9780131141377

Digital Crime and Digital Terrorism

by ; ; ; ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780131141377

  • ISBN10:

    0131141376

  • Edition: 1st
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-03-01
  • Publisher: Prentice Hall
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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

This book focuses on both the technical aspects of digital crime as well as behavioral aspects of computer hackers, virus writers, terrorists and other offenders.Using real life examples and case studies, the book examines the history, development, extent and types of digital crime and digital terrorism as well as current legislation and law enforcement practices designed to prevent, investigate and prosecute these crimes.For professionals in the technical field as well as forensic investigators and other criminal justice professionals.

Table of Contents

Preface xiii
Acknowledgments xvii
SECTION I THE ETIOLOGY OF DIGITAL CRIME AND DIGITAL TERRORISM
1(98)
Introduction and Overview of Digital Crime and Digital Terrorism
1(18)
Chapter Objectives
1(1)
Introduction
1(3)
New Threats in the Information Age
2(1)
Purpose and Scope of This Book
3(1)
Digital Crime and Digital Terrorism
4(5)
A Developmental Perspective on the Growing Problem
5(1)
Increases in Cybervictimization
6(1)
The Changing Character of Cybervictimization
7(2)
Types of Computer Crime
9(6)
The Computer as a Target
9(2)
The Computer as an Instrument of a Crime
11(1)
The Computer as Incidental to a Crime
12(1)
Crimes Associated with the Prevalence of Computers
13(2)
Summary
15(1)
Review Questions
16(3)
Digital Terrorism
19(17)
Chapter Objectives
19(1)
Introduction
19(1)
Defining the Concepts
20(3)
Buzzwords: Information Warfare and Cyberterrorism
20(3)
Risk and Critical Infrastructure Attacks
23(3)
Information Attacks
26(2)
Web-site Defacement
26(1)
Cyberplagues: Viruses and Worms
27(1)
Distributed Denial of Service Attacks
27(1)
Unauthorized Intrusions
28(1)
Cyber and Technological Facilitation
28(2)
Facilitation of Attack
29(1)
Data Hiding
29(1)
Cryptography
29(1)
Propaganda and Promotion
30(1)
Cyberterrorism as an Adjunct Attack
30(2)
Al-Qaeda and Information Technology
31(1)
China and Information Warfare
32(1)
Summary
32(1)
Review Questions
33(3)
The Criminology of Computer Crime
36(30)
Chapter Objectives
36(1)
Introduction
36(1)
Choice Theory
37(1)
Routine Activities
38(1)
Deterrence Theory
38(1)
Psychological Theories
39(5)
Moral Development and Crime
41(1)
Personality Disorders
42(1)
Pedophiles and Psychological Theory
42(2)
Social Structure Theories
44(6)
Strain Theory
44(1)
White-Collar Crime and Strain Theory
45(1)
Subculture Theory
46(3)
Hackers and Social Structure Theories
49(1)
Social Process Theories
50(9)
Learning Theory
51(4)
Social Control Theory
55(3)
Virus Writers and Social Process Theories
58(1)
Terrorism and Political Theory
59(3)
Summary
62(1)
Review Questions
62(4)
Digital Criminals and Hackers
66(33)
Chapter Objectives
66(1)
Introduction: What Is a Hacker?
66(5)
The Original Meaning of ``Hacker''
67(1)
What Did Hackers Become?
68(1)
Retaking the Word: Hacker
68(1)
What Do Hackers Do?
69(2)
A Hacker by Any Other Name . . .
71(4)
Computer Criminals vs. Hackers
72(1)
Crackers
73(1)
White Hat vs. Black Hat
73(2)
Hackers and the Media
75(1)
Fear, Uncertainty, and Doubt---FUD
76(1)
The Evolving Hacker Subculture
76(2)
The Hacker Ethic
76(2)
Hacker Typology
78(17)
Old School Hackers
79(2)
Bedroom Hackers
81(3)
Larval Hackers (Newbies)
84(2)
Warez D00dz
86(2)
Internet Hackers
88(3)
Script Kiddies
91(1)
Hacktivists
92(3)
Summary
95(1)
Review Questions
95(4)
SECTION II DIGITAL CRIME---TYPES, NATURE, AND EXTENT
99(143)
White Collar Crimes
99(19)
Chapter Objectives
99(1)
Introduction
99(1)
Embezzlement
100(2)
Corporate Espionage
102(4)
Money Laundering
106(2)
Identity Theft
108(3)
Internet Fraud Schemes
111(4)
Summary
115(1)
Review Questions
115(3)
Viruses and Malicious Code
118(49)
Chapter Objectives
118(1)
Introduction
119(4)
Viruses and Malicious Code
123(21)
History and Development
126(2)
Viruses
128(2)
Worms
130(2)
Trojan Horses
132(7)
Adware and Spyware
139(1)
Denial of Service Attacks
140(1)
Blended Threats
140(4)
Extent of Viruses and Malicious Code Attacks
144(7)
Virus Hoaxes
149(2)
Virus Writers and Virus Experts
151(8)
Summary
159(2)
Review Questions
161(6)
Exploitation, Stalking, and Obscenity on the WWW
167(54)
Chapter Objectives
167(1)
Introduction
168(1)
Nature of Exploitation on the Internet
168(7)
Incidence and Prevalence of Victimization On Line
171(4)
Stalking via the WWW
175(9)
Dynamics and Nature of Stalking and Cyberstalking
176(4)
Characteristics of Stalkers and Their Victims
180(3)
Law Enforcement and Legislation Targeting Stalking
183(1)
Obscenity on the WWW
184(6)
Laws and Legislation Protecting Children On Line
187(3)
Child Pornography
190(8)
The ``New'' Child Pornographers
194(1)
Moving from Pornography to Molestation
195(3)
Child Molestation
198(4)
The Problem of Child Sexual Abuse
200(2)
Sex Tourism
202(5)
The Process of Sex Tourism
204(3)
Issues in the Investigation of Internet Exploitation, Cyberstalking, and Obscenity
207(3)
Law Enforcement Initiatives
207(1)
Overlapping Jurisdictions and Duplication of Effort
208(1)
Identification of Suspects
208(1)
Issues with Evidence and Detection
209(1)
Summary
210(1)
Review Questions
211(10)
Anarchy and Hate on the World Wide Web
221(21)
Chapter Objectives
221(1)
Introduction
221(1)
Digital Hate
222(2)
White Supremacy, Hate, and the Internet
223(1)
Terrorist Extremists from the Left
224(2)
ELF and ALF
225(1)
Domestic Terrorists in Cyberspace
226(3)
Dehumanize, Desensitize, and Demonize
226(1)
Internet Cartoons
227(2)
Storage and Dissemination of Information
229(5)
Publishing Information on Potential Victims
231(3)
Fundraising
234(1)
Terrorism, Intelligence Gathering and the USA Patriot Act
234(3)
A Short History of Intelligence in the United States
235(1)
Domestic Intelligence and Policing
235(1)
Conflicting Roles
236(1)
Defining Intelligence
236(1)
U.S. Intelligence Weaknesses
237(1)
The USA Patriot Act
237(2)
Constitutional Rights and the USA Patriot Act
238(1)
Summary
239(1)
Review Questions
239(3)
SECTION III CONTROLLING DIGITAL CRIME: LEGISLATION, LAW ENFORCEMENT, AND INVESTIGATION
242(92)
Digital Laws and Legislation
242(20)
Chapter Objectives
242(1)
Introduction
242(1)
Search and Seizure Law for Digital Evidence
243(6)
Searches with Warrants
244(1)
Searches Without Warrants
245(4)
Federal Statutes
249(6)
The Pen/Trap Statute 18 U.S.C. §3121-27
249(1)
The Wiretap Statute (Title III) 18 U.S.C. §2510-22
250(1)
Electronic Communications Privacy Act (ECPA) 18 U.S.C. §2701-11
251(2)
USA Patriot Act
253(1)
Communication Assistance for Law Enforcement Act
254(1)
Federal Criminal Statutes
254(1)
Admitting Evidence at Trial
255(3)
Authentication
256(1)
Hearsay
257(1)
The Best Evidence Rule
257(1)
Significant Court Cases
258(1)
Summary
259(1)
Review Questions
259(3)
Law Enforcement Roles and Responses
262(17)
Chapter Objectives
262(1)
Introduction
262(1)
Federal Roles and Responses
263(9)
The Secret Service
263(1)
The Department of Justice
264(2)
The Federal Bureau of Investigation
266(1)
The National Security Agency
267(1)
The Federal Trade Commission
267(1)
The Postal Service
268(2)
The Bureau of Customs and Border Protection
270(1)
The Department of Energy
270(1)
The Department of Homeland Security
271(1)
State and Local Roles
272(2)
Critical Needs at the State and Local Levels of Enforcement
273(1)
Interagency Cooperation and Collaboration
274(2)
Summary
276(1)
Review Questions
276(3)
The Investigation of Computer-Related Crime
279(25)
Chapter Objectives
279(1)
Introduction
280(1)
Investigator Roles and Responsibilities
280(4)
First Responders
280(1)
Investigators
281(1)
Forensic Analysts
281(1)
Private Police
282(1)
Subject Matter Experts
282(2)
Single-Location Crime Scenes
284(1)
Search Warrants and Electronic Evidence
284(14)
Computer Systems
284(1)
External Storage Media
285(1)
Personal Data Devices (PDAs)
285(1)
Other Electronic Devices
285(1)
Executing the Search Warrant
286(1)
Examining of the Crime Scene
287(5)
Multiple-Location and Network Crime Scenes
292(1)
Identifying Network Architectures
293(1)
Modeling Network Transactions
293(2)
Locating Evidence
295(1)
Key Information for Locating Network Trace Evidence
296(2)
Collecting Network Trace Evidence
298(1)
Presenting Digital Evidence at Trial
298(4)
The Hearsay Rule
299(1)
Using Notes on the Witness Stand
299(1)
Business Records
300(1)
Presenting Best Evidence
300(1)
Chain of Custody
301(1)
Expert Testimony
302(1)
Summary
302(1)
Review Questions
302(2)
Digital Forensics
304(30)
Chapter Objectives
304(1)
Introduction
304(1)
The Basic Process of Storage Forensics
305(1)
Preparation for Forensic Analysis
306(9)
Acquisition of Data
307(1)
Authentication of Data
308(1)
Imaging of the Evidence Drive
309(2)
Wiping the Analysis Drive
311(1)
Restoring
311(2)
The Complete Process
313(2)
Forensic Analysis
315(4)
The Forensic Analyst as Expert Witness
319(1)
Computer Storage Systems
320(3)
Volatile Storage Systems
320(1)
Nonvolatile Storage Systems
321(2)
File Systems
323(3)
FAT: File Allocation Table
324(1)
NTFS: New Technology File System
324(2)
Application: Defragmenting a Disk
326(1)
Evidence Recovery from Slack Space
327(2)
Commercial Forensic Packages
329(2)
Extended Analysis and Searching
330(1)
User Interface
330(1)
Centralized Report Writing and Auditing
331(1)
Validation and Support
331(1)
Summary
331(1)
Review Questions
332(2)
SECTION IV THE FUTURE OF DIGITAL CRIME AND DIGITAL TERRORISM: PREVENTION AND TRENDS
334(51)
Information Security and Infrastructure Protection
334(20)
Chapter Objectives
334(1)
Introduction
334(1)
Mastering the Technology and the Environment
335(2)
Personal Computers and Intruders
336(1)
The Internet Explosion
336(1)
Principles of Risk Analysis
337(3)
Assessment and Evaluation
337(1)
Threats
338(2)
Cost-Effective Security
340(1)
Security Technologies
340(9)
Backups
340(1)
Firewalls
341(2)
Limitations of Firewalls
343(1)
Encryption
344(4)
Password Discipline
348(1)
Security Vendor Technologies
349(1)
Home Users
350(1)
Summary
350(1)
Review Questions
351(3)
Digital Crime and Terrorism: A Forecast of Trends and Policy Implications Adapted from David L. Carter and Andra J. J. Katz-Bannister
354(31)
Chapter Objectives
354(1)
The Impact of Computer Crime: The Future Is Now
354(3)
Predicting the Future: Surveying the Experts
355(1)
Limitations to Data Collection
356(1)
The Future of Digital Crime and Digital Terrorism: Forecasts
357(21)
Overarching Factors Contributing to These Forecasts
378(1)
Summary
379(1)
Review Questions
379(6)
Index 385

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