Discovering Physical Geography

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  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Loose-leaf
  • Copyright: 2017-05-08
  • Publisher: Wiley

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?


With Wiley’s Enhanced E-Text, you get all the benefits of a downloadable, reflowable eBook with added resources to make your study time more effective, including:

• Visual Concept Checks
• Imbedded Glossary with clickable references & key words
• Show & Hide Solutions with automatic feedback

Arbogast’s Discovering Physical Geography, 4th Edition provides interactive questions that help readers comprehend important Earth processes. The Fourth Edition continues to place great emphasis on how relevant physical geography is to each reader’s life. With an enhanced focus on the interconnections between humans and their environment, this text includes increased coverage of population growth and its impact on the environment. Updated case studies are included, as well as new sections dealing with human interactions with solar energy, wind power, soils, and petroleum. This text is welcoming, taking readers on a tour of “discovery”, and delivers content that is sound and based on the most current scientific research.

Author Biography

ALAN F. ARBOGAST is Professor and Chairperson in the Department of Geography, Environment, and Spatial Sciences at Michigan State University in East Lansing, Michigan. He is an award]winning instructor at MSU where he teaches a variety of classes at the undergraduate and graduate levels. Most of these courses are related to physical geography, geomorphology, and human]environment interactions. Alan frequently teaches large lecture classes and is known as an enthusiastic instructor who uses innovative approaches. He has also taught extensively in Australia and New Zealand in association with MSU's study abroad program.

Table of Contents

Preface vii

A Guide to the Features xii

Introduction to Physical Geography 1

The Scope of Geography 2

Defining Physical Geography 3

The Earth’s Four Spheres 6

Organization of This Book 8

Exploring Cause-and-Effect Relationships Holistically 8

Emphasis on Human Interactions with the Environment 8

Geo Media Library: An Interactive Tool 9

Focus on Geographical Literacy 9

Physical Geography is Interesting, Exciting, and Very Relevant to Your Life 9

Geo Media: Stream Meandering 10

Check Your Understanding 10

The Geographer’s Tools 11

The Geographic Grid 12

Latitude 13

Longitude 15

Using the Geographic Grid 16

Geo Media: Using the Geographic Grid 17

Human Interactions: The United States Public Land Survey 17

Maps—The Basic Tool of Geographers 19

Map Projections 19

Map Scale 24

Isolines 26

Geo Media: Using Maps 26

Digital Technology in Geography 27

Remote Sensing 27

Global Positioning Systems 32

Geographic Information Systems 34

Geo Media: Using a Geographic Information System 34

Summary of Key Concepts 35

Check Your Understanding 35

Earth–Sun Geometry and the Seasons 36

Our Place in Space 37

The Shape of Earth 37

Earth’s Orbit Around the Sun 38

The Earth’s Rotation and Axial Tilt 39

The Seasons 42

Solstice and Equinox 43

Human Interactions: How We See Earth–Sun Geometry on Earth 45

Day and Night 45

Geo Media: Orbital View and Earth as Viewed from the Sun 46

Seasonal Changes in Sun Position (Angle) and Length of Day 46

Geo Media: Celestial Dome 48

Geo Media: Sun Angle and Length of Day 48

Geo Media: Earth–Sun Geometry and Ancient Humans 48

Summary of Key Concepts 48

Check Your Understanding 48

The Global Energy System 50

The Electromagnetic Spectrum and Solar Energy 51

The Electromagnetic Spectrum 51

Solar Energy and the Solar Constant 52

Geo Media: The Electromagnetic Spectrum 53

Composition of the Atmosphere 53

Constant Gases 53

Variable Gases 54

Particulates 59

The Flow of Solar Radiation on Earth 60

Heat Transfer 60

Flow of Solar Radiation in the Atmosphere 60

Interaction of Solar Radiation and the Earth’s Surface 63

Geo Media: The Angle of Incidence 64

The Global Radiation Budget 65

Geo Media: The Global Energy Budget 66

Human Interactions: Solar Energy Production 69

Summary of Key Concepts 72

Check Your Understanding 72

Global Temperature Patterns 73

Layered Structure of the Atmosphere 74

The Troposphere 74

The Stratosphere 75

The Mesosphere 76

The Thermosphere 76

Surface and Air Temperatures 77

Human Interactions: Calculating the Heat Index and Wind Chill 79

Large-Scale Geographic Factors That Influence Air Temperature 79

Local Factors That Influence Air Temperature 81

Geo Media: Surface Temperature 82

The Annual Range of Surface Temperature (A Holistic Assessment) 83

Geo Media: Maritime vs. Continental Effect 83

Geo Media: Global Temperature Patterns 85

Human Interactions: Urban Heat Islands 86

Geo Media: Temperature and Location 88

Summary of Key Concepts 88

Check Your Understanding 88

Atmospheric Pressure, Wind, and Global Circulation 90

Atmospheric Pressure 91

Factors That Influence Air Pressure 91

Measuring and Mapping Air Pressure 92

Atmospheric Pressure Systems 93

Low-Pressure Systems 93

High-Pressure Systems 94

The Direction of Airflow 95

Unequal Heating of Land Surfaces 95

Pressure Gradient Force 96

Geo Media: Fluctuations in the Pressure Gradient 97

Coriolis Force 97

Frictional Forces 98

Geo Media: The Coriolis Force 98

Global Pressure and Atmospheric Circulation 100

Tropical Circulation 102

Midlatitude Circulation 103

Geo Media: Global Atmospheric Circulation 106

Polar Circulation 106

Seasonal Migration of Pressure Systems 106

Geo Media: The Asian Monsoon 107

Human Interactions: Harnessing Wind Energy 108

Geo Media: Global Atmospheric Circulation and Water Vapor Movement 108

Local Wind Systems 111

Land–Sea Breezes 111

Topographic Winds 111

Oceanic Circulation 114

Gyres and Thermohaline Circulation 114

El Niño 115

Geo Media: El Niño 116

Summary of Key Concepts 118

Check Your Understanding 118

Atmospheric Moisture and Precipitation 119

Physical Properties of Water 120

Hydrogen Bonding 120

Thermal Properties of Water and Its Physical States 121

Geo Media: Latent Heat 122

The Hydrosphere and the Hydrologic Cycle 122

Humidity 124

Maximum, Specific, and Relative Humidity 124

Dew-Point Temperature 127

Geo Media: Atmospheric Humidity 129

Evaporation 129

Adiabatic Processes 130

The Dry Adiabatic Lapse Rate 131

Geo Media: Adiabatic Processes 132

The Wet Adiabatic Lapse Rate 132

Cloud Formation and Classification 133

Cloud Classification 136

Fog 136

Precipitation 137

Types of Precipitation 137

Precipitation Processes 137

Geo Media: Orographic Processes 141

Geo Media: Convectional Precipitation 143

Human Interactions: Recent Droughts in the U.S. 144

Summary of Key Concepts 145

Check Your Understanding 146

Air Masses and Cyclonic Weather Systems 147

Air Masses and Fronts 148

Air Masses 148

Fronts 149

Evolution and Character of Midlatitude Cyclones 152

Upper Airflow and the 500-mb Pressure Surface 152

Interaction of Upper Airflow and Surface Airflow 153

Cyclogenesis 155

Geo Media: Formation of a Midlatitude Cyclone 157

Thunderstorms 157

Evolution of Thunderstorms 157

Geo Media: Migration of a Midlatitude Cyclone 157

Geo Media: Formation of Thunderstorms 159

Severe Thunderstorms 159

Tornadoes 161

Geo Media: Tornadoes 165

Tropical Cyclones 166

Hurricanes 166

Human Interactions: Coping with Destructive Hurricanes 168

Geo Media: Tracks of Hurricane Katrina and Hurricane Sandy 169

Summary of Key Concepts 173

Check Your Understanding 173

Global Climates and Global Climate Change 174

Climate and the Factors That Affect It 175

Köppen Climate Classification 176

Geography of Köppen Climates 179

Tropical (A) Climates 180

Arid and Semi-Arid (B) Climates 180

Geo Media: Tropical Savanna Climate ( Aw) 181

Mesothermal (C) Climates 183

Microthermal (D) Climates 184

Geo Media: Humid Subtropical Hot-Summer Climate (Cfa, Cwa) 184

Geo Media: Marine West-Coast Climates (Cfb, Cfc) 185

Polar (E) Climates 186

Highland (H) Climates 187

Geo Media: Global Climates 187

Geo Media: Remote Sensing and Climate 187

Reconstructing Past Climates 188

Pollen Records 188

Tree Ring Patterns 190

Ice Core Analysis 190

Causes of Past Climate Change 193

Geo Media: Reconstructing Past Climates Using Oxygen Isotopes 194

Geo Media: The Milankovitch Theory 195

Human Interactions and Ongoing Climate Change 196

The Carbon Cycle 197

Is Anthropogenic Climate Change Really Occurring? 199

Predicting Future Climate Change 200

Geo Media: The Greenhouse Effect and Global Climate Change 201

Summary of Key Concepts 202

Check Your Understanding 203

10 Plant Geography 204

Ecosystems and Biogeography 205

The Process of Photosynthesis 206

Geo Media: Photosynthesis and Respiration 209

The Relationship of Climate and Vegetation: The Character and Distribution of Global Biomes 210

Forest Biomes 212

Grassland Biomes 215

Desert Biomes 217

Tundra Biome 218

Local and Regional Factors That Influence the Geographic Distribution of Vegetation 218

Slope and Aspect 218

Vertical Zonation 219

Plant Succession 220

Geo Media: Plant Succession 221

Riparian Zones 221

Human Interactions: Human Influence on Vegetation Patterns 222

Deforestation 222

Agriculture in the Midlatitude Grassland Biome 225

Geo Media: Deforestation 225

Overgrazing 226

Geo Media: Remote Sensing and the Biosphere 227

Summary of Key Concepts 227

Check Your Understanding 228

11 The Global Distribution and Character of Soils 229

What is Soil? 230

Basic Soil Properties 230

Soil-Forming (Pedogenic) Processes 232

Soil-Forming Factors 234

Measurable Soil Characteristics 238

Soil Chemistry 241

Soil pH 241

Colloids and Cation Exchange 241

Soil Profiles (Reading the Soil) 242

Geo Media: Soil Colloids and pH 242

Time and Soil Evolution 244

Soil Science and Classification 245

Geo Media: Soil Horizon Development 245

The Twelve Soil Orders 247

Geo Media: African Climate, Vegetation, and Soils 250

Geo Media: Regional Pedogenic Processes 256

Geo Media: North American Climate, Vegetation, and Soils 259

Human Interactions with Soils 260

Summary of Key Concepts 264

Check Your Understanding 264

12 Earth’s Internal Structure, Rock Cycle, and Geologic Time 265

Earth’s Inner Structure 266

The Major Layers 266

Rocks and Minerals in the Earth’s Crust 270

Igneous Rocks 271

Geo Media: Identification of Igneous Environments 272

Sedimentary Rocks 273

Geo Media: Clastic Rocks 277

The Rock Cycle 278

Geo Media: The Rock Cycle 280

Geologic Time 280

Geo Media: Geologic Time 282

“Telling” Geologic Time 282

Putting Geologic Time in Perspective 282

A Holistic View of Geologic Time and the Rock Cycle: The Grand Canyon and the Spanish Peaks of Colorado 283

Human Interactions with Geologic Time: The Anthropocene 286

Summary of Key Concepts 288

Check Your Understanding 288

13 Tectonic Processes and Landforms 289

Plate Tectonics 290

The Lithospheric Plates 290

Plate Movement 290

Geo Media: Continental Drift 293

Types of Plate Movements 294

Passive Margins 294

Transform Plate Margins 294

Plate Divergence 295

Plate Convergence 296

Geo Media: Folding 302

Geo Media: Plate Tectonics 302

Earthquakes 303

Seismic Processes 303

Human Interactions: Earthquakes as Natural Hazards 308

Geo Media: Types of Faults 313

Volcanoes 314

Explosive Volcanoes 314

Fluid Volcanoes 318

Hotspots 318

Geo Media: Walk the Pacific Ring of Fire 319

Geo Media: Volcanoes 322

Summary of Key Concepts 322

Check Your Understanding 322

14 Weathering and Mass Movement 324

Weathering 325

Mechanical Weathering 325

Chemical Weathering 328

Human Interactions: Acid Rain 330

Geo Media: Weathering 332

Mass Wasting 332

Rockfall 334

Soil Creep 334

Landslides 335

Flows 336

Avalanches 337

Geo Media: Weathering and Mass Movements 339

Summary of Key Concepts 339

Check Your Understanding 339

15 Groundwater and Karst Landscapes 340

Movement and Storage of Groundwater 341

Human Interactions with Groundwater 343

The High Plains Aquifer 343

Subsidence 347

Groundwater Contamination 348

Karst Landforms and Landscapes 349

Geo Media: Hydrologic Cycle and Groundwater 349

Caves and Caverns 350

Karst Topography 351

Summary of Key Concepts 353

Check Your Understanding 353

16 Fluvial Systems and Landforms 354

Overland Flow and Drainage Basins 355

Origin of Streams 355

Drainage Basins 356

Drainage Patterns, Density, and Stream Ordering 358

Geo Media: The Rhine River 360

Hydraulic Geometry and Channel Flow 361

Fluctuations in Stream Discharge 361

Fluvial Processes and Landforms 364

Erosion and Deposition 364

Stream Gradation 366

Geo Media: Bedload Transport and Braided Streams 367

Geo Media: The Graded Stream 369

Evolution of Stream Valleys and Floodplains 371

Geo Media: Stream Meandering 372

Geo Media: Fluvial Geomorphology and Stream Processes 373

Human Interactions with Streams 380

Urbanization 380

Artificial Levees 381

Dams and Reservoirs 382

Summary of Key Concepts 386

Check Your Understanding 386

17 Glacial Geomorphology: Processes and Landforms 387

Development of a Glacier 388

The Metamorphosis of Snow to Glacial Ice 388

The Glacial Mass Budget 389

Geo Media: The Glacial Mass Budget 390

Glacial Movement 390

Types of Glaciers 392

Glaciers in Mountainous Regions 392

Continental Glaciers 394

Geo Media: Glaciers in the Cascade Mountains 394

Glacial Landforms 396

Landforms Made by Glacial Erosion 396

Deposition of Glacial Drift and Resulting Landforms 399

History of Glaciation on Earth 403

Geo Media: Depositional Glacial Landforms 403

The Wisconsin Glaciation and Evolution of the Great Lakes 405

Probable Human Impact on Glaciers 406

Geo Media: Glaciers and Climate Change 408

Periglacial Processes and Landscapes 410

Permafrost 410

Ground Ice and Associated Landforms 411

Summary of Key Concepts 413

Check Your Understanding 413

18 Arid Landscapes and Eolian Processes 414

Arid Landscapes 415

Desert Geomorphology 416

Eolian Erosion and Transport 420

The Fluid Behavior of Wind, Erosion, and Sediment Transport 420

Eolian Deposition and Landforms 422

Airflow and the Formation of Sand Dunes 423

Classification of Sand Dunes and Related Landforms 425

Deposition of Windblown Dust 428

Geo Media: Eolian Processes and Landforms 429

Human Interactions with Arid Landscapes and Eolian Processes 431

Desertification in the African Sahel 431

Desertification in the Great Plains of the United States: The Dust Bowl 433

Summary of Key Concepts 435

Check Your Understanding 435

19 Coastal Processes and Landforms 437

Oceans and Seas on Earth 438

The Nature of Coastlines: Intersection of Earth’s Spheres 439

Processes That Shape the Coastline 439

Geo Media: Tides 445

Coastal Landforms 446

Erosional Coastlines 446

Geo Media: Waves and Coastal Erosion 450

Depositional Coastlines 450

Geo Media: Longshore Processes and Depositional Coastlines 456

Human Interactions with Coastlines 458

Coastal Engineering 458

Global Climate Change and the Impact on Coastlines 461

Geo Media: Evolution of the Louisiana Coastline 462

Summary of Key Concepts 463

Check Your Understanding 463

20 Relevance of Physical Geography to Environmental Issues 465

A Short History of Human Population 466

Technological Development and Population Growth 466

The Impact of Growing Human Population on the Natural Environment 467

Case 1: Water Issues in the Arid American Southwest 469

Establishing Water Rights 470

Will Water Supplies Disappear? 471

A Drought-Prone Future? 473

Case 2: Soil Salinization in Arid and Semi-Arid Lands 475

Ancient Sumeria 477

The Current Global Extent of Salinization 478

The San Joaquin Valley in California 478

Australia 481

The Challenge of Sustainable Agriculture in Semi-Arid and Arid Regions 483

Case 3: Developing Unconventional Oil Supplies in North America 485

Oil Supply, Demand, and Geography 485

Developing Unconventional Sources of Oil 487

Potential Environmental Consequences 488

Case 4: Giant Panda Conservation in China 490

The Wolong Nature Reserve 494

Case Summary 496

Summary of Key Concepts 496

Check Your Understanding 497

Glossary 498

Index 509

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