IMPORTANT COVID-19 UPDATES

9780190924812

Drawing Essentials

by
  • ISBN13:

    9780190924812

  • ISBN10:

    0190924810

  • Edition: 4th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2020-05-19
  • Publisher: Oxford University Press

Note: Supplemental materials are not guaranteed with Rental or Used book purchases.

Purchase Benefits

  • Free Shipping On Orders Over $35!
    Your order must be $35 or more to qualify for free economy shipping. Bulk sales, PO's, Marketplace items, eBooks and apparel do not qualify for this offer.
  • Get Rewarded for Ordering Your Textbooks! Enroll Now
  • We Buy This Book Back!
    In-Store Credit: $24.94
    Check/Direct Deposit: $23.75
    PayPal: $23.75
List Price: $77.81 Save up to $37.68
  • Rent Book $40.74
    Add to Cart Free Shipping

    TERM
    PRICE
    DUE
    USUALLY SHIPS IN 3-5 BUSINESS DAYS
    *This item is part of an exclusive publisher rental program and requires an additional convenience fee. This fee will be reflected in the shopping cart.

Supplemental Materials

What is included with this book?

Summary

With unparalleled clarity, Drawing Essentials: A Guide to Drawing from Observation, Fourth Edition, explains in depth the essentials of depicting form and space on a two-dimensional surface, focusing on the cultivation of observational skills, increased sensitivity, critical thinking, technical refinement, and knowledge of materials. This richly illustrated text is appropriate for use in all levels of drawing classes, from introductory to advanced levels, as well as for figure and life drawing classes.

Author Biography


Deborah Rockman is an artist, author, and Emeritus Faculty at Kendall College of Art and Design of Ferris State University. She served as Chair of the Drawing and Printmaking Programs for a number of years. In addition to Drawing Essentials, she is also the author of The Art of Teaching Art (OUP, 2000).

Table of Contents


1. GETTING STARTED: DRAWING WITH LINE AND THE PROCESS OF SIGHTING
Line Variation and Sensitivity
Working from General to Specific
The Medium and Surface
What is Meant by "Sensitive" Line?
Achieving Line Variation and Line Sensitivity
Light and Dark or Light Source
Weight and Tension
"Speed" of Contours and Edges
High and Low Points, or Dips and Swells, in Contours
Strength or Force of an Edge
Spatial Sequence
Degrees of Importance
Combining Different Methods
Different Kinds and Functions of Line
Gesture Line
Contour Line
Modified Contour Line
Cross-Contour Line
Classical Line
Anatomical Line
Organizational Line
Structural Line
Mechanical Line
Angular Line
Decorative Line
Calligraphic Line
Broken or Implied Line
Altered Line
Agitated or Angry Line
Process or Searching Line
Tonal or Dimensional Line
Straight-Line Construction
Planar Construction
Sighting and the Use of a Sighting Stick
Why Use Sighting?
Guidelines for Sighting
Applications of Sighting
First Application: Sighting for Relative Proportions
Second Application: Sighting for Angles and Axis Lines
Third Application: Sighting for Vertical and/or Horizonal Alignments
Transferring Sighting Observations to a Drawing Surface
2. THE PRINCIPLES OF COMPOSITION
Theory Versus Application
Review of Some Simple Definitions
Composition
Elements (formal elements)
Positive Space
Negative Space
Format
Visual Principles of Composition
Balance
Harmony
Variety
Emphasis/Domination
Movement/Directional Forces
Proportion
Economy
Unity
Variable Compositional Elements to Consider
Size
Position
Direction
Number
Density
Interval
Proximity or Nearness
Similarity
Using a Viewfinder: What Does It Do for You?
General Guidelines Concerning Composition
Pay Attention to Both Positive and Negative Space
Consider How the Forms Occupy the Format
Watch General Placement of the Forms
Consider the Kind of Space You Wish to Establish
Consider Viewpoint in Your Composition
Consider Options for the Development of Negative Space or Environment
Thumbnail Studies as a Method for Exploring Composition
3. DEVELOPING VALUE STRUCTURE AND THE ILLUSION OF VOLUME
Working With Light and Shadow
A General-to-Specific Approach to Building Value Structure
Imagine Building a House
Using Value to Establish an Effect or a Mood
Chiaroscuro
Tenebrism
Plastic Value
Low-Key Value
Middle-Key Value
High-Key Value
Value and Texture
Some Different Kinds of Texture
--Actual Texture
--Simulated Texture
--Uniform Texture
--Invented Texture
--Frottage
Four Things to Look for When Identifying Value Structure
The Light Source
The Shape of Areas of Shadow and Light
Variations of Value Within Larger Shapes of Value
Edge Quality of Shapes of Value
Various Methods for Applying Value
Continuous Tone
Hatching
--Parallel Hatching
--Contour Hatching
--Cross-Hatching
Stippling
Mark Making
Subtractive Drawing
An Alternative Subtractive Process
Toned Paper
Exercises for Promoting a General-to-Specific Approach
Projecting an Inverted, Out-of-Focus Image as a Drawing Reference
A Sustained Approach to Gesture Drawing
Controlling Some Variables of Value Structure
4. THE ILLUSION OF SPACE AND DEPTH ON A FLAT SURFACE
Methods for Indicating Space and Depth
Consider the Variables
Size
Baseline or Position
Overlapping
Sharp and Diminishing Detail
Value Contrast
Converging Parallels
Linear Perspective
Different Kinds of Space
Decorative Space
Shallow Space
Plastic Space
Deep or Infinite Space
Ambiguous Space
The Technique of Scaling to Determine Accurate Size Relationships
Establishing Scale Successfully
Scale or Unit of Measure
Height of Eye Level or Horizon Line
Station Point
The Process of Scaling
General Guidelines for Scaling
Creating an Effective Still Life
What Kinds of Objects Should be Included?
Regular Forms
Irregular or Natural Forms
Cubic Forms
Additional Considerations for Still Lifes
The Meaning of Things You Include in a Drawing
Using Photographic References
5. SPATIAL THINKING AND VISUALIZATION: ESSENTIAL PRINCIPLES OF PERSPECTIVE DRAWING
An Introduction to Perspective
What Is Perspective?
Different Types of Perspective
Technical or Mechanical Perspective
Freehand Perspective
Linear Perspective
Atmospheric Perspective
Basic Principles of Linear Perspective
Perspective and Sighting
Limitations of Linear Perspective
Recommended Sequencing for Maximum Comprehension
Suggestions for Effective Perspective Drawing
Determining the Variable Elements of Perspective Drawing
--Scale
--Eye Level (EL)
--Ground Line (GL)
--Station Point (SP)
--Central Vanishing Point (CVP) and Special Vanishing Point (SVP) Left or Right
--Vanishing Point Left (VPL) and Vanishing Point Right (VPR)
--Key Cube or "Mother Cube"
--Keeping Things Simple
Perspective Materials List
Optional Items
The Terminology of Perspective
Primary Working Terminology
One-Point Perspective (1-PT)
Two-Point Perspective/Oblique Perspective (2-PT)
Eye Level (EL)
Horizon Line (HL)
Scale
Station Point (SP)
Picture Plane (PP)
Ground Plane (GP)
Ground Line (GL)
Cone of Vision (COV)
Vanishing Point (VP)
Central Vanishing Point (CVP)
Special Vanishing Point (SVP)
Auxiliary Vanishing Point (AVP)
Vanishing Point Three (VP3)
Measuring Line (ML)
Diagonal Measuring Line (DML)
Related Terminology
Foreshortening
Convergence
Position or Base Line
Overlap
Diminution
Additional Useful Terminology
Convergence
Perpendicular
Parallel
Diagonal
Vertical
Horizontal
Plane
Square
Rectangle
Circle
Ellipse
Axis
Cube
Pyramid
Cylinder
Cone
Sphere
Vessel
Right Angle
Acute Angle
Oblique
Diameter
Circumference
Vertex
Tangent Point
Perspectives and Cubes
Constructing a Cube in One-Point Perspective
Constructing a Cube in Two-Point Perspective Based on Estimation of Cube Depth in Relation to Cube Height
Estimating Cube Depth in Two-Point Perspective
Respecting the Cone of Vision
Proximity to Vanishing Points Left and Right and Proximity to the Central Vanishing Point
The Leading Edge of a Cube
Using Perspective Grids
Constructing a Gridded Ground Plane in One-Point Perspective
Constructing a Gridded Ground Plane in Two-Point Perspective
To Continue Using the Measuring Line Method
To Continue Using the Fencepost Method
To Continue Using the "Converging Diagonals" Method
Increasing Complexity in the Perspective Environment
Multiple or Sliding Vanishing Points
Cube Multiplication
The Fencepost Method for Cube Multiplication
The Measuring Line Method for Cube Multiplication
Distortion in Cube Multiplication
Cube Division
Constructing Ellipses in One-Point and Two-Point Perspective
The Eight-Point Tangent System for Ellipse Construction
Major and Minor Axes, Distortion, and Fullness of Ellipses
6. ESSENTIAL PRINCIPLES FOR DRAWING THE HUMAN FIGURE
Why Study the Human Figure?
Classroom Etiquette When Drawing from a Model
The Process of Sighting in Relation to the Human Body
Sighting the Human Body for Relative Proportions
Sighting the Human Body for Vertical and Horizontal Alignments Between Two or More Landmarks or Reference Points
Comparative Proportions in the Male and Female Figure
Female
Male
Gesture Drawing or Rapid Contour Drawing
Seeing Is the Key
Using Axis Lines
Keeping It Simple
Setting the Pace
Working from the Inside Out
Enhancing the Illusion of Volume and Space in the Human Form
Line Variation in Figure Drawing
Scaling Techniques in Figure Drawing
A General-to-Specific Approach to Form and Value in Figure Drawing
An Introduction to Portraiture
Common Errors
General Guidelines for Locating Facial Features and Other Landmarks
Central Axis
Length of the Nose
Centerline of the Mouth
Distance Between the Eyes in a Frontal View
Edges or Wings of the Nostrils
Outside Corners of the Mouth
Top of the Ears
Bottom of the Ears, or the Bottom of the Ear Lobes
Width of the Neck
Three-Quarter View
The Features and Other Significant Aspects of Portraiture
The Eyes
The Nose
The Mouth
The Ears
The Neck
The Shoulders
The Hair
Value Structure
An Alternative Viewpoint in Portraiture
Mapping the Figure in Space
Drawing the Figure in an Observed Environment
Using Straight-Line Construction
Creating Visual Paths of Movement
7. THE HUMAN FIGURE AND ARTISTIC ANATOMY
Artistic Anatomy Versus Medical Anatomy
Anatomy Reveals Itself
Major Bones of the Human Skeletal Structure
Skull/Cranium
List of 15 Individual Bones
Torso
List of 18 Individual Bones
Leg and Foot
List of 9 Individual Bones
Arm and Hand
List of 6 Individual Bones
Bony and Other Landmarks in the Figure
List of 29 Bony and Other Landmarks in the Figure
Helpful Information about the Human Skeletal Structure
The Skull
Additional Information About the Skull
The Spinal Column (Back Bone)
Additional Information About the Bones of the Spinal Column
The Rib Cage
Additional Information About the Bones of the Rib Cage
The Shoulder Girdle
Additional Information About the Shoulder Girdle
The Pelvis or Ilium (Hip Bone)
Additional Information About the Pelvis/Ilium
The Leg
Additional Information About the Leg
The Foot and Ankle
Additional Information About the Foot and Ankle
The Arm and Wrist
Additional Information About the Arm and Wrist
The Hand and Fingers
Additional Information About the Hand and Fingers
Superficial Muscles of the Human Figure
Face and Head
List of Individual Muscles and Their Function
Neck
List of Individual Muscles and Their Function
Torso
List of Individual Muscles and Their Function
Arm and Hand
List of Individual Muscles and Their Function
Upper Leg
List of Individual Muscles and Their Function
Lower Leg and Foot
List of Individual Muscles and Their Function
Helpful Anatomical Terminology
List of Relevant Anatomical Terms
List and Definition of 22 Relevant Anatomical Terms
8. COLOR THEORY AND APPLICATION
Understanding Color
Color Terminology
Color
Hue
Spectrum
Objective Color/Local Color
Subjective Color (also known as Expressive Color)
Pigments
Neutrals
Neutralized Color
Color Value
Color Intensity
Color Temperature
Primary Colors
Secondary Colors
Intermediate or Tertiary Colors
Complementary Colors
Split Complement
Analogous Colors or Adjacent Colors
Tinted Color
Toned Color
Shaded Color
Additive Color
Subtractive Color
Chromatic
Achromatic
Monochromatic or Monochrome
Color Chord
Color Dyad
Color Triad
Color Tetrad
The Seven Color Contrasts
Contrast of Hue
Contrast of Value
Contrast of Temperature
Contrast of Intensity
Complementary Contrast
Simultaneous Contrast
Contrast of Extension
Color Harmony and Color Chords
The Spatial and Volumetric Effects of Color
Value and Color
Temperature and Color
Intensity and Color
Volume and Color
Volume and Color Value
Volume and Color Temperature
Volume and Color Intensity
Volume and Color Texture
Hints for Observing and Recording Color
Value in a Color Drawing
Intensity in a Color Drawing
Complements in a Color Drawing
Drawing with Color Media
Colored Pencils
Student-Grade Colored Pencils
Artist-Grade Colored Pencils
Building Your Colored Pencil Collection
Colored Pencil Accessories
Storage and Transport Containers
Pencil Sharpeners
Pencil Extenders
Erasers
Razor Blades and Adhesive Tapes
Advantages and Disadvantages of Working with Colored Pencils
Colored Pencil Papers
Colored and Toned Papers
White and Neutral Papers
Colored Pencil Techniques
Textured and Textureless Colored Pencil Drawings
Blending and Burnishing
Value Structure and Color Shifts
Tinting Your Paper
Working from Hard to Soft or Lean to Fat
Resolving Some Limitations of Colored Pencil
Pastels
Student-Grade Pastels
Artist-Grade Pastels
Hard Artist-Grade Pastels
Soft Artist-Grade Pastels
Pastel Pencils
Pastel Accessories
Storage and Transport Containers
Blenders
Fixatives
Erasers
Razor Blades and Sandpaper Pads
Adhesive Tape
Mahl Sticks
Solvent Alcohol
Advantages and Disadvantages of Working with Pastels
Pastel Papers and Substrates
Colored and Toned Papers and Substrates
Preparing Your Own Surface
Pastel Techniques
Side Stroking
Hatching and Cross-Hatching
Blending
Scumbling
Feathering
Working from Hard to Soft, or Lean to Fat
Basic Working Procedures
Starting Your Drawing
Blocking in Base Colors
Developing Your Drawing Further
Using Color Shifts to Describe Value Shifts
Blending by Rubbing Sparingly and Cautiously
Oil Pastels
Student-Grade Oil Pastels
Artist-Grade Oil Pastels
Building Your Oil Pastel Collection
Oil Pastel Accessories
Storage and Transport Containers
Brushes and Solvents
Palette Knives and Razor Blades
Blending Tools
Gesso and Other Surface Primers
Extenders
Fixatives
Advantages and Disadvantages of Working with Oil Pastels
Oil Pastel Papers and Substrates
Primed Papers and Substrates
Potential Problems When Working on Raw Paper
Preparing Your Own Surface
Oil Pastel Techniques
Side Stroking
Hatching and Cross-Hatching
Blending
Scumbling
Feathering
Washes
Working from Hard to Soft, or Lean to Fat
Basic Working Procedures
Starting Your Drawing
Blocking in Base Colors
Developing Your Drawing Further
Using Color Shifts to Describe Value Shifts
Blending with Consideration for Color Theory
Some Final Thoughts About Working With Color
9. DEVELOPING IDEAS, RESOLVING PROBLEMS, AND EVALUATING RESULTS
Ideation: Generating Ideas
Imaginative Thinking and the Brain
Imagination, Creativity, and Brainstorming
The Process of Brainstorming
Collage as a Tool for the Exploration of Ideas
What Is Collage?
The History and Origins of Collage
Collage and Related Processes
Why Collage--A Tool for Exploration of Ideas and Materials
Resources for Collage
Substrates or Support Surfaces
Adhesives
Diagnosing Problems in Your Work
Inaccurate Proportional, Scale, or Shape Relationships
Multiple Perspective Eye Levels
Foreshortening Inaccuracies or a Lack of Foreshortening
Flat and Restricted Line Work
Details or Specifics at the Expense of the General Underlying Form
Scaling Inaccuracies in Relation to Perspective Principles
Lack of Volume or Timid Value Structure in Three-Dimensional Forms
Overly Generalized Drawing
Substituting Recipes or Formulas for Careful Observation
Unintentionally Ambiguous Space
Rigid or Pristine Drawings Lacking a Sense of Process
Disregard for or Poor Composition
Intentions Versus Results
Discovering Disparity
Descriptive Feedback
Interpretive Feedback
Written Feedback as an Alternative to Spoken Feedback
The Importance of Critiques
Group Critiques
Individual Critiques
Key Questions for Critiquing Work
Questions Regarding Composition
Questions Regarding Drawing
Questions Regarding Figure Drawing
Questions Regarding Perspective
Questions Regarding Color
10. DRAWING MATERIALS AND PROCESSES
Media and Materials for Drawing
Traditional and Nontraditional Drawing Surfaces and Substrates
Traditional Paper
--Texture or Finish
--Sizing
--Weight
--Acidity
--Ply
--Size or Dimension
Paper Recommendations
--White Papers and Neutral-Tinted Papers
--Charcoal and Pastel Papers--White and Color
Nontraditional Surfaces and Substrates for Drawing
Traditional and Nontraditional Drawing Media
Dry Media--Black/White and Monochromatic
--Drawing Pencils or Graphite Pencils
--Graphite Sticks
--Graphite Powder
--Silverpoint
--Charcoal Pencils
--Carbon Pencils
--Vine Charcoal or Willow Charcoal
--Compressed Charcoal
--Powdered Charcoal
--Conte Crayons or Drawing Crayons
--Conte Pencils
Dry Media--Color
--Colored Pencils
--Colored Pencil Sticks
--Soft Pastels
--Pastel Pencils
--Oil Pastels
Wet Media--Black/White and Color
--Ink
--Ink Washes
--Ink Pens
Nontraditional Drawing Media
Additional Materials for Drawing and Related Processes
Transfer Techniques Combined with Drawing
Photocopy and Laser Print Transfers
Materials Needed
Images for Transfer
Solvents for Transferring Images
Procedure for Transferring Images
Other Materials Used in the Transfer Process
Additional Considerations
Acrylic Medium Transfers
Materials Needed
Procedure for Transferring Images
Lazertran Transfers
Materials Needed
Procedure for Transferring Images to Nonabsorbent, Shiny Surfaces
Procedure for Transferring Images to Paper or Canvas
Procedure for Transferring Images to a Variety of Porous Surfaces Using Turpentine
APPENDIX I: DIGITAL ART AND DRAWING
APPENDIX II: CONTEMPORARY ART: A GALLERY OF DRAWINGS
Black and White Images
David Kohan
Emily Mayo
Armin Mersmann
Beili Liu
Egon Schiele
Robert Schultz
Dragana Crnjak
Seth Marosok
William Kentridge
Shelby Shadwell
Color Images
Aneka Ingold
David Bailin
Ian Ingram
Henry Darger
Julia Randall
Julie Mehretu
Nathan Heuer
Michael Borremans
Huaming Wang
Whitfield Lovell
Juan Perdiguero
Zaria Forman
Glossary of Art Terms
Bibliography
Index

Rewards Program

Write a Review