The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire

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  • Format: Trade Paper
  • Copyright: 2003-08-12
  • Publisher: Modern Library

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Gibbon's masterpiece, which narrates the history of the Roman Empire from the second century a.d. to its collapse in the west in the fifth century and in the east in the fifteenth century, is widely considered the greatest work of history ever written. This abridgment retains the full scope of the original, but in a compass equivalent to a long novel. Casual readers now have access to the full sweep of Gibbon's narrative, while instructors and students have a volume that can be read in a single term. This unique edition emphasizes elements ignored in all other abridgmentsin particular the role of religion in the empire and the rise of Islam.

Author Biography

<b>Hans-Friedrich Mueller</b> is assistant professor and director of graduate studies in classics at Florida State University, and the author of <i>Roman Religion in Valerius Maximus</i>.<br><br><b>Daniel J. Boorstin</b>, Pulitzer Prize–winning historian and Librarian of Congress emeritus, is the author of many books, including <i>The Creators</i> and <i>The Discoverers</i>.

Table of Contents

List of Maps and Illustrations
Critical Foreword
The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire
Preface of the Authorp. 3
The Extent of the Empire in the Age of the Antoninesp. 11
Of the Internal Prosperity of the Roman Empire in the Age of the Antoninesp. 19
The Constitution in the Age of the Antoninesp. 38
The Cruelty, Follies, and Murder of Commodusp. 58
Sale of the Empire to Didius Julianusp. 70
Death of Severus, Tyranny of Caracalla, Usurpation of Macrinusp. 83
Tyranny of Maximin, Rebellion, Civil Wars, Death of Maximinp. 104
State of Persia and Restoration of the Monarchyp. 125
State of Germany Until the Barbariansp. 133
Emperors Decius, Gallus, Aemilianus, Valerian, and Gallienusp. 143
Reign of Claudius, Defeat of the Gothsp. 164
Reigns of Tacitus, Probus, Carus, and His Sonsp. 179
Reign of Diocletian and His Three Associatesp. 195
Six Emperors at the Same Time, Reunion of the Empirep. 213
Progress of the Christian Religionp. 237
Conduct Towards the Christians, from Nero to Constantinep. 276
Foundation of Constantinoplep. 317
Character of Constantine and His Sonsp. 344
Constantius Sole Emperorp. 359
Conversion of Constantinep. 376
Persecution of Heresy, State of the Churchp. 401
Julian Declared Emperorp. 425
Reign of Julianp. 436
The Retreat and Death of Julianp. 454
Reigns of Jovian and Valentinian, Division of the Empirep. 466
Progress of the Hunsp. 490
Civil Wars, Reign of Theodosiusp. 509
Destruction of Paganismp. 522
Division of Roman Empire Between Sons of Theodosiusp. 540
Revolt of the Gothsp. 546
Invasion of Italy, Occupation of Territories by Barbariansp. 563
Emperors Arcadius, Eutropius, Theodosius IIp. 578
Conquest of Africa by the Vandalsp. 594
Attilap. 604
Invasion by Attilap. 610
Total Extinction of the Western Empirep. 620
Conversion of the Barbarians to Christianityp. 643
Reign of Clovisp. 659
Gothic Kingdom of Italyp. 691
Reign of Justinianp. 699
Conquests of Justinian, Character of Belisariusp. 725
State of the Barbaric Worldp. 736
Last Victory and Death of Belisarius, Death of Justinianp. 747
Idea of the Roman Jurisprudencep. 762
State of Italy Under the Lombardsp. 788
Troubles in Persiap. 800
Ecclesiastical Discordp. 815
Succession and Characters of the Greek Emperorsp. 855
Conquest of Italy by the Franksp. 869
Description of Arabia and Its Inhabitantsp. 893
Conquests by the Arabsp. 944
More Conquests by the Arabsp. 961
Fate of the Eastern Empirep. 982
Origin and Doctrine of the Pauliciansp. 1003
The Bulgarians, the Hungarians, and the Russiansp. 1012
The Saracens, the Franks, and the Normansp. 1020
The Turksp. 1029
The First Crusadep. 1047
The Crusadesp. 1075
The Fourth Crusadep. 1094
Partition of the Empire by the French and Venetiansp. 1104
Greek Emperors of Nice and Constantinoplep. 1108
Civil Wars and the Ruin of the Greek Empirep. 1123
Moguls, Ottoman Turksp. 1136
Timour or Tamerlanep. 1153
Union of the Greek and Latin Churchesp. 1169
Schism of the Greeks and Latinsp. 1187
Reign of Mohammed the Second, Extinction of Eastern Empirep. 1197
State of Rome from the Twelfth Centuryp. 1219
Final Settlement of the Ecclesiastical Statep. 1232
Prospect of the Ruins of Rome in the Fifteenth Centuryp. 1243
Table of Roman Emperorsp. 1253
A Note on the Illustrationsp. 1259
Table of Contents provided by Blackwell. All Rights Reserved.


Chapter I
The Extent of the Empire in the Age of the Antonines Introduction.

The extent and military force of the empire in the age of the Antonines. In the second century of the Christian Era, the empire of Rome comprehended the fairest part of the earth and the most civilized portion of mankind. The frontiers of that extensive monarchy were guarded by ancient renown and disciplined valor. The gentle but powerful influence of laws and manners had gradually cemented the union of the provinces. Their peaceful inhabitants enjoyed and abused the advantages of wealth and luxury. The image of a free constitution was preserved with decent reverence: the Roman senate appeared to possess the sovereign authority, and devolved on the emperors all the executive powers of government. During a happy period of more than fourscore years [a.d. 98–180], the public administration was conducted by the virtue and abilities of Nerva, Trajan, Hadrian, and the two Antonines. It is the design of this, and of the two succeeding chapters, to describe the prosperous condition of their empire; and afterwards, from the death of Marcus Antoninus, to deduce the most important circumstances of its decline and fall, a revolution which will ever be remembered, and is still felt by the nations of the earth.

The principal conquests of the Romans were achieved under the republic; and the emperors, for the most part, were satisfied with preserving those dominions which had been acquired by the policy of the senate, the active emulation of the consuls, and the martial enthusiasm of the people. The seven first centuries were filled with a rapid succession of triumphs; but it was reserved for Augustus to relinquish the ambitious design of subduing the whole earth, and to introduce a spirit of moderation into the public councils. Inclined to peace by his temper and situation, it was easy for him to discover that Rome, in her present exalted situation, had much less to hope than to fear from the chance of arms; and that, in the prosecution of remote wars, the undertaking became every day more difficult, the event more doubtful, and the possession more precarious, and less beneficial.

Happily for the repose of mankind, the moderate system recommended by the wisdom of Augustus was adopted by the fears and vices of his immediate successors. Engaged in the pursuit of pleasure, or in the exercise of tyranny, the first Caesars seldom showed themselves to the armies, or to the provinces; nor were they disposed to suffer that those triumphs which their indolence neglected should be usurped by the conduct and valor of their lieutenants. The military fame of a subject was considered as an insolent invasion of the Imperial prerogative; and it became the duty, as well as interest, of every Roman general to guard the frontiers entrusted to his care without aspiring to conquests which might have proved no less fatal to himself than to the vanquished Barbarians.

The only accession which the Roman empire received during the first century of the Christian Era was the province of Britain. In this single instance, the successors of Caesar and Augustus were persuaded to follow the example of the former, rather than the precept of the latter. The proximity of its situation to the coast of Gaul seemed to invite their arms; the pleasing though doubtful intelligence of a pearl fishery attracted their avarice; and as Britain was viewed in the light of a distinct and insulated world, the conquest scarcely formed any exception to the general system of continental measures. After a war of about forty years, undertaken by the most stupid, maintained by the most dissolute, and terminated by the most timid of all the emperors, the far greater part of the island submitted to the Roman yoke. The various tribes of Britain possessed valor without conduct, and the love of freedom without the spirit of union. They took up arms with savage fierceness; they laid them down, or turned them against each other, with wild inconsistency; and while they fought singly, they were successively subdued. Neither the fortitude of Caractacus, nor the despair of Boadicea, nor the fanaticism of the Druids could avert the slavery of their country, or resist the steady progress of the Imperial generals, who maintained the national glory when the throne was disgraced by the weakest, or the most vicious of mankind. Such was the state of the Roman frontiers, and such the maxims of Imperial policy, from the death of Augustus to the accession of Trajan. That virtuous and active prince had received the education of a soldier and possessed the talents of a general. The peaceful system of his predecessors was interrupted by scenes of war and conquest; and the legions, after a long interval, beheld a military emperor at their head. The first exploits of Trajan were against the Dacians, the most warlike of men, who dwelt beyond the Danube and who, during the reign of Domitian, had insulted with impunity the Majesty of Rome. To the strength and fierceness of Barbarians they added a contempt for life, which was derived from a warm persuasion of the immortality and transmigration of the soul. Decebalus, the Dacian king, approved himself a rival not unworthy of Trajan; nor did he despair of his own and the public fortune till, by the confession of his enemies, he had exhausted every resource both of valor and policy. This memorable war, with a very short suspension of hostilities, lasted five years [a.d. 101–106]; and as the emperor could exert, without control, the whole force of the state, it was terminated by an absolute submission of the Barbarians. The new province of Dacia . . . formed a second exception to the precept of Augustus.

Trajan was ambitious of fame; and as long as mankind shall continue to bestow more liberal applause on their destroyers than on their benefactors, the thirst of military glory will ever be the vice of the most exalted characters. The praises of Alexander, transmitted by a succession of poets and historians, had kindled a dangerous emulation in the mind of Trajan. Like him, the Roman emperor undertook an expedition against the nations of the East; but he lamented with a sigh that his advanced age scarcely left him any hopes of equaling the renown of the son of Philip. Yet the success of Trajan, however transient, was rapid and specious. The degenerate Parthians, broken by intestine discord, fled before his arms. He descended the River Tigris in triumph, from the mountains of Armenia to the Persian Gulf. He enjoyed the honor of being the first, as he was the last, of the Roman generals who ever navigated that remote sea. His fleets ravaged the coast of Arabia; and Trajan vainly flattered himself that he was approaching towards the confines of India. Every day the astonished senate received the intelligence of new names and new nations that acknowledged his sway. They were informed that . . . the rich countries of Armenia, Mesopotamia, and Assyria were reduced into the state of provinces. But the death of Trajan soon clouded the splendid prospect; and it was justly to be dreaded that so many distant nations would throw off the unaccustomed yoke when they were no longer restrained by the powerful hand which had imposed it.

It was an ancient tradition that when the Capitol was founded by one of the Roman kings, the god Terminus (who presided over boundaries, and was represented, according to the fashion of that age, by a large stone) alone, among all the inferior deities, refused to yield his place to Jupiter himself. A favorable inference was drawn from his obstinacy, which was interpreted by the augurs as a sure presage that the boundaries of the Roman power would never recede. During many ages, the prediction, as it is usual, contributed to its own accomplishment. But though Terminus had resisted the majesty of Jupiter, he submitted to the authority of the emperor Hadrian. The resignation of all the eastern conquests of Trajan was the first measure of his reign . . . ; and, in compliance with the precept of Augustus, once more established the Euphrates as the frontier of the empire. Censure, which arraigns the public actions and the private motives of princes, has ascribed to envy a conduct which might be attributed to the prudence and moderation of Hadrian. The various character of that emperor, capable, by turns, of the meanest and the most generous sentiments, may afford some color to the suspicion. It was, however, scarcely in his power to place the superiority of his predecessor in a more conspicuous light than by thus confessing himself unequal to the task of defending the conquests of Trajan.

Notwithstanding this difference in their personal conduct, the general system of Augustus was equally adopted and uniformly pursued by Hadrian and by the two Antonines. They persisted in the design of maintaining the dignity of the empire without attempting to enlarge its limits. By every honorable expedient they invited the friendship of the Barbarians; and endeavored to convince mankind that the Roman power, raised above the temptation of conquest, was actuated only by the love of order and justice. During a long period of forty-three years, their virtuous labors were crowned with success; and if we except a few slight hostilities that served to exercise the legions of the frontier, the reigns of Hadrian and Antoninus Pius offer the fair prospect of universal peace. The Roman name was revered among the most remote nations of the earth. The fiercest Barbarians frequently submitted their differences to the arbitration of the emperor; and we are informed by a contemporary historian that he had seen ambassadors who were refused the honor which they came to solicit of being admitted into the rank of subjects.

The terror of the Roman arms added weight and dignity to the moderation of the emperors. They preserved peace by a constant preparation for war; and while justice regulated their conduct, they announced to the nations on their confines that they were as little disposed to endure as to offer an injury. The military strength which it had been sufficient for Hadrian and the elder Antoninus to display was exerted against the Parthians and the Germans by the emperor Marcus. The hostilities of the Barbarians provoked the resentment of that philosophic monarch, and, in the prosecution of a just defense, Marcus and his generals obtained many signal victories, both on the Euphrates and on the Danube. The military establishment of the Roman empire, which thus assured either its tranquility or success, will now become the proper and important object of our attention.

In the purer ages of the commonwealth, the use of arms was reserved for those ranks of citizens who had a country to love, a property to defend, and some share in enacting those laws which it was their interest as well as duty to maintain. But in proportion as the public freedom was lost in extent of conquest, war was gradually improved into an art, and degraded into a trade. The legions themselves, even at the time when they were recruited in the most distant provinces, were supposed to consist of Roman citizens. That distinction was generally considered either as a legal qualification or as a proper recompense for the soldier; but a more serious regard was paid to the essential merit of age, strength, and military stature. . . . After every qualification of property had been laid aside, the armies of the Roman emperors were still commanded, for the most part, by officers of liberal birth and education; but the common soldiers, like the mercenary troops of modern Europe, were drawn from the meanest, and very frequently from the most profligate, of mankind.

Excerpted from The Decline and Fall of the Roman Empire by Edward Gibbon
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