Diversity in U. S. Mass Media

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2011-10-03
  • Publisher: Wiley-Blackwell

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Diversity in U.S. Mass Media provides comprehensive coverage of the evolution and issues surrounding portrayals of social groups within the mass media of the United States. Focuses on past and current mass media representations of social groups Provides an overview of key theories that have guided research in mass media representations and stereotyping Discusses the impact new media has on representation and how technology is giving a new voice to various social groups Includes a chapter on how mass media industries are addressing diversity, complete with specially-commissioned interviews with media professionals Offers helpful supplementary features such as a glossary, questions for reflection, suggestions for projects related to diversity in mass media, and online resources for both instructors and students Accompanying website provides a glossary, links to related sites, recommendations of films to watch in the classroom, ideas for research projects, and an instructor's manual with sample syllabi

Author Biography

Catherine A. Luther is Associate Professor and the Associate Dean for Academic Programs in the College of Communication and Information at the University of Tennessee-Knoxville, and was once a television news producer for American and Japanese television networks.

Carolyn Ringer Lepre is Associate Professor at Marist College in New York who once worked as an Assistant Editor for Martha Stewart Living.

Naeemah Clark teaches Media Management and Operations at Elon University in North Carolina.

Table of Contents

Preface xi

1: Introduction 1

Social Identity 3

Racial/Ethnic Identity 4

Gender Identity 5

Sexual Identity 7

Age Identity 7

Disability Identity 8

Class Identity 9

Organization of Book 9

Reflection Questions and Thoughts to Consider 11

Notes 11

2: Theoretical Foundations of Research in Mass Media Representations 13

Mass Media Representations: Social Psychological Perspectives 14

Framing 14

Social Comparison Theory 17

Socialization 18

Cultivation Theory 20

Media Representations: Critical Perspectives 22

Hegemony 23

The Concept of Representation 24

Feminist Theory 25

Three Waves of Feminism 28

Concluding Remarks 29

Reflection Questions and Thoughts to Consider 29

Notes 30

3: Representations of Native Americans 33

Historical Background to Native American Representations 34

Native Americans in Film 36

Native Americans in Entertainment Television 42

Representation of Native Americans in the News 46

Native Americans and New Media 51

Concluding Remarks 52

Reflection Questions and Thoughts to Consider 53

Notes 54

4: Representations of African Americans 56

Historical Background to African American Representations 57

African Americans in Film 58

African Americans in Entertainment Television 64

African American Music 68

Representation of African Americans in the News 69

African Americans and Advertisements 75

African Americans in the Media Business 76

Concluding Remarks 78

Reflection Questions and Thoughts to Consider 79

Notes 79

5: Representations of Hispanics 83

Historical Background to Hispanic Representations 84

Hispanics in Film 86

Hispanics in Entertainment Television 89

Spanish-language Programs in the United States 93

Hispanics and Radio 95

Representation of Hispanics in the News 95

Spanish-language Newspapers in the United States 97

Spanish-language Magazines in the United States 101

Hispanics in Advertising 102

Hispanics and New Media 102

Concluding Remarks 103

Reflection Questions and Thoughts to Consider 104

Notes 105

6: Representations of Arabs/Arab Americans 108

Historical Background to Arab/Arab American Representations 109

Arabs/Arab Americans in Film 111

Arabs/Arab Americans in Entertainment Television 117

Representation of Arabs/Arab Americans in the News 121

Concluding Remarks 126

Reflection Questions and Thoughts to Consider 128

Notes 128

7: Representations of Asians/Asian Americans 130

Historical Background to Asian/Asian American Representations 131

Asians/Asian Americans in Film 132

Asians/Asian Americans in Entertainment Television 140

Representation of Asians/Asian Americans in the News 143

Concluding Remarks 147

Reflection Questions and Thoughts to Consider 150

Notes 150

8: Representations of Gender in Television, Film, and Music Videos 152

Historical Background to Gender Representations in Film and Television 153

Gender in Film 156

Gender in Entertainment Television 163

Gender in Music Videos 171

Concluding Remarks 177

Reflection Questions and Thoughts to Consider 180

Notes 181

9: Representations of Gender in Print Media and Advertising 183

Historical Background to Women in the Print Media 185

Gender in Magazines 186

Gender in Print News 190

Gender in Advertising 197

Gender Trends and "The Male Gaze" 200

Gender in New Media 203

Concluding Remarks 203

Reflection Questions and Thoughts to Consider 204

Notes 204

10: Representations of Lesbians, Gays, Bisexuals, and the Transgendered in the Media 207

Historical Background to LGBT Representations 208

LGBT in Film 210

LGBT in Entertainment Television 216

LGBT in Music and Radio 221

Representations of LGBT in the News 223

LGBT and Magazines 224

LGBT and Advertising 226

LGBT and New Media 228

Concluding Remarks 229

Reflection Questions and Thoughts to Consider 230

Notes 230

11: Representations of Age 232

Historical Background to Ageist Stereotypes and the Myths of Aging 233

Senior Citizens and Teenagers in the United States 235

Age in Film 236

Representations of Older and Elderly People 236

Representations of Teenagers 238

Age in Entertainment Television 243

Representations of Older and Elderly People 243

Representations of Teenagers 246

Representations of Age in the News 247

Representations of Older and Elderly People 247

Representations of Teenagers 250

Age and New Media 251

Concluding Remarks 253

Reflection Questions and Thoughts to Consider 254

Notes 254

12: Representations of People with Disabilities 257

Historical Background to Representations of People with Disabilities 258

People with Disabilities in Film 261

People with Disabilities in Entertainment Television 262

People with Disabilities in the News 268

People with Disabilities in Advertising 271

Concluding Remarks 274

Reflection Questions and Thoughts to Consider 274

Notes 275

13: Representations of Class 277

Historical Background to Class Representations 278

Representations of Class in Film 281

Representations of Class in Entertainment Television 287

Representations of Class in the News 290

Concluding Remarks 295

Reflection Questions and Thoughts to Consider 296

Notes 296

14: Mass Media Industries Addressing Diversity 298

Broadcast News and Newspaper Industries and Diversity 298

The Magazine Industry and Diversity 302

Entertainment Industry and Diversity 303

The Mass Media Industry and Diversity Statements/Initiatives 306

Interviews with Mass Media Professionals 310

Brent Merrill 310

Kent Takano 311

Lisa Fernandez 313

Rebecca Traister 314

Richard Prince 316

Huma Razvi 317

Reflection Questions and Thoughts to Consider 318

Notes 319

15: Conclusion 320

Common Threads in Mass Media Representations 320

Psychological Impact of Mass Media Representations 322

Minority Media as Counteracting Agents 323

Reflection Questions and Thoughts to Consider 327

Notes 327

Digging Deeper 328

One Representation Replaces Another 328

Suggestions for Further Exploration 328

Sexuality and Power 329

Suggestions for Further Exploration 329

Rules and Regulations Impact Representations 329

Suggestions for Further Exploration 330

The Symbolic Annihilation of a Social Group 330

Suggestions for Further Exploration 330

Minorities as the "Other" 330

Suggestions for Further Exploration 331

Reliance of the News on White "Expert" Sources 331

Suggestions for Further Exploration 331

"False" Framing and Misrepresentation 332

Suggestions for Further Exploration 332

Online = New Opportunities 332

Suggestions for Further Exploration 332

Changes, Contradictions, and an Ever-moving Continuum 333

Suggestions for Further Exploration 333

Notes 333

Glossary of Key Terms/Concepts 334

References 342

Index 357

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