Developing Multicultural Counseling Competence A Systems Approach

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2013-01-16
  • Publisher: Pearson
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Developing Multicultural Counseling Competencegives graduate students preparing to become counselors-and counselors new to their professions-innovative, evidence-based guidance for becoming multiculturally competent counselors. Comprehensive, thoughtful, and in-depth, the book takes readers beyond general discussions of race and ethnicity into the realm of a broader, more complex view of multiculturalism and social advocacy in clients' and trainees' lives. Included are engaging, self-reflective activities, discussion questions, case inserts, practitioner and client perspectives, and study aids-all designed to help readers see opportunities for experiential learning related to cultural diversity considerations and social advocacy issues within clients' social systems.

Author Biography

Danica G. Hays, PhD, LPC, NCC, is an associate professor of Counseling and Chair of the Department of Counseling and Human Services at Old Dominion University. She is a recipient of the Outstanding Research Award, Outstanding Counselor Educator Advocacy Award, and Glen E. Hubele National Graduate Student Award from the American Counseling Association as well as the Patricia B. Elmore Excellence in Measurement and Evaluation Award and President’s Special Merit Award from the Association of Assessment in Counseling and Education (AACE).


Dr. Hays served as Founding Editor of Counseling Outcome Research and Evaluation, a national peer-refereed journal of the AACE, and is Editor of Counselor Education and Supervision, a national peer-refereed journal of the Association for Counselor Education and Supervision. She served as President of the AACE in 2011-12. Her research interests include qualitative methodology, assessment and diagnosis, trauma and gender issues, and multicultural and social justice concerns in counselor preparation and community mental health. She has published over 75 articles and book chapters in these areas and coauthored or coedited these other books to date: Qualitative Inquiry in Clinical and Educational Settings (Guilford Publications), Mastering the National Counselor Exam and the Counselor Preparation Comprehensive Exam (Pearson), and the ACA Encyclopedia of Counseling (American Counseling Association). Professor Hays is also co-editor of the upcoming text, A Counselor’s Guide to Career Assessment Instruments (6th edition, National Career Development Association). She has been a faculty member at Old Dominion University since 2006 and her primary teaching responsibilities are doctoral-level research methods courses, assessment, and clinical supervision. 


Bradley T. Erford, PhD, is a professor in the school counseling program in the Education Specialties Department at Loyola University Maryland. He was President of the American Counseling Association during 2012-2013. He is an American Counseling Association (ACA) Fellow, and the recipient of several ACA awards, including the Research Award, Extended Research Award, Hitchcock Distinguished Professional Service Award, Professional Development Award, and the Carl Perkins Government Relations Award. He has received the Association for Assessment in Counseling and Education (AACE) Exemplary Practices Award; Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (ACES) Robert O. Stripling Award for Excellence in Standards; and the Maryland Association for Counseling and Development (MACD) Maryland Counselor of the Year, Professional Development, Counselor Visibility, and Counselor Advocacy Awards.


Professor Erford’s research specialization falls primarily in development and technical analysis of psychoeducational tests and has resulted in the publication of numerous books, journal articles, book chapters, and psychoeducational tests. He is a past chair of the ACA, Southern Region; past president of the AACE, the MACD, the Maryland Association for Counselor Education and Supervision (MACES), the Maryland Association for Mental Health Counselors (MAMHC), and the Maryland Association for Measurement and Evaluation (MAME). Dr. Erford is the past chair of the ACA Task Force on High Stakes Testing, Task Force on Standards for Test Users, Public Awareness and Support Committee, Bylaws Committee, and Interprofessional Committee. A Licensed Clinical Professional Counselor, Licensed Professional Counselor, Nationally Certified Counselor, Licensed Psychologist, and Licensed School Psychologist, he teaches courses primarily in the areas of assessment, human development, research and evaluation, school counseling, and stress management.

Table of Contents



SECTION ONE The Foundations of Multicultural Counseling 1

Chapter 1 The Culturally Competent Counselor

. Danica G. Hays and Amy L. McLeod 2

Chapter 2 Cultural Identity Development

. Cheryl Moore-Thomas 34


SECTION TWO Social Advocacy 57

Chapter 3 Social Justice Counseling

. Catherine Y. Chang, Philip B. Gnilka, and

Caroline O’Hara 58

Chapter 4 Racism and White Privilege

. Danica G. Hays and Marc A. Grimmett 82

Chapter 5 Gender and Sexism

. Edward Cannon and Anneliese A. Singh 105

Chapter 6 Sexual Orientation and Heterosexism

. Michael P. Chaney and John Marszalek 127

Chapter 7 Social Class and Classism

. Kathryn S. Newton 159

Chapter 8 Disability, Ableism, and Ageism

. Debra E. Berens 189


SECTION THREE Counseling Multicultural Populations 219

Chapter 9 Individuals and Families of African Descent

. Patrice S. Bounds, Ahmad R. Washington,

& Malik S. Henfield 220

Chapter 10 Individuals and Families of Arab Descent

. Sylvia C. Nassar-McMillan, Laura McLaughlin Gonzalez, and

Rasha H. Mohamed 245

Chapter 11 Individuals and Families of Asian Descent

. Arpana G. Inman and Alvin N. Alvarez 278

Chapter 12 Individuals and Families of Latin Descent

. José A. Villalba 313

Chapter 13 Counseling Native Americans

. Michael Tlanusta Garrett, J. T. Garrett, Tarrell Awe

Agahe Portman, Lisa Grayshield, Edil Torres Rivera,

Cyrus Williams, Mark Parrish, Tami Ogletree, and

Barbara Kawulich 341

Chapter 14 Individuals and Families of European Descent

. H. George McMahon, Pamela O. Paisley, and Bogusia

Skudrzyk 382

Chapter 15 Individuals and Familites of Multiracial Descent

. Kelley R. Kenney and Mark E. Kenney 419

Chapter 16 Spiritual Diversity

. Craig S. Cashwell and Amanda L. Giordano 448


SECTION FOUR Multicultural Conceptualization 475

Chapter 17 Alternative Approaches to Counseling Theories

. Jonathan J. Orr 476

Chapter 18 Multicultural Diagnosis and Conceptualization

. Karen Eriksen, Victoria E. Kress, Andrea Dixon, and Stephanie

J. W. Ford 499

Chapter 19 Themes and Future Directions in Multicultural Counseling

Theory, Ethics, Practice, and Research

. Danica G. Hays, Tammi F. Milliken, and Jennifer E.

Randall 529


Appendix AMCD Multicultural Counseling Competencies 543

References 546

Index 584

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