Dialects in Schools and Communities

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  • Edition: 2nd
  • Format: Nonspecific Binding
  • Copyright: 2007-01-23
  • Publisher: Routledge

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This book describes dialect differences in American English and their impact on education and everyday life. It explores some of the major issues that confront educational practitioners and suggests what practitioners can do to recognize students' language abilities, support their language development, and expand their knowledge about dialects. Issues addressed include: *popular concerns about the nature of language variation; *technical issues about the characteristic structures of different dialects; *various interactive patterns characteristic of social groups; *perceptions of declining standards for language and education and some of the ways in which language differences can be constructed as problems; *the school impacts of dialect differences in speaking, writing, and reading, including questions about teaching Standard English; and *the value of dialect education in schools to enable students to understand dialects as natural and normal language phenomena. Changesin the Second Edition: In this edition the authors reconsider and expand their discussion of many of the issues addressed in the first edition and in other of their earlier works, taking into account especially the research on dialects and publications for audiences beyond linguistics that have appeared since the first edition. This edition is offered as an updated, still-interim report on the state of language variation and education in the United States. Dialects in Schools and Communitiesis rooted in questions that have arisen in workshops, surveys, classes, discussion groups, and conversations with practitioners and teacher educators. It is thus intended to address important needs in a range of educational and related service fields. As an overview of current empirical research, it synthesizes current understandings and provides key referencesin this sense it is a kind of translation and interpretation in which the authors' goal is to bring together the practical concerns of educators and the vantage point of sociolinguistics. No background in linguistics or sociolinguistics is assumed on the part of the reader. This volume is intended for teacher interns and practicing teachers in elementary and secondary schools; early childhood specialists; specialists in reading and writing; speech/language pathologists; special education teachers; and students in various language specialties.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. ix
Language Variation in Americap. 1
Issues and Definitionsp. 1
Popular Meanings of Dialectp. 2
Accent and Dialectp. 3
Levels of Language Differencesp. 4
Sources of Dialect Difference: Region and Social Classp. 5
Language Standardsp. 7
Language, Logic, and Language Complexityp. 11
Standard Englishp. 13
Dialects and Understandingp. 15
Deficit Versus Differencep. 17
Cultural Differencesp. 20
Multiple Dialects in Schoolsp. 21
Language Attitudes in Societyp. 22
Dialect Change in the United Statesp. 27
Further Studyp. 28
Exploring Dialectsp. 30
Dialect Studyp. 30
Considering Social Factorsp. 31
Examining Particular Patternsp. 33
Variation in Linguistic Systemsp. 36
Pronunciation Differencesp. 37
Regional Dialectsp. 38
Social Dialectsp. 39
Grammar Differencesp. 43
Suffixesp. 43
Other Differences in the Verb Systemp. 46
Other Grammatical Differencesp. 48
Illustrative Dialect Samplesp. 49
Appalachian Ghost Storyp. 49
Wild Lifep. 50
Notes on Transcriptsp. 52
Vocabulary Differencesp. 55
Vocabulary Matters Across Dialectsp. 56
African American Englishp. 58
The Origins of African American Englishp. 59
The Changing State of African American Englishp. 60
Dialect or Language?p. 61
Further Studyp. 62
Social Interactionp. 63
Conversational Politenessp. 64
Making Meaningp. 66
Cooperation in Communicatingp. 67
The Role of Context in Making Meaningp. 57
Figurative Language in Contextp. 69
Language Ritualsp. 70
Conversational Misadventuresp. 71
Cultural Styles in the Classroomp. 73
Understanding Students' Language Behaviorp. 77
Researching Classroom Interactionp. 78
Data Collectionp. 78
Data Analysisp. 79
Living With Language Behavior Differencesp. 81
Classroom Rulesp. 81
Further Studyp. 84
Interpreting Language Differencep. 86
Perceptions of Language Standardsp. 87
Are Students' Language Skills Declining?p. 89
Diversity and Test Scoresp. 89
Differences and Disordersp. 90
Language at Home and at Schoolp. 92
Early Literacyp. 93
Dialect Differences and Curriculum Contentp. 94
Further Studyp. 97
Oral Language Instructionp. 98
Standard English and Social Realityp. 98
Group Reference and Dialect Learningp. 99
Positions on Dialects and Dialect Educationp. 100
Policy Developmentp. 103
Curriculum Developmentp. 104
Methods of Teaching Spoken Standard Englishp. 108
Promoting Language Developmentp. 110
Further Studyp. 111
Dialects and Writingp. 113
Oral and Written Languagep. 113
Vernacular Dialect and Writingp. 115
Vernacular Influence in Writingp. 115
Difference and Error in Written Languagep. 116
Teaching Writingp. 117
Editingp. 119
Approaches to Editingp. 119
Peer Editingp. 120
Writing in the Vernacular Dialectp. 120
Choosing the Vernacularp. 121
Dialogue Journalsp. 121
Assessment of Writing Abilityp. 122
Further Readingp. 124
Language Variation and Readingp. 125
Written Language and Spoken Languagep. 126
What Do Teachers Need to Know About Dialects to Teach Reading?p. 127
Language Formp. 127
Beyond Language Formp. 129
Teaching Children to Relate Sound and Printp. 130
Effects of Dialect Differences on Reading Aloudp. 131
Dialects and Meaning-Based Reading Instructionp. 132
Teaching Children to Comprehend Textp. 133
Vocabularyp. 134
Comprehension Strategiesp. 134
Background Knowledge and Comprehensionp. 135
Reading Materials and Dialect Differencesp. 136
Matching Materials and Dialectsp. 136
Dialect Readersp. 136
Language Experiencep. 138
Vernacular Dialect for Rhetorical Purposep. 139
Reading and the Acquisition of Standard Englishp. 139
The Social Context of Readingp. 140
Reading Tests and Dialect Differencesp. 141
Pronunciation, Grammar, and Vocabulary Differencesp. 142
Background Knowledgep. 143
Other Fairness Factorsp. 148
Further Readingp. 150
Dialect Awareness for Studentsp. 151
Resources for Learning About Dialectsp. 153
Working With Datap. 154
Dialect Awarenessp. 156
Introduction to Language Diversityp. 156
Levels of Dialectp. 157
The Patterning of Dialectp. 166
Language Changep. 179
Implementing Dialect Awareness Curriculap. 181
Further Studyp. 186
An Inventory of Distinguishing Dialect Featuresp. 187
Phonological Featuresp. 188
Consonantsp. 188
Vowelsp. 191
Grammatical Featuresp. 195
Adverbsp. 201
Negationp. 203
Nouns and Pronounsp. 205
Other Grammatical Structuresp. 208
Referencesp. 209
Author Indexp. 217
Subject Indexp. 221
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