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9780632055821

Diseases of the Liver and Biliary System, 11th Edition

by ;
  • ISBN13:

    9780632055821

  • ISBN10:

    0632055820

  • Edition: 11th
  • Format: Hardcover
  • Copyright: 2002-02-01
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

Note: Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with Rental or Used book purchases.

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Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

The review from Gastroenterology sums up the appeal of this book: "More than any other text in liver diseases, this one provides the best source of synthesised clinical wisdom, a currency in ever increasingly short supply as our fund of factual knowledge burgeons. Indeed, if one demanded that an author confine the breadth of our knowledge in liver disease into a readable clinical textbook of less than 700 pages, he or she could do no better than to direct that individual to Sherlock and Dooley's Diseases of the Liver and Biliary System". Diseases of the Liver and Biliary System continues to be one of the pre-eminent textbooks of choice for trainee as well as practising gastroenterologists. This new edition will contain updated sections on viral hepatitis, in which each type of virus has its own chapter. Since this is the fastest moving area within hepatology at the moment, the clearer demarcation of each virus will be much appreciated by the reader. There will also be updated sections on cholestasis, fulminant hepatitis and ascites. There will be expanded coverage of immunology of the liver and the role of cytokines in disease and therapy. As a new feature for this edition the reference list will be star-rated with annotations to help the reader find the classic papers in any one subject.

Table of Contents

Preface to the Eleventh Edition xv
Preface to the First Edition xvi
Anatomy and Function
1(18)
Functional anatomy: sectors and segments
2(1)
Anatomy of the biliary tract
3(1)
Development of the liver and bile ducts
4(1)
Anatomical abnormalities of the liver
4(1)
Surface marking
5(1)
Methods of examination
5(1)
Hepatic morphology
6(3)
Electron microscopy and hepato-cellular function
9(2)
Sinusoidal cells
11(2)
Hepatocyte death and regeneration
13(1)
Extra-cellular matrix
14(1)
Altered hepatic microcirculation and disease
14(1)
Adhesion molecules
14(1)
Functional heterogeneity
14(2)
Sinusoidal membrane traffic
16(1)
Bile duct epithelial cells
16(3)
Assessment of Liver Function
19(18)
Selection of biochemical tests
19(1)
Bile pigments
20(1)
Bilirubin
20(1)
Urobilinogen
20(1)
Bromsulphalein
21(1)
Serum enzyme tests
21(2)
Alkaline phosphatase
21(1)
Gamma glutamyl transpeptidase
22(1)
Aminotransferases
22(1)
Other serum enzyme
23(1)
Quantitative assessment of hepatic function
23(3)
Galactose elimination capacity
23(1)
Breath tests
23(1)
Salivary caffeine clearance
24(1)
Lignocaine metabolite formation
25(1)
Arterial blood ketone body ratio
25(1)
Antipyrine
25(1)
Indocyanine green
25(1)
Asialoglycoprotein receptor
25(1)
Excretory capacity (BSP)
25(1)
Lipid and lipoprotein metabolism
26(2)
Lipids
26(1)
Lipoproteins
26(1)
Changes in liver disease
27(1)
Bile acids
28(3)
Changes in disease
29(1)
Serum bile acids
30(1)
Amino acid metabolism
31(1)
Clinical significance
31(1)
Plasma proteins
32(2)
Electrophoretic pattern of serum proteins
33(1)
Carbohydrate metabolism
34(1)
Effects of ageing on the liver
34(3)
Biopsy of the Liver
37(10)
Selection and preparation of the patient
37(1)
Techniques
37(3)
Difficulties
40(1)
Liver biopsy in paediatrics
40(1)
Risks and complications
40(3)
Pleurisy and peri-hepatitis
40(1)
Haemorrhage
40(1)
Intra-hepatic haematomas
41(1)
Haemobilia
41(1)
Arteriovenous fistula
42(1)
Biliary peritonitis
42(1)
Puncture of other organs
43(1)
Infection
43(1)
Carcinoid crisis
43(1)
Sampling variability
43(1)
Naked eye appearances
43(1)
Preparation of the specimen
43(1)
Interpretation
43(1)
Indications
44(1)
Special methods
44(3)
The Haematology of Liver Disease
47(20)
General features
47(2)
The liver and blood coagulation
49(4)
Haemolytic jaundice
53(1)
The liver in haemolytic anaemias
54(2)
Hereditary spherocytosis
54(1)
Thalassaemia
55(1)
Paroxysmal nocturnal haemoglobinuria
56(1)
Acquired haemolytic anaemia
56(1)
Haemolytic disease of the newborn
56(1)
Incompatible blood transfusion
56(1)
The liver in myelo- and lymphoproliferative disease
56(1)
Leukaemia
57(1)
Myeloid
57(1)
Lymphoid
57(1)
Hairy cell leukaemia
57(1)
Bone marrow transplantation
57(1)
Lymphoma
58(4)
Jaundice in lymphoma
59(1)
Primary hepatic lymphoma
60(1)
Lymphosarcoma
60(1)
Multiple myeloma
61(1)
Angio-immunoblastic lymphadenopathy
61(1)
Extra-medullary haemopoiesis
61(1)
Systemic mastocytosis
61(1)
Langerhans' cell histiocytosis (histiocytosis X)
61(1)
Lipid storage diseases
62(5)
Primary and secondary xanthomatosis
62(1)
Cholesteryl ester storage disease
62(1)
Gaucher's disease
62(1)
Niemann-Pick disease
63(1)
Sea-blue histiocyte syndrome
64(3)
Ultrasound, Computed Tomography and Magnetic Resonance Imaging
67(14)
Radio-isotope scanning
67(1)
Positron emission tomography (PET)
67(1)
Ultrasound
67(3)
Doppler ultrasound
69(1)
Endoscopic ultrasound
70(1)
Computed tomography
70(4)
Magnetic resonance imaging
74(3)
MR spectroscopy
76(1)
Conclusions and choice
77(4)
Hepato-cellular Failure
81(12)
General failure of health
81(1)
Jaundice
81(1)
Vasodilatation and hyperdynamic circulation
81(5)
Hepato-pulmonary syndrome
82(2)
Pulmonary hypertension
84(2)
Fever and septicaemia
86(1)
Fetor hepaticus
87(1)
Changes in nitrogen metabolism
87(1)
Skin changes
87(2)
Vascular spiders
87(1)
Palmar erythema (liver palms)
88(1)
White nails
89(1)
Mechanism of skin changes
89(1)
Endocrine changes
89(3)
Hypogonadism
90(1)
Hypothalmaic-pituitary function
91(1)
Metabolism of hormones
91(1)
General treatment
92(1)
Precipitating factors
92(1)
General measures
92(1)
Hepatic Encephalopathy
93(18)
Clinical features
93(4)
Investigations
95(1)
Neuropathological changes
96(1)
Clinical variants in cirrhotics
97(2)
Differential diagnosis
98(1)
Prognosis
99(1)
Pathogenetic mechanisms
99(5)
Portal-systemic encephalopathy
99(1)
Intestinal bacteria
100(1)
Neurotransmission
100(3)
Conclusions
103(1)
Treatment of hepatic encephalopathy
104(7)
Diet
104(1)
Antibiotics
105(1)
Lactulose and lactilol
105(1)
Sodium benzoate and L-ornithine-L-aspartate
106(1)
Levodopa and bromocriptine
106(1)
Flumazenil
106(1)
Branched-chain amino acids
106(1)
Other precipitating factors
106(1)
Shunt occlusion
106(1)
Temporary hepatic support
107(1)
Hepatic transplantation
107(4)
Acute Liver Failure
111(16)
Definition
111(1)
Causes
111(2)
Clinical features
113(1)
Investigations
113(2)
Associations
115(3)
Prognosis
118(1)
Treatment
119(5)
Conclusion
124(3)
Ascites
127(20)
Mechanism of ascites formation
127(3)
Underfill and peripheral vasodilation hypotheses
127(2)
Overfill hypothesis
129(1)
Other renal factors
129(1)
Circulation of ascites
130(1)
Summary
130(1)
Clinical features
130(2)
Spontaneous bacterial peritonitis
132(2)
Treatment of cirrhotic ascites
134(6)
Refractory ascites
138(1)
Prognosis
139(1)
Hepato-renal syndrome
140(3)
Hyponatraemia
143(4)
The Portal Venous System and Portal Hypertension
147(40)
Collateral circulation
147(1)
Intra-hepatic obstruction (cirrhosis)
147(1)
Extra-hepatic obstruction
148(1)
Effects
148(1)
Pathology of portal hypertension
148(1)
Varices
149(2)
Portal hypertensive intenstinal vasculopathy
151(1)
Haemodynamics of portal hypertension
151(1)
Clinical features of portal hypertension
152(5)
History and general examination
152(1)
Abdominal wall veins
153(1)
Spleen
154(1)
Liver
154(1)
Ascites
154(1)
Rectum
154(1)
X-ray of the abdomen and chest
154(1)
Barium studies
155(1)
Endoscopy
155(2)
Imaging the portal venous system
157(6)
Ultrasound
157(1)
Doppler ultrasound
157(1)
CT scan
158(1)
Magnetic resonance angiography
158(1)
Venography
158(1)
Venographic appearances
158(1)
Visceral angiography
159(1)
Digital subtraction angiography
159(1)
Splenic venography
159(1)
Carbon dioxide wedged venography
160(1)
Portal pressure measurement
160(1)
Variceal pressure
160(1)
Estimation of hepatic blood flow
161(1)
Azygous blood flow
162(1)
Experimental portal venous occlusion and hypertension
163(1)
Classification of portal hypertension
163(1)
Extra-hepatic portal venous obstruction
163(5)
Aetiology
163(2)
Clinical features
165(1)
Prognosis
166(1)
Treatment
167(1)
Splenic vein obstruction
167(1)
Hepatic arterio-portal venous fistulae
167(1)
Porto-hepatic venous shunts
168(1)
Intra-heaptic pre-sinusoidal and sinusoidal portal hypertension
168(1)
Portal tract lesions
168(1)
Toxic causes
168(1)
Hepato-portal sclerosis
168(1)
Tropical splenomegaly syndrome
169(1)
Intra-hepatic portal hypertension
169(1)
Cirrhosis
169(1)
Non-cirrhotic nodules
170(1)
Bleeding oesophageal varices
170(3)
Predicting rupture
170(1)
Preention of bleeding
171(1)
Diagnosis of bleeding
172(1)
Prognosis
172(1)
Management of acute variceal bleeding
173(4)
Vaso-active drugs
174(1)
Sengstaken-Blakemore tube
174(1)
Endoscopic sclerotherapy and banding
175(1)
Emergency surgery
176(1)
Prevention of re-bleeding
176(1)
Portal-systemic shunt procedures
177(3)
Porta-caval
177(1)
Meso-caval
178(1)
Selective `distal' spleno-renal
178(1)
General results of portal-systemic shunts
178(1)
TIPS (transjugular intrahepatic portosystemic shunt)
178(1)
Shunt stenosis and occlusion
179(1)
Control of bleeding
180(1)
TIPS encephalopathy
180(1)
Circulatory changes
180(1)
Other indications
180(1)
Conclusions
180(1)
Hepatic transplantation
180(1)
Pharmacological control of the portal circulation
180(1)
Conclusions
180(7)
The Hepatic Artery and Hepatic Veins: the Liver in Circulatory Failure
187(18)
The hepatic artery
187(3)
Hepatic artery occlusion
188(1)
Hepatic arterial lesions following liver transplantation
189(1)
Aneurysms of the hepatic artery
189(1)
Hepatic arteriovenous shunts
190(1)
The hepatic veins
190(2)
Experimental hepatic venous obstruction
191(1)
Budd-Chiari (hepatic venous obstruction) syndrome
192(7)
Pathological changes
193(1)
Clinical features
193(2)
Diagnosis
195(1)
Prognosis
196(1)
Treatment
197(1)
Veno-occlusive disease
198(1)
Spread of disease by the hepatic veins
198(1)
Circulatory failure
199(6)
Hepatic changes in acute heart failure and shock
199(1)
Ischaemic hepatitis
200(1)
Post-operative jaundice
200(1)
Jaundice after cardiac surgery
201(1)
The liver in congestive heart failure
201(2)
The liver in constrictive pericardities
203(2)
Jaundice
205(14)
Bilirubin metabolism
205(3)
Hepatic transport and conjugation of bilirubin
205(2)
Distribution of jaundice in the tissues
207(1)
Factors determining the depth of jaundice
207(1)
Classification of jaundice
208(1)
Diagnosis of jaundice
209(4)
Clinical history
209(2)
Examination
211(1)
Diagnostic routine
212(1)
Familial non-haemolytic hyperbilirubinaemias
213(6)
Primary hyperbilirubinaemia
213(1)
Gilbert's syndrome
213(2)
Crigler-Najjar syndrome
215(1)
Dubin-Johnson syndrome
216(1)
Rotor type
217(1)
The group of familial non-haemolytic hyperbilirubinaemias
217(2)
Cholestasis
219(22)
Anatomy of the biliary system
219(1)
Secretion of bile
220(3)
Cellular mechanisms
221(2)
Syndrome of cholestasis
223(18)
Definition
223(1)
Classification
223(1)
Pathogenesis
224(1)
Pathology
224(2)
Clinical features
226(5)
Diagnostic approach
231(1)
Diagnostic possibilities
232(9)
Primary Biliary Cirrhosis
241(14)
Aetiology
241(2)
Epidemiology and genetics
243(1)
Clinical features
243(3)
Diagnosis
246(1)
Prognosis
247(1)
Treatment
248(2)
Immune cholangiopathy
250(3)
Autoimmune cholangitis
253(2)
Sclerosing Cholangitis
255(12)
Primary sclerosing cholangitis (PSC)
255(6)
Infective sclerosing cholangitis
261(2)
Bacterial cholangitis
261(1)
Immunodeficiency-related opportunistic cholangitis
261(2)
Graft-versus-host disease
263(1)
Vascular cholangitis
263(1)
Drug-related cholangitis
263(1)
Histiocytosis X
263(4)
Viral Hepatitis: General Features, Hepatitis A, Hepatitis E and Other Viruses
267(18)
Pathology
267(1)
Clinical types
268(3)
Investigations
271(1)
Differential diagnosis
271(1)
Prognosis
272(1)
Treatment
272(1)
Follow-up
272(1)
Hepatitis A virus
273(3)
Epidemiology
274(1)
Clinical course
275(1)
Prognosis
275(1)
Prevention
275(1)
Hepatitis E virus
276(2)
Clinical features
277(1)
Diagnostic tests
277(1)
Liver biopsy
277(1)
Prevention
277(1)
Hepatitis G virus
278(1)
Hepatitis TT virus
278(1)
Yellow fever
279(1)
Pathology
279(1)
Clinical features
279(1)
Treatment
279(1)
Infectious mononucleosis (Epstein-Barr virus)
279(2)
Hepatic histology
279(1)
Clinical features
280(1)
Diagnosis
280(1)
Distinction from viral hepatitis
280(1)
Other viruses
281(1)
Cytomegalovirus
281(1)
Herpes simplex
281(1)
Miscellaneous
281(1)
Hepatitis due to exotic viruses
282(3)
Treatment
283(2)
Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatitis Delta Virus
285(20)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV)
285(9)
Acute hepatitis B
287(3)
Epidemiology
290(1)
Clinical course
290(2)
Prevention
292(2)
Chronic hepatitis B
294(6)
Clinical relapse and reactivation
294(1)
Laboratory tests
295(1)
Needle liver biopsy
295(1)
Course and prognosis
295(1)
Treatment
296(2)
Outstanding problems
298(1)
Screening for hepato-cellular carcinoma
298(2)
Hepatitis delta virus (HDV)
300(5)
Epidemiology
300(1)
Diagnosis
301(1)
Clinical features
301(1)
Hepatic histology
302(1)
Prevention
302(1)
Treatment
302(3)
Hepatitis C Virus
305(16)
Molecular virology
305(1)
Serological tests
306(1)
Immune response
307(1)
Epidemiology
307(1)
Natural history
308(1)
Clinical course
308(1)
Hepatic histology
309(1)
Hepatitis C and serum autoantibodies
310(1)
Associated diseases
310(1)
Diagnosis
311(1)
Prognosis
311(1)
Prevention: vaccines
312(1)
Treatment
312(4)
Hepatic transplantation
316(5)
Chronic Hepatitis: General Features, and Autoimmune Chronic Disease
321(14)
Clinical presentation
321(1)
Hepatic histology
322(1)
The role of liver biopsy
322(2)
Classification
324(1)
Autoimmune chronic hepatitis
325(1)
Type 1 (formerly called lupoid)
326(1)
Type 2
326(1)
Primary biliary cirrhosis and immune cholangitis
326(1)
Chronic autoimmune hepatitis (type 1)
326(9)
Aetiology
326(2)
Hepatic pathology
328(1)
Clinical features
328(2)
Differential diagnosis
330(1)
Treatment
331(1)
Course and prognosis
332(1)
Syncytial giant-cell hepatitis
332(3)
Drugs and the Liver
335(30)
Hepato-cellular zone 3 necrosis
340(4)
Carbon tetrachloride
342(1)
Amanita mushrooms
343(1)
Paracetamol (acetaminophen)
343(1)
Salicylates
344(1)
Hyperthermia
344(1)
Hypothermia
344(1)
Burns
344(1)
Hepato-cellular zone 1 necrosis
344(1)
Ferrous sulphate
345(1)
Phosphorus
345(1)
Mitochondrial cytopathies
345(1)
Sodium valproate
345(1)
Tetracyclines
345(1)
Tacrine
345(1)
Antiviral nucleoside analogues
345(1)
Bacillus cereus
346(1)
Steato-hepatitis
346(1)
Perhexiline maleate
346(1)
Amiodarone
346(1)
Synthetic oestrogens
346(1)
Calcium channel blockers
347(1)
Fibrosis
347(1)
Methotrexate
347(1)
Other cytotoxic drugs
347(1)
Arsenic
348(1)
Vinyl chloride
348(1)
Vitamin A
348(1)
Retinoids
348(1)
Vascular changes
348(1)
Sinusoidal dilatation
348(1)
Peliosis hepatis
349(1)
Veno-occlusive disease (VOD)
349(1)
Acute hepatitis
349(5)
Isoniazid
350(1)
Methyl dopa
351(1)
Halothane
351(1)
Hydrofluorocarbons
352(1)
Systemic antifungals
352(1)
Oncology drugs
352(1)
Nervous system modifiers
353(1)
Sustained-release nicotinic acid (niacin)
353(1)
Sulphonamides and derivatives
353(1)
Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs
353(1)
Anti-thyroid drugs
353(1)
Quinidine and quinine
353(1)
Troglitazone
354(1)
Anti-convulsants
354(1)
Chronic hepatitis
354(1)
Herbal remedies
354(1)
Recreational drugs
355(1)
Canalicular cholestasis
355(1)
Cyclosporin A
355(1)
Ciprofloxacin
355(1)
Hepato-canalicular cholestasis
355(2)
Chlorpromazine
356(1)
Penicillins
357(1)
Sulphonomides
357(1)
Erythromycin
357(1)
Haloperidol
357(1)
Cimetidine and ranitidine
357(1)
Oral hypoglycaemics
357(1)
Tamoxifen
357(1)
Other causes
357(1)
Dextropropoxyphene
357(1)
Ductular cholestasis
357(1)
Biliary sludge
357(1)
Sclerosing cholangitis
357(1)
Hepatic nodules and tumours
358(1)
Hepato-cellular carcinoma
358(1)
Conclusions
359(6)
Hepatic Cirrhosis
365(16)
Classification of cirrhosis
368(3)
Clinical cirrhosis
371(3)
Compensated cirrhosis
374(1)
Decompenstated cirrhosis
375(1)
Prognosis
376(1)
Treatment
377(4)
Alcohol and the Liver
381(18)
Risk factors for alcoholic liver diseases
381(1)
Metabolism of alcohol
382(2)
Mechanisms of liver injury
384(2)
Morphological changes
386(4)
Fatty liver (steatosis)
386(1)
Alcoholic hepatitis
387(1)
Cirrhosis
387(2)
Early recognition
389(1)
Investigation
389(1)
Clinical syndromes
390(3)
Fatty liver
390(1)
Acute alcoholic heaptitis
390(1)
Hepatic cirrhosis
391(1)
Cholestatic syndromes
391(1)
Relationship to hepatitis B and C
391(2)
Hepato-cellular cancer
393(1)
Associated features
393(1)
Prognosis
393(1)
Treatment
394(5)
Acute alcoholic heaptitis
394(1)
Cirrhosis
395(1)
Hepatic transplantation
395(4)
Iron Overload States
399(14)
Normal iron metabolism
399(2)
Iron overload and liver damage
401(1)
Genetic haemochromatosis
401(6)
Other iron storage diseases
407(6)
Non-HFE-related inherited iron overload
407(1)
Dysmetabolic syndrome
408(1)
Erythropoietic siderosis
408(1)
Late stage cirrhosis
408(1)
Chronic viral hepatitis
408(1)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
408(1)
Neonatal haemochromatosis
409(1)
African iron overload (Bantu siderosis)
409(1)
Porphyria cutanea tarda
409(1)
Haemodialysis
409(1)
Acaeruloplasminaemia
409(1)
Transferrin deficiency
409(4)
Wilson's Disease
413(10)
Molecular genetics: pathogenesis
413(1)
Pathology
414(1)
Clinical picture
415(1)
Hepatic forms
416(1)
Neuropsychiatric forms
417(1)
Renal changes
417(1)
Other changes
417(1)
Laboratory tests
417(1)
Liver biopsy
418(1)
Scanning
418(1)
Diagnostic difficulties
418(1)
Treatment
419(1)
Prognosis
420(1)
Indian childhood cirrhosis
421(1)
Hereditary acaeruloplasminaemia
421(2)
Nutritional and Metabolic Liver Diseases
423(30)
Malnutrition
423(1)
Fatty liver
423(4)
Diagnosis
424(1)
Classification
424(3)
Non-alcoholic fatty liver disease
427(2)
Non-alcoholic hepatic steatosis
428(1)
Non-alcoholic steatonecrosis
428(1)
Effects of jejuno-ileal bypass
429(1)
Parenteral nutrition
429(1)
Vitamins
429(2)
Carbohydrate metabolism in liver disease
431(1)
Hypoglycaemia
431(1)
Hyperglycaemia
431(1)
The liver in diabetes mellitus
431(1)
Insulin and the liver
431(1)
Hepatic histology
431(1)
Clinical features
432(1)
Liver function tets
432(1)
Hepato-biliary disease and diabetes
432(2)
Glucose intolerance of cirrhosis
432(1)
Treatment of diabetes in cirrhotic patients
433(1)
Glycogen storage diseases
434(4)
Type I (von Gierke's disease)
435(1)
Type II (Pompe's disease)
436(1)
Type III (Cori's disease)
436(1)
Type IV (Andersen's disease)
437(1)
Type VI (Hers' disease)
437(1)
Hepatic glycogen synthetase deficiency (type 0)
437(1)
Hereditary fructose intolerance
438(1)
Glutaric aciduria type II
438(1)
Galactosaemia
438(1)
Mucopolysaccharidoses
439(1)
Familial hypercholesterolaemia
439(1)
Amyloidosis
440(3)
α-Antitrypsin deficiency
443(2)
Hereditary tyrosianaemia
445(1)
Cystic fibrosis
446(1)
Liver and thyroid
447(1)
Thyrotoxicosis
447(1)
Myxoedema
447(1)
Changes with hepato-cellular disease
447(1)
Liver and adrenal
448(1)
Liver and growth homone
448(1)
Hepatic porphyrias
448(4)
Acute intermittent porphyria
449(1)
Hereditary coproporphyria
450(1)
Variegate porphyria
450(1)
Porphyria cutanea tarda
450(1)
Erythropoietic protoporphyria
450(1)
Congenital erythropoietic porphyria
451(1)
Hepato-erythropoietic porphyria
451(1)
Secondary coproporphyrias
451(1)
Hereditary haemorrhagic telangiectasia
452(1)
Dystrophia myotonica
452(1)
The Liver in Infancy and Childhood
453(18)
Neonatal hyperbilirubinaemia
453(2)
Unconjugated hyperbilirubinaemia
453(1)
Haemolytic disease of the newborn
454(1)
Hepatitis and cholestatic syndromes (conjugated hyperbilirubinaemia)
455(5)
Viral hepatitis
457(2)
Non-viral causes of hepatitis
459(1)
Urinary tract infections
459(1)
Neonatal hepatitis syndrome
459(1)
Infantile cholangiopathies
460(4)
Biliary atresia
460(1)
Extra-hepatic biliary atresia
460(2)
Alagille's syndrome (arterio-hepatic dysplasia)
462(1)
Prolonged parenteral nutrition
462(1)
Abnormal bile acid synthesis
463(1)
Genetic cholestatic syndromes
463(1)
Symptomatic treatment of cholestatic syndromes
464(1)
Other causes of cholestatic jaundice
464(1)
Reye's syndrome
465(1)
Reye-like syndromes
465(1)
Cirrhosis in infancy and childhood
465(2)
Indian childhood cirrhosis
466(1)
Non-Indian childhood cirrhosis (copper-associated liver disease)
466(1)
Hepatic steatosis
467(1)
Fetal alcohol syndrome
467(1)
Idiopathic steato-hepatitis
467(1)
Tumour of the liver
467(4)
Hamartomas
467(1)
Mesenchymal hamartoma
467(1)
Malignant mesenchymoma (undifferentiated sarcoma)
467(1)
Adenomas
467(1)
Hepato-cellular carcinoma
467(1)
Hepatoblastoma
467(1)
Infantile haemangio-endothelioma
467(1)
Nodular regenerative hyperplasia
468(1)
Hepatic transplantation
468(3)
The Liver in Pregnancy
471(10)
Normal pregnancy
471(1)
Liver disease in pregnancy
471(1)
Hyperemesis gravidarum
471(1)
Liver disases of late pregnancy
471(5)
Acute fatty liver of pregnancy
471(3)
Pregnancy toxaemias
474(1)
The HELLP syndrome
474(1)
Toxaemia and the HELLP syndrome
475(1)
Hepatic haemorrhage
475(1)
Cholestasis of pregnancy
475(1)
Budd-Chiari syndrome
476(1)
Intercurrent jaundice
476(2)
Viral hepatitis
476(1)
Biliary tract disease
477(1)
Hepato-toxic drugs and the pregnant woman
478(1)
Effect of pregnancy on pre-existing chronic liver disease
478(1)
Pregnancy in liver transplant recipients
478(3)
The Liver in Systemic Disease, Granulomas and Hepatic Trauma
481(14)
The liver in collagen diseases
481(1)
Arthropathy associated with liver disease
481(1)
Genetic haemochromatosis
481(1)
Hepatitis B virus (HBV) associations
481(1)
Hepatitis C virus (HCV) associations
482(1)
Hepatic granulomas
482(8)
Clinical syndrome of hepatic granulomas
483(1)
`Granulomatous hepatitis'
484(1)
Sarcoidosis
484(2)
Granulomatous drug reactions
486(1)
Granulomas associated with infections
487(1)
Hepatic granulomas in the patient with AIDS
488(1)
Industrial causes
489(1)
Other conditions with hepatic granulomas
489(1)
Hepato-biliary associations of inflammatory bowel disease
490(1)
Hepatic trauma
490(5)
Rupture of the gallbladder
492(3)
The Liver in Infections
495(32)
Pyogenic liver abscess
495(3)
Other infections
498(1)
Hepatic amoebiasis
498(3)
Tuberculosis of the liver
501(1)
Hepatic actinomycosis
502(1)
Other fungal infections
502(1)
Syphilis of the liver
503(1)
Congenital
503(1)
Secondary
503(1)
Tertiary
503(1)
Jaundice complicating penicillin treatment
504(1)
Leptospirosis
504(3)
Weil's disease
504(2)
Other types of leptospirosis
506(1)
Relapsing fever
507(1)
Lyme disease
507(1)
Q fever
507(1)
Rocky mountain spotted fever
508(1)
Schistosomiasis (bilharziasis)
508(2)
Malaria
510(1)
Kala-azar (leishmaniasis)
511(1)
Hydatid disease
511(6)
Echinococcus multilocularis (alveolar echinococcosis)
516(1)
Ascariasis
517(1)
Strongyloides stercoralis
518(1)
Trichiniasis
518(1)
Toxocara canis (visceral larva migrans)
518(1)
Liver flukes
518(2)
Clonorchis sinensis
518(1)
Fasciola hepatica
519(1)
Recurrent pyogenic cholangitis
519(1)
Peri-hepatitis
520(1)
Hepato-biliary disease in HIV infection
520(5)
Infections
521(1)
Hepatitis B, C and D co-infection
522(1)
Neoplasms
522(1)
Hepato-biliary disease
523(1)
Acaculous cholecystitis
524(1)
Jaundice of infections
525(2)
Bacterial pneumonia
525(1)
Septicaemia and septic shock
525(2)
Nodules and Benign Liver Lesions
527(10)
Small hepato-cellular cancer
527(1)
Nodules in the absence of underlying liver disease
528(1)
Simple cysts
528(1)
Haemangioma
528(2)
Focal nodular hyperplasia
530(1)
Hepatic adenoma
531(1)
Focal nodular hyperplasia and adenoma contrasted
532(1)
Liver metastases
532(2)
Other benign tumours
534(1)
Cholangioma (bile duct adenoma)
534(1)
Biliary cystadenoma
534(1)
Nodular regenerative hyperplasia
534(3)
Partial nodular transformation
535(2)
Malignant Liver Tumours
537(26)
Hepato-cellular cancer
537(14)
Aetiological factors
537(3)
Pathology
540(1)
Clinical features
541(2)
Tumour localization
543(3)
Needle liver biopsy
546(1)
Screening
546(1)
Prognosis and risk factors
547(1)
Surgical treatment
547(1)
Non-surgical treatment
548(3)
Fibro-lamellar carcinoma of the liver
551(1)
Hepatoblastoma
551(1)
Intra-hepatic cholangiocarcinoma
552(1)
Combined hepato-cellular-cholangiocarcinoma
553(1)
Other primary liver tumours
553(1)
Cystadenocarcinoma
553(1)
Angiosarcoma (haemangio-endothelioma)
553(1)
Epitheloid haemangio-endothelioma
554(1)
Undifferentiated sarcoma of the liver
554(1)
Benign tumours of the liver
554(1)
Mesenchymal hamartoma
554(1)
Paraneoplastic hepatopathy
554(1)
Hepatic metastases
554(9)
Imaging of the Biliary Tract: Interventional Radiology and Endoscopy
563(20)
Plain film of the abdomen
563(1)
Ultrasound (US)
563(1)
Bile ducts
563(1)
Gallbladder
563(1)
Computed tomography (CT)
564(1)
Magnetic resonance cholangiopancreatography (MRCP)
565(1)
Endoscopic ultrasound (EUS)
566(1)
Biliary scintigraphy
567(1)
Oral cholecystography
567(1)
Intravenous cholangiography
568(1)
Endoscopic retrograde cholagiopancreatography
568(2)
Endoscopic sphincterotomy
570(3)
Endoscopic biliary endoprostheses
573(3)
Percutaneous trans-hepatic cholangiography
576(1)
Percutaneous bile drainage
576(1)
Percutaneous biliary endoprosthesis
577(1)
Resectability of tumours
578(1)
Choice between surgical and non-surgical palliation of malignant obstruction
578(1)
Choice between endoscopic and percutaneous approach
578(1)
Percutaneous cholecystostomy
578(1)
Operative and post-operative cholangiography
579(4)
Cysts and Congenital Biliary Abnormalities
583(14)
Fibropolycystic disease
583(1)
Childhood fibropolycystic diseases
584(1)
Adult polycystic disease
584(2)
Congenital hepatic fibrosis
586(6)
Congenital intra-hepatic biliary dilatation (Caroli's disease)
588(1)
Congenital hepatic fibrosis and Caroli's disease
589(1)
Choledochal cyst
589(2)
Microhamartoma (von Meyenberg complexes)
591(1)
Carcinoma secondary to fibropolycystic disease
591(1)
Solitary non-parasitic liver cyst
591(1)
Other cysts
591(1)
Congenital anomalies of the biliary tract
592(2)
Absence of the gallbladder
592(1)
Double gallbladder
592(1)
Accessory bile ducts
593(1)
Left-sided gallbladder
594(1)
Rokitansky-Aschoff sinuses
594(1)
Folded gallbladder
594(1)
Diverticula of the gallbladder and ducts
594(1)
Intra-hepatic gallbladder
594(1)
Congenital adhesions to the gallbladder
594(1)
Floating gallbladder and torsion of the gallbladder
594(1)
Anomalies of the cystic duct and cystic artery
595(2)
Gallstones and Inflammatory Gallbladder Diseases
597(32)
Composition of gallstones
597(1)
Composition of bile
597(1)
Factors in cholesterol gallstone formation
598(5)
Pigment gallstones
603(1)
Radiology of gallstones
603(1)
Natural history of gallstones
604(1)
Silent gallstones
605(1)
Treatment of gallstones in the gallbladder
605(2)
Cholecystectomy
605(1)
Laparoscopic cholecystectomy
605(2)
Non-surgical treatment of gallstones in the gallbladder
607(2)
Dissolution therapy
607(1)
Direct solvent dissolution
608(1)
Shock-wave therapy
608(1)
Percutaneous cholecystolithotomy
609(1)
Conclusions
609(1)
Acute cholecystitis
610(2)
Empyema of the gallbladder
612(1)
Perforationof the gallbladder
612(1)
Emphysematous cholecystitis
612(1)
Chronic calculous cholecystitis
613(1)
Acaculous cholecystitis
614(1)
Acute
614(1)
Chronic
614(1)
Typhoid cholecystitis
614(1)
Acute cholecystitis in AIDS
614(1)
Other associations
615(1)
Other gallbladder pathology
615(1)
Cholesterolosis of the gallbladder
615(1)
Xanthogranulomatous cholecystitis
615(1)
Adenomyomatosis
615(1)
Porcelain gallbladder
615(1)
Post-cholecystectomy problems
615(1)
Sphincter of Oddi dysfunction
616(1)
Gallstones in the common bile duct (choledocholithiasis)
616(2)
Management of common duct stones
618(1)
Acute obstructive suppurative cholangitis
618(1)
Acute cholangitis
618(1)
Common duct stones without cholangitis
619(2)
Patients with gallbladder in situ
619(1)
Acute gallstone pancreatitis
619(1)
Large common duct stones
619(1)
Trans T-tube tract removal of stones
620(1)
Intra-hepatic gallstones
620(1)
Mirizzi's syndrome
620(1)
Biliary fistulae
621(1)
External
621(1)
Internal
621(1)
Gallstone ileus
621(1)
Haemobilia
622(1)
Bile peritonitis
622(1)
Association of gallstones with other diseases
623(6)
Colorectal and other cancers
623(1)
Diabetes mellitus
623(6)
Benign Stricture of the Bile Ducts
629(10)
Post-cholecystectomy
629(5)
Bile duct/bowel anastomotic stricture
634(1)
Post liver transplantation
635(1)
Primary sclerosing cholangitis
636(1)
Other causes
636(1)
Summary
636(3)
Diseases of the Ampulla of Vater and Pancreas
639(8)
Peri-ampullary carcinoma
639(5)
Benign villous adenoma of the ampulla of Vater
644(1)
Cystic tumours of the pancreas
644(1)
Endocrine tumours of the pancreas
644(1)
Chronic pancreatitis
644(1)
Obstruction of the common bile duct by enlarged lymph glands
645(2)
Other causes of extrinsic pressure on the common bile duct
645(2)
Tumours of the Gallbladder and Bile Ducts
647(10)
Benign lesions of the gallbladder
647(1)
Carcinoma of the gallbladder
647(1)
Other tumours
648(1)
Benign tumours of the extra-hepatic bile duct
648(1)
Carcinoma of the bile duct (cholangiocarcinoma)
648(6)
Cholangiocellular carcinoma
654(1)
Metastases at the hilum
655(2)
Hepatic Transplantation
657(24)
Selection of patients
657(1)
Candidates: outcome
657(6)
Cirrhosis
659(1)
Autoimmune chronic hepatitis
659(1)
Chronic viral hepatitis
659(1)
Neonatal hepatitis
660(1)
Alcoholic liver disease
660(1)
Cholestatic liver disease
660(1)
Primary metabolic disease
661(1)
Acute liver failure
662(1)
Malignant disease
662(1)
Miscellaneous
663(1)
Absolute and relative contraindications
663(1)
Absolute
663(1)
Relative (higher risk)
664(1)
General preparation of the patient
664(1)
Donor selection and operation
664(1)
The recipient operation
665(2)
Segmental (split liver) transplantation
665(1)
Auxiliary liver transplantation
666(1)
Xeno-transplantation
666(1)
Domino liver transplantation
666(1)
Hepatocyte transplantation
667(1)
Liver transplantation in paediatrics
667(1)
Immunosuppression
667(1)
Tolerance
668(1)
Post-operative course
668(1)
Post-transplantation complications
668(7)
Rejection
671(2)
Infections
673(2)
Malignancies
675(1)
Drug-related toxicity
675(1)
Disease recurrence
675(1)
Central nervous system toxicity
675(1)
Bone disease
675(1)
Ectopic soft-tissue calcification
675(1)
Conclusion
675(6)
Index 681

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