Drugs And Human Behavior

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  • Edition: 5th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2006-01-01
  • Publisher: Allyn & Bacon
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This text introduces students to the field of psychopharmacology, with special emphasis on the relationships between drugs, their mechanisms of action in the nervous system, and human behavior.By examining human drug use from historical, societal, and biological perspectives, Grilly provides a rich foundation for understanding drugs affecting the brain and their usage. In addition to describing basic pharmacological principles, Grilly discusses the general factors behind drug tolerance, dependence, and abuse and approaches for dealing with these problems. Pharmacotherapy for the major mental disorders is described from both biochemical and clinical efficacy perspectives. By using the most up-to-date research, and by presenting data in concise, jargon-free prose, the author has created one of the most comprehensive and accessible books on the subject.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. xi
Psychopharmacology in Perspectivep. 1
A Historical Overview of Psychopharmacologyp. 2
Predecessors to Modern Pharmacotherapiesp. 3
The Psychopharmacological Revolutionp. 6
Recreational and Social Drug Usep. 9
Websites for Further Informationp. 19
Basic Principles of Pharmacologyp. 20
Drugs and Receptorsp. 22
Dose-Response Relationshipsp. 28
Drug Interactionsp. 34
Websites for Further Informationp. 38
Pharmacokineticsp. 39
Drug Absorptionp. 39
Routes of Administrationp. 41
Drug Distributionp. 45
Metabolismp. 48
Drug Excretionp. 52
Implications of Pharmacokinetics in the Fetus and Neonatep. 53
Websites for Further Informationp. 54
Conduction and Neurotransmissionp. 55
The Neuronp. 56
Conductionp. 57
Neurotransmissionp. 63
Synaptic Neurotransmissionp. 64
Autoreceptors and Presynaptic Receptorsp. 70
Nonsynaptic Diffusion Neurotransmissionp. 75
Retrograde Neurotransmissionp. 76
A Perspective on Neurotransmissionp. 77
Websites for Further Informationp. 78
Neuroactive Ligands and the Nervous Systemp. 79
Neurotransmitters, Neuromodulators, and Neurohormonesp. 79
Specific Neurotransmittersp. 81
Neurotransmitters and Dietp. 90
Structures and Subsystems of the Nervous Systemp. 92
Peripheral Nervous Systemp. 92
Central Nervous Systemp. 93
Drugs, the Nervous System, and Behavior: A Perspectivep. 100
Websites for Further Informationp. 101
Tolerance and Dependencep. 102
What Is Tolerance?p. 102
Tolerance Mechanismsp. 103
Mechanisms of Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Tolerancep. 103
Mechanisms of Context-Specific Tolerancep. 109
What Is Dependence?p. 114
Factors in Dependencep. 122
General Factors in Treatment for Drug Dependencyp. 127
State-Dependent Learningp. 131
Websites for Further Informationp. 132
Psychotropic Drug Classificationp. 133
Molecular Structure-Activity Relationshipsp. 133
Depressant versus Stimulant Classificationsp. 136
Drug Use Classificationp. 137
Schedule-Controlled Drugsp. 139
Websites for Further Informationp. 141
Sedative-Hypnotics and Anxiolyticsp. 142
Alcohol (Ethanol)p. 143
Psychological Effects of Ethanolp. 144
Ethanol Pharmacokineticsp. 146
Ethanol Pharmacodynamicsp. 148
Chronic Effects of Alcohol Usep. 149
Beneficial Effects of Alcoholp. 152
Tolerance, Dependence, and Alcoholismp. 152
What Is Alcoholism?p. 154
Etiology of Alcoholismp. 155
Treatment of Alcoholismp. 159
Fetal Alcohol Syndromep. 167
Barbiturates and Other Sedative-Hypnoticsp. 169
Inhalants: Anesthetic Gases and Solventsp. 170
Anxiolyticsp. 171
Anxiety Disorders Treated with Anxiolyticsp. 171
Benzodiazepinesp. 172
Buspironep. 176
Antidepressants as Anxiolyticsp. 178
Kava: An Herbal Anxiolytic?p. 179
Sedative-Hypnotics and Insomniap. 180
Websites for Further Informationp. 182
Psychostimulantsp. 183
Caffeinep. 184
Amphetamines and Related Drugsp. 188
Psychological Effects of Amphetaminesp. 189
Clinical Uses for Amphetaminesp. 191
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Amphetaminesp. 192
Dependence on Amphetaminesp. 195
Effects of Chronic Amphetamine Exposurep. 196
Cocainep. 197
Psychological Effects of Cocainep. 198
Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics of Cocainep. 199
Cocaine Dependencep. 201
Direct Adverse Consequences of Cocainep. 206
Treatment of Cocaine and Amphetamine Abusep. 208
Nicotinep. 213
Modafinilp. 220
Psychostimulants, Learning, and Memoryp. 221
Websites for Further Informationp. 224
Opioids (Narcotics) and Their Antagonistsp. 225
Endogenous Opioid Peptides and Their Receptorsp. 225
Typical Opiatesp. 227
Behavioral and Physiological Effects of Opiatesp. 228
Opioid Pharmacodynamicsp. 232
Tolerance and Dependence on Opiatesp. 233
Treatment for Opiate Dependencep. 237
The "Overdose" Phenomenonp. 242
Legal Factors in the Narcotics Problemp. 244
Opiate Antagonists: Potential Usesp. 246
Websites for Further Informationp. 248
Psychotomimetics, Psychedelics, and Hallucinogensp. 249
Some General Characteristics of P/P/Hsp. 250
Monoamine-Related P/P/Hsp. 252
LSD's Historical Significancep. 254
Pharmacodynamics of LSD and Related Compoundsp. 256
Psychological Effects of Monoamine P/P/Hsp. 258
MDMA ("Ecstasy")p. 262
Cannabinoidsp. 264
Psychological Effects of Marijuanap. 266
Cannabinoid Pharmacokineticsp. 269
Pharmacodynamics of Delta-9-THCp. 270
Psychopathological Effects of Marijuanap. 272
Tolerance and Dependence on Cannabisp. 276
Non-CNS-Related Effects of Marijuanap. 277
Dissociative Anesthetics: Phencyclidine and Ketaminep. 278
Pharmacodynamics and Psychological Effects of PCPp. 279
PCP-Induced Psychosisp. 281
Treatment for PCP Psychosisp. 282
Ketaminep. 282
Anticholinergicsp. 283
Ibogainep. 284
P/P/Hs: The Human Experiencep. 286
Websites for Further Informationp. 287
Antipsychoticsp. 288
Biochemical Hypotheses of Schizophreniap. 290
The Dopamine Hypothesis of Schizophreniap. 290
Alternatives to the Dopamine Hypothesisp. 294
Present-Day Antipsychoticsp. 297
Conventional (Typical, First-Generation) Antipsychoticsp. 299
Atypical (Second-Generation) Antipsychoticsp. 299
Aripiprazole: A Third-Generation Atypical Antipsychoticp. 300
Efficacy of Antipsychoticsp. 301
Pharmacodynamics of Antipsychoticsp. 306
Augmentation of Antipsychotic Drug Treatmentp. 310
Antipsychotic Side Effectsp. 311
Tardive Dyskinesiap. 313
Current Pharmacotherapy for Schizophreniap. 315
Websites for Further Informationp. 316
Antidepressants and Mood Stabilizersp. 317
Biochemical Hypotheses of Affective Disordersp. 319
The Monoamine Hypothesis of Mood Disordersp. 319
The Neurotrophic Theory of Affective Disordersp. 323
Other Potential Neurotransmitters Involved in Mood Disordersp. 325
Pharmacotherapy for Depressionp. 325
Selective Serotonin Reuptake Inhibitors (SSRIs)p. 327
Tricyclic Antidepressantsp. 330
Monoamine Oxidase Inhibitorsp. 331
Reversible Inhibitors of Monoamine Oxidase A (RIMAs)p. 334
Alternative Antidepressantsp. 334
Psychostimulantsp. 337
Drug Combinations in the Treatment of Depressionp. 338
A Perspective on Antidepressant Medicationp. 338
Pharmacotherapy in Mania and Bipolar Illnessesp. 339
Lithiump. 340
Efficacy of Lithium in Mood Disturbancesp. 341
Pharmacokinetics of Lithiump. 342
Alternatives to Lithium in the Treatment of Bipolar Disordersp. 343
Pharmacodynamics of Mood Stabilizersp. 345
Nondrug Treatments for Depressionp. 346
Websites for Further Informationp. 347
Pharmacotherapy for Miscellaneous Mental Disordersp. 348
Disorders in Childrenp. 348
Attention Deficit Disorderp. 349
Autistic Disorderp. 358
Childhood Schizophreniap. 361
Mental Retardationp. 362
Affective Disorders in Adolescentsp. 363
Parkinson's Diseasep. 363
Tourette's Syndromep. 368
Epilepsyp. 370
Geriatric Psychopharmacologyp. 372
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