Do No Wrong: Ethics for Prosecutors and Defenders

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  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2009-10-30
  • Publisher: Natl Book Network
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Criminal law practice is a minefield of legal ethics issues for both the prosecution and defense. There are a myriad of ethical questions requiring not only an understanding of the relevant ethics rules, but also applicable constitutional and statutory law as well as rules of criminal procedure and evidence. This book aims to put these and other ethical questions on the radar screens of criminal practitioners.

Table of Contents

Acknowledgmentsp. xi
About the Authorsp. xiii
Introductionp. xv
Prosecution’s Rolep. 1
Are a Prosecutor’s Responsibilities ”Special&Idquo;?p. 3
Few Ethics Rules Specifically Address Prosecutorsp. 3
Prosecutors Often Subject to Same Rules as Other Lawyersp. 5
Berger v. United Statesp. 5
Extraordinary Remediesp. 6
Model Rule 3.8p. 7
When Are a Prosecutor’s Duties Distinct?p. 9
Conclusionp. 10
Resources for Chapter 1p. 10
Why Should Prosecutors ”Seek Justice&Idquo;?p. 13
Rationales for Treating Prosecutors Differentlyp. 14
The Government’s Overarching Interest in Justicep. 14
Protecting Against Abuse of Powerp. 15
Asymmetry of Resourcesp. 15
Public Confidence in the Justice Systemp. 16
Promotes Open Governmentp. 16
Risks of Injusticep. 17
Conclusionp. 17
Resources for Chapter 2p. 18
New Rules for Scientific and Exculpatory Evidence?p. 19
Scientific Evidencep. 19
Exculpatory Evidencep. 23
Resources for Chapter 3p. 24
Defense Counsel’s Rolep. 27
Has.Gideon’s Promise Been Fulfilled?p. 29
Crisis in Defense Systemsp. 29
Constitutional Standard for Adequate Assistance of Counselp. 31
The ABA’s Ten Principlesp. 33
Conclusionp. 34
Resources for Chapter 4p. 34
Inadequate Representation and Wrongful Convictionsp. 37
Causes of Wrongful Convictionsp. 37
Ethical Dimensions of Inadequate Representationp. 38
Remedying the Imbalance of Resourcesp. 40
Conclusionp. 41
Resources for Chapter 5p. 41
Criminal Practice and the Mediap. 43
Trial by Media: Arguing Cases in the Courtof Public Opinionp. 45
Should Public Comment by Lawyers Be Regulated?p. 45
Protecting Trialsp. 46
Protecting Clientsp. 47
Protecting the Publicp. 47
History of Ethics Regulationp. 48
Current Ethics Rules Regulating Pretrial and Trial Publicityp. 49
Borderline Issuesp. 51
Conclusionp. 52
Resources for Chapter 6p. 52
Clients, Lawyers, and the Mediap. 55
Access to the Jury Roomp. 55
Interviews with Clients and Recording Defense Preparationp. 57
Lawyers Entering into Media Contractsp. 57
Client Media Deals and Lawyer Ethicsp. 58
Competent Representationp. 59
Confidentialityp. 60
Conflict of Interestp. 60
Prosecutorial Objectionsp. 60
Conclusionp. 61
Resources for Chapter 7p. 61
The Role of Lawyers in Client Media Campaignsp. 63
Rewards and Risksp. 63
Who Decides?p. 64
Competencep. 65
Conflict of Interestp. 66
Vicarious Ethics Violations?p. 66
Conclusionp. 69
Resources for Chapter 8p. 69
Client Autonomyp. 71
Client Autonomy and Choice of Counselp. 73
Pro Hac Vice Admissionp. 74
Defense Counsel Conflictsp. 75
The Pros and Consp. 75
Conclusionp. 78
Resources for Chapter 9p. 78
Counsel or Client: Who’s in Charge?p. 79
Allocation of Authorityp. 79
Disputes over Meansp. 81
Acquiescing to Counsel’s Decisionsp. 83
Conclusionp. 85
Resources for Chapter 10p. 86
Conflicts of Interestp. 87
The Supreme Court and Defense Counsel Conflictsp. 89
The Legal Standardp. 89
The Factsp. 90
The Conflict in Mickensp. 90
The Court’s Decision in Mickensp. 92
Actual Conflictp. 93
Adverse Impact?p. 93
Conclusionp. 95
Resources for Chapter 11p. 95
Campaign Pledges to Prosecutep. 973
An Explicit Pledge to Prosecutep. 97
What’s Wrong with a Pledge to Prosecute?p. 98
Political Distortionp. 98
Decisions Made on Incomplete Informationp. 99
Constraining the Exercise of Prosecutorial Discretionp. 100
An Implicit Pledge to Prosecute?p. 100
Conclusionp. 101
Resources for Chapter 12p. 102
Investigation and Discoveryp. 103
To Tape or Not to Tape: Secret Recordingp. 105
The Pros and Consp. 105
The Law on Secret Recordingp. 106
The Ethics of Secret Recordingp. 107
Conclusionp. 109
Resources for Chapter 13p. 110
Brother’s Keeper: Must You Protect Opponent’s Confidentiality?p. Ill
Confidentiality Basicsp. 112
Obligation to Another Lawyer’s Clientp. 112
Inadvertent Disclosure of Confidential Informationp. 113
The Cooperative Approachp. 114
The Adversarial Approachp. 114
Intermediate Positionsp. 115
An Array of Rationalesp. 116
Practical Implicationsp. 117
Resources for Chapter 14p. 118
Anticontact Rule in Criminal Investigationsp. 119
The Rulep. 119
Underlying Policiesp. 122
Prosecutorsp. 122
”Authorized by Law&Idquo; Exceptionp. 123
Current Lawp. 124
Defense Counselp. 126
Conclusionp. 127
Resources for Chapter 15p. 127
Destroying Documentsp. 129
Complexity Ambiguity and Variabilityp. 130
Underestimating Reach and Impactp. 131
Obstructing Access to Evidence; Wrongdoing by Employeesp. 132
Conclusionp. 133
Resources for Chapter 16p. 133
Implicit Plea Agreements and Issues of Disclosurep. 135
Legal Disclosure Obligationp. 135
Ethical Disclosure Obligationp. 136
Judicial Approaches to Implicit Plea Agreementsp. 137
Resources for Chapter 17p. 140
Plea Negotiationsp. 141
Disclosing Exculpatory Material in Plea Negotiationsp. 143
Historyp. 144
Ethical Disclosure Obligationp. 144
Implicit Brady Waiversp. 146
Why Require Disclosure of Exculpatory Information During Plea Negotiations?p. 146
Knowledgep. 147
Sincerityp. 149
Brady Disclosure as a Remedyp. 151
Current Lawp. 151
United States v. Ruizp. 152
Implicit Waiver after Ruizp. 155
Implications of Brady Waiversp. 156
Conclusionp. 158
Resources for Chapter 18p. 158
Corporate Privilege Waivers in Plea Negotiationsp. 161
Corporate Attorney-Client Privilegep. 162
Competencep. 162
Conflict of Interestp. 164
Brother’s Keeperp. 164
A Compromisep. 165
Resources for Chapter 19p. 166
Preparation for Trialp. 167
Witness Preparation: When Does It Cross the Line?p. 169
Virtues and Vicesp. 169
Ethical Rulesp. 170
Practical Concernsp. 171
Preparing a Witnessp. 173
Resources for Chapter 20p. 173
The Alternative Perpetrator Strategyp. 175
”Plan B&Idquo;p. 176
To Use or Not to Use Plan Bp. 177
Critiques of Plan Bp. 177
Falsityp. 178
Fairnessp. 179
Evidentiary Limits on Plan Bp. 180
Conclusionp. 182
Resources for Chapter 21p. 182
Litigation Ethicsp. 185
Prosecutors Pursuing Inconsistent Prosecutionsp. 187
Advancing Inconsistent Theories of Prosecutionp. 187
A Prosecutor’s Optionsp. 189
Why Do Prosecutors Do It?p. 189
The Pursuit of Inconsistent Prosecutionsp. 190
Ethical Requirements for Prosecutorsp. 191
Possible Limits on Inconsistent Prosecutionsp. 192
Conclusionp. 195
Resources for Chapter 22p. 195
”Thou Shalt Not Use Religion in Closing Argument&Idquo;p. 197
The Bounds of Argumentp. 197
Religious References and Misconductp. 199
Reversible Error?p. 201
Invited Responsep. 202
Two Lessonsp. 203
Conclusionp. 204
Resources for Chapter 23p. 204
Table of Casesp. 207
Indexp. 211
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