Small-Group Workshops 593

    One-on-One Peer Review 594

The Writer’s Responsibilities 594

The Reader’s Responsibilities 595

What Can Go Wrong and What to Do About It 596


  EXERCISE 14.1 Group Problem Solving 597

    ONE STUDENT’S RESPONSE Amy’s Perspective on Workshops 598

Methods of Responding 599

    Experiential and Directive Responses 599

    Response Formats 599

   The No-Response Workshop 600

   The Initial-Response Workshop 600

   The Narrative-of-Thought Workshop 601

   The Instructive-Lines Workshop 602

   The Purpose Workshop 602

   The Graphing Reader Interest Workshop 603

   The Sum-of-the-Parts Workshop 604

   The Thesis Workshop 605

   The Editing Workshop 606

    Reflecting on the Workshop 608

Using What You Have Learned 608


APPENDIX A The Writing Portfolio 609

What Is a Portfolio? 609

Types of Portfolios 610

    Unevaluated Portfolios 610

    Evaluated Portfolio 611

Why Require a Portfolio? 612

Organizing Portfolios 613

Writing a Reflective Letter or Essay 614

Final Preparations 616


APPENDIX B The Literature Review 617

What Is a Literature Review? 617

How to Write the Literature Review 618

    Gathering Materials 618

    Reading Strategies 619

    Organizing 620


APPENDIX C The Annotated Bibliography 623

What Is an Annotated Bibliography? 623

How to Write an Annotated Bibliography 624

    Gathering Materials 625

    Reading Strategies 625

    Writing the Annotated Bibliography 626

Sample Student Annotated Bibliography 626


APPENDIX D The Essay Exam 631

How to Write Essay Exams 633

    Gathering Materials 633

    Anticipating the Exam 633

    Analyzing Essay Questions 634

    Planning and Drafting 637



1 Sentence Boundaries  

    1A Fragments  

    1B Comma Splices  

    1C Fused Sentences  

2 Sentence Inconsistencies  

    2A Parallelism  

    2B Coordination and Subordination  

    2C Mixed Sentences  

    2D Shifts  

3 Problems with Modification  

    3A Dangling and Misplaced Modifiers  

    3B Restrictive and Nonrestrictive Modifiers  

    3C Adjectives and Adverbs  

4 Verbs  

    4A Tense  

    4B Voice  

    4C Mood  

    4D Subject-Verb Agreement  

5 Pronouns  

    5A Pronoun Case  

    5B Pronoun Reference  

    5C Pronoun Agreement  

    5D Relative Pronouns  

6 Style  

    6A Conciseness  

    6B Appropriate Language

7 Punctuation  

    7A End Punctuation  

    7B Semicolon  

    7C Comma  

    7D Colon  

    7E Dash  

    7F Quotation Marks  

    7G Other Marks  

8 Mechanics and Spelling

    8A Capitalization  

    8B Abbreviation  

    8C Apostrophe  

    8D Italics  

    8E Hyphens  

    8F Numbers  

    8G Spelling  

9 Review of Basic Grammar

    9A Parts of Speech  

    9B Subjects and Predicates

    9C Objects and Complements

    9D Phrases  

    9E Clauses  

    9F Basic Sentence Patterns

    9G Types of Sentences

10 Tips for ESL Writers  

    10A Articles  

    10B Verbs  

    10C Adjectives and Adverbs

    10D Prepositions  

    10E Participles  




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