Diversity, Oppression, and Social Functioning Person-In-Environment Assessment and Intervention

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  • Edition: 3rd
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2010-03-15
  • Publisher: Pearson

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Supplemental Materials

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The diverse populations presented in the text are described within an ecological, strengths perspective. The authorsrs" thesis is that, in order to work effectively with diverse populations, it is necessary to take into consideration the complex dynamics of social functioning and social oppression. The "Person-In-Environment" theoretical framework provides a basis for analysis of the social, economic, and political reality of these diverse populations. The text presents an affirmative practice approach and builds on the available diversity practice literature. This text can be used in diversity practice courses, courses on working with oppressed populations, and other practice courses (such as advanced practice) that focus on diversity issues.

Author Biography

Dr. Edgar Colon is a Professor of Social Work at Southern Connecticut State University.  Dr. Colon received an Master of Science in Social Welfare from Columbia University and a Doctorate in Social Welfare from the City University of New York Graduate Center at the Hunter College School of Social Work. He has served on Faculty of Social Work of several New York City colleges and universities which include Fordham University, Hunter College and The State University of New York at Stony Brook, to name a few.

Dr. Colon brings to teaching a total of twenty-one years teaching  and practice experience, in the areas of social welfare  management, social policy, human behavior, social oppression and diversity issues, and clinical practice with substance abuse problems. His professional areas of scholarly interest include:health and mental health with particular focus on clinical practice, program design, planning and organization development in ethnic minority communities.

Table of Contents

1 Framework for Practice with Diverse and Oppressed Clients
George A. Appleby
Theory for Practice 5
Ecological Framework for Practice 6
Diversity and Strengths Perspective 9
Value Base for Practice 10
Assessment and Intervention Framework 10
Conclusion 13
References 14

2 Culture, Social Class, and Social Identity Development
George A. Appleby
Culture 18
Norms 18
Values 20
Language and Culture 21
Cultural Change 23
Subcultures 25
Social Class 26
Education and Social Class 29
Social Identity Development 30
Social Categorization 30
Social Comparison 31
Person-in-Environment Classification System 32
Conclusion 34
References 35

3 Ethnic Identity Development 36
Elizabeth Rodriguez-Keyes
Western Models of Identity Development 36
Erik Erikson 36
James Marcia 38
Critique of Western Psychological Theories 40
Ethnic Identity 41
References 45

4 Risk and Resilience: Impact of Early Trauma on Psychological and Physiological Functioning 47
Tammy Moscrip
An Ecological Framework: The Person-in-Environment System 47
Psychological and Physiological Impacts of Early Trauma 48
The Adverse Childhood Experiences Study 49
The Stress Response: How Can Stress Translate into Illness? 51
Neurobiology of Early Trauma: Understanding the Mind-Body Connection 52
Coping Mechanisms and Resilience 55
Assessing the Brain-Behavior Connection: Implications for Client Resiliency 57
Conclusion 57
References 59

5 Dynamics of Oppression and Discrimination 61
George A. Appleby
Oppression and Power 61
Sexual Oppression 64
Racial Oppression 66
Discrimination 66
Diversity 67
Identity 69
Stigma and Stigma Management 70
Effects of Stigmatization 71
Conclusion 75
References 76

6 African-Americans: Consequences of Discrimination 78
Esther Howe and Julia Hamilton
The African American Community: A Socioeconomic Profile 79
Race and Developmental Process 79
African American Family Values and Patterns 81
The Role of the African American Churches 83
Educational Functioning and Achievement 83
Effects of Interethnic Interaction 84
Ethnicity within the African American Community 84
Assessment and the Social Worker’s Role 85
Case Study 86
Conclusion 88
References 88

7 Women and Sexist Oppression 90
Barbara Worden
Case Study 92
The PIE Classification System for Problems in Social Functioning 93
PIE Assessment of Jean 94
The Empowerment Framework 95
Male Models of Structured Reality 96
Madness as a Feminist Construct 98
Macro-Analysis: Feminist Epistemologies and the Nature of Knowledge Making 99
What Do We Mean by the Oppression of Women? 102
Feminization of Poverty 103
Conclusion 105
Helpful Websites 105
References 106

8 A Multi-diversity Perspective on Latinos: Issues of Oppression and Social Functioning 108
Edgar Colon
Who is the Latino/Latina? 108
Socio-demographic Profile 110
Racial and Ethnic Identity 110
Poverty and Social Status 110
Labor Force Participation 111
Latino Immigration to the United States 111
Mexicans 111
Puerto Ricans 112
Cubans 112
Central and South Americans 113
Dominicans 113
Latino Normative and Cultural Values 114
Respect, Dignity, and Personalism 114
Help Seeking Behaviors 115
Latino Family 115
Gender Roles 116
Family Support System 116

A PIE Perspective of Working with Issues of Oppression and Social Functioning 117
Assessing for Social Functioning Problems 117
Assessing for Mental Health Problems 118
Case Illustration 121
Factor I: Problems in Social Functioning 121
Factor II: Problems in the Environment 121
Conclusion 122
References 122

9 Native Americans: Oppression and Social Work Practice 126
Jack Paul Gesino
History of Racism 127
Present Day: Social and Health Problems 129
Mental Health 130
Family, Beliefs, and Rituals 131
Values and Traditions 132
Spiritual Traditions of Native Americans 133
Practice Implications 133
Intervention 135
The PIE System and Native Americans 136
Case Study 137
PIE Assessment of Mary 138
Conclusion 141
References 142

10 Asian Americans: Ethnocentrism and Discrimination 145
Michie N. Hesselbrock
Immigration and Resettlement Patterns and Consequences 147
Chinese 147
Japanese 148
Filipinos 149
Koreans and Asian Indians 150
Southeast Asians 150
Norms, Beliefs, and Cultural Stereotypes 151
Common Beliefs 152
Mental Health Problems and Treatment Seeking 155
Implications for Social Work Practice 156
Summary 157
Case Study 158
PIE Assessment of Mr.Yee 158
Conclusion 159
References 159

11 Lesbian, Gay, Bisexual, and Transgender People Confront Heterocentrism, Heterosexism, and Homophobia 162
George A. Appleby
History 166
Historical Oppression in Context 170
Definitions 170
The Roots of Oppression 173
Gender Ideology 173
Heterosexual Privilege 174
Religion 175
Psychiatry/Psychology 176
Law and Policy 177
Violence and Gay Bashing 178
Internalized Homophobia 180
Conclusion 181
References 182

12 Ableism: Social Work Practice with Physically Disabled Individuals 186
P. Minou Michilin and Silvia Juarez-Marazzo
Historical Overview 188
Bioethics 190
The Nature of Disability 191
Functional Disability versus Socially Imposed Disability 191
Early Age of Onset 193
Later Age of Onset 196
Vulnerabilities and Risk Factors versus Resilience and Protective Factors 197
Person-in-Environment Assessment 201
Case Study 201
The Social Worker’s Role 202
Intervention 203
Conclusion 203
References 204

13 Ableism: Mentally and Emotionally Challenged People 206
Jaak Rakfeldt
Theoretical Framework 207
Mental Disorders as Social Roles 207
Self-Concept 212
Social Roles/Relationships and Psychiatric Disability 215
Case Study 217
Theories of Practice: Person-in-Environment Analysis 219
PIE Assessment of Steve 220
Conclusion 220
References 221

14 Social Work Practice with Immigrants 224
Silvia Juarez-Marazzo
The Contributions of Social Work to Immigration 224
Demographics 225
The Outsider 227
The Circumstances 228
Acculturation versus Adaptation: A Framework 229
PIE Analysis 230
Case Study 1 231
PIE Analysis of Alicia 232
Case Study 2 233
PIE Analysis of Muny 234
Conclusion 235
References 236

15 Lookism: Bias Based on Appearance 237
Esther Howe
Beauty Is and Beauty Does 238
Appearance Discrimination in the Workplace 239
Consequences of Appearance Discrimination on a Personal Level 240
The Law 240
Impact of Medical Advances on Appearance Discrimination 242
Psychosocial Consequences for the Individual 242
Case Study 242
PIE Assessment of Patty 243
Conclusion 245
References 246

16 The “Ghetto Fabulous” Persona Among African American and Latino Youth: Issues of Social Oppression and Social Functioning 247
Edgar Colon, Luis Rodriguez, and Roberto Padilla
Social Functioning Issues in Inner City Communities 250
A Person in Environment for Social Work Practice with African American and Latino Urban Youth 252
Case Study 254
Conclusion 256
References 257

17 Affirmative Practice with People Who Are Culturally Diverse and Oppressed 259
Edgar Colon, George A. Appleby, and Julia Hamilton
A Paradigm for Affirmative Practice 259
Culture and Diversity: A Transactional View 259
The Power of Personal Experience 260
Diversity and Worldviews 260
Interrelatedness and Interconnectedness of Human Experience 262
Interlocking Systems of Oppression 263
Practice Implications: Women 263
Practice Implications: Gays and Lesbians 264
Practice Implications: Latinos 266
Practice Implications: African Americans 267
Practice Implications: Native Americans 268
Practice Implications: The Chronically Mentally Ill and the Physically Challenged 268
Micro Systems Intervention 269
Mezzo Intervention 271
Cultural Competence and the Profession 272
Macro Intervention 272
Conclusion 273
References 274

Appendix A: PIE Assessment Forms for Factors I and II

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