Developing the Curriculum

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  • Edition: 8th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2019-12-07
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


In this practical resource, pre- and in-service educational administrators get step-by-step guidance in every aspect of the curriculum development process-from the underlying principles and concepts to the roles of school personnel, the components of the process, technology in curriculum and instruction, and the most up-to-date curriculum issues. An all-new chapter on The Digital Classroomgives readers a look at how technology is changing the classroom environment and helps them understand the new trends that allow today's students to compete successfully in today's global workplace. Included are numerous references to both historic and contemporary works that provide readers with an excellent synthesis of the principles and practices used to create an effective curriculum.

Author Biography

Peter F. Oliva, formerly professor and chairperson at Southern Illinois University, Florida International University, and Georgia Southern University, is author of numerous articles in education journals and several textbooks and is co-author of Supervision for Today’s Schools, now in its 8th ed. He has served as a high school teacher, guidance counselor, and as a professor of education at the University of Florida, University of Mississippi, Indiana State University, and the University of Hawaii. He has taught summer sessions at Portland State College (Oregon), Miami University (Ohio), and Western Michigan University. He has also served as part-time instructor supervising interns at the University of Central Florida. He has traveled extensively on educational and/or governmental programs in Europe, the Middle East, and Latin America. Developing the Curriculum has been translated into Mandarin, Vietnamese, and Korean.


William R. Gordon II has served as a teacher and administrator in Orange County Florida Public Schools for the past twenty-seven years. He began his administrative career at University High School twenty years ago as a founding member of the school. Additionally, he was an assistant principal at Glenridge Middle School, Metro West Elementary School, and Bonneville Elementary School before becoming principal at Killarney Elementary School. He then moved to the principalship of Winter Park High School. Under his eleven-year tenure at Winter Park High School the school was consistently named by the State of Florida as a “High-Performing School” due to the school’s rigorous curriculum and outstanding student achievement. Also, U.S. News and World Report repeatedly ranked Winter Park High School in the top one percent of high schools in the nation. He currently serves as the Executive Area Director for the East Learning Community where he is responsible for managing thirty-eight K-12 public schools.


Table of Contents

The Curriculum: Theoretical Dimensionsp. 1
Curriculum and Instruction Definedp. 2
Conceptions of Curriculump. 2
Relationships Between Curriculum and Instructionp. 7
Curriculum as a Disciplinep. 10
Curriculum Specialistsp. 13
Summaryp. 15
Questions for Discussionp. 16
Exercisesp. 16
Websitep. 16
Endnotesp. 16
Principles Of Curriculum Developmentp. 18
Clarification of Termsp. 18
Types of Curriculum Developersp. 19
Sources of Curriculum Principlesp. 20
Types of Principlesp. 21
Ten Axiomsp. 22
Summaryp. 32
Questions for Discussionp. 32
Exercisesp. 33
Websitep. 33
Endnotesp. 33
Curriculum Development: Role of School Personnelp. 35
Currriculam Planning: A Multilevel, Multisector Processp. 36
Illustrations of Curriculum Decisionsp. 36
Levels of Planningp. 38
Sectors of Planningp. 40
Curriculum Efforts at the Various Levelsp. 41
Sectors Beyond the Statep. 56
Summaryp. 64
Questions for Discussionp. 64
Exercisesp. 65
Organizationsp. 65
Websitesp. 65
Endnotesp. 66
Currriculam Planning: The Human Dimensionp. 68
The School as a Unique Blendp. 68
The Cast of Playersp. 71
The Curriculum Leader and Group Processp. 80
Summaryp. 99
Questions for Discussionp. 99
Exercisesp. 100
Websitesp. 100
Endnotesp. 100
Curriculum Development: Components of the Processp. 103
Models For Curriculum Developmentp. 104
Selecting Modelsp. 104
Models of Curriculum Developmentp. 106
Summaryp. 116
Questions for Discussionp. 116
Exercisesp. 117
Websitesp. 117
Endnotesp. 117
Philosophy and Aims of Educationp. 118
Using the Proposed Modelp. 118
Aims of Educationp. 119
Philosophies of Educationp. 128
Formulating a Philosophyp. 140
Examples of Educational Philosophiesp. 141
Summaryp. 144
Questions for Discussionp. 145
Exercisesp. 145
Websitesp. 145
Multimediap. 145
Endnotesp. 145
Data-Driven Decision Makingp. 149
Our Ever-Changing Worldp. 149
Categories of Needsp. 151
A Classification Schemep. 151
Needs of Students: Levelsp. 153
Needs of Students: Typesp. 154
Needs of Society: Levelsp. 156
Needs of Society: Typesp. 160
Needs Derived from the Subject Matterp. 163
Conducting a Needs Assessmentp. 165
Steps in the Needs Assessment Processp. 168
Summaryp. 169
Questions for Discussionp. 169
Exercisesp. 170
Websitesp. 170
Endnotesp. 170
Curriculam Goals, Objectives, and Productsp. 172
Hierarchy of Outcomesp. 172
Defining Goals and Objectivesp. 175
Locus of Curriculum Goals and Objectivesp. 176
State Curriculum Goalsp. 178
School-District Curriculum Goalsp. 179
Individual School Curriculum Goals and Objectivesp. 180
Constructing Statements of Curriculum Goalsp. 180
Constructing Statements of Curriculum Objectivesp. 181
Validating and Determining Priority of Goals and Objectivesp. 182
Tangible Productsp. 184
Curriculum Guides, Courses of Study, and Syllabip. 185
Resource Unitp. 189
Sources of Curriculum Materialsp. 193
Summaryp. 194
Questions for Discussionp. 194
Exercisesp. 194
Websitesp. 195
Multimediap. 95
Endnotesp. 195
Organizing and Implementing The Curriculamp. 197
Necessary Decisionsp. 197
K-12 Systems, Structures, Programs, and Practicesp. 199
The Elementary Schoolp. 200
The Schools for Young Adolescentsp. 207
The Senior High Schoolp. 214
Concurrent Programs and Practicesp. 228
The Call to Reformp. 232
Summaryp. 238
Questions for Discussionp. 239
Exercisesp. 239
ASCD Smartbriefp. 239
Reportsp. 239
Websitesp. 240
Multimediap. 240
Endnotesp. 240
Instructional Goals and Objectivesp. 246
Planning for Instructionp. 246
Instructional Goals and Objectives Definedp. 248
The Use of Behavioral Objectivesp. 249
Guidelines for Preparing Instructional Goals and Objectivesp. 252
Classification Systemsp. 256
Rules for Writingp. 259
Validating and Determining Priority of Instructional Goals and Objectivesp. 263
Summaryp. 264
Questions for Discussionp. 265
Exercisesp. 265
Websitep. 265
Endnotesp. 265
Selecting and Implementing Strategies of Instructionp. 268
Deciding on Instructional Strategiesp. 268
Sources of Strategiesp. 270
Styles of Teachingp. 274
Styles of Learningp. 275
Models of Teachingp. 277
Teaching Skillsp. 279
Teaching: Art or Science?p. 281
Organizing for Instructionp. 281
Presentation of Instructionp. 287
Individualized Versus Group Instructionp. 288
Summaryp. 291
Questions for Discussionp. 291
Exercisesp. 291
Websitesp. 292
Multimediap. 292
Podcastp. 292
Endnotesp. 292
Evaluevating Instructionp. 295
Assessing Instructionp. 295
An Era of Assessmentp. 297
Stages of Planning for Evaluationp. 299
Norm-Referenced Measurement and Criterion-Referenced Measurementp. 301
Evaluation in Three Domainsp. 303
Performance-Based Assessmentp. 308
Assessment Initiatives from Beyond the Classroomp. 310
Summaryp. 316
Questions for Discussionp. 317
Exercisesp. 317
Action Toolp. 317
Inquiry Kitsp. 317
Websitesp. 318
Multimediap. 318
Endnotesp. 318
Evaluvating the Curricullamp. 321
Purposes and Problems of Curriculum Evaluationp. 321
Delimiting Evaluationp. 324
Evaluation Modelsp. 326
Eight Concepts of Curriculum Constructionp. 327
Comprehensive Modelp. 344
The Curriculum Model with Types of Evaluationp. 350
Standards for Evaluationp. 351
Summaryp. 352
Questions for Discussionp. 353
Exercisesp. 353
Websitesp. 354
Multimediap. 354
Endnotesp. 354
Curriculum Development: Technology in Curriculum and Instructionp. 357
Digital Curriculamp. 358
New Opportunitiesp. 358
Changing Worldp. 359
Current Trendsp. 362
Computer-Based Assessmentsp. 366
Another Forump. 367
Digital Citizenshipp. 367
Summaryp. 369
Questions For Discussionp. 369
Exercisesp. 370
Websitesp. 370
Online Resourcesp. 370
Endnotesp. 370
Curriculum Development: Issues in Curriculum Developmentp. 373
Current Curriculum Issuesp. 374
Current Curriculum Issuesp. 374
Improvements Needed for Curriculum Reformp. 429
Summaryp. 432
Questions For Discussionp. 433
Exercisesp. 433
Endnotesp. 433
Appendix Resources for Further Researchp. 443
Bibliographyp. 448
Creditsp. 489
Name Indexp. 491
Subject Indexp. 495
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