Drugs and Society

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  • Edition: 9th
  • Format: Paperback
  • Copyright: 2005-11-30
  • Publisher: Jones & Bartlett
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Drugs and Society, Ninth Edition, clearly illustrates the impact of drug use and abuse on the lives of ordinary people by including their personal drug experiences throughout the book. You will learn practical, current information concerning: Social and psychological reasons why drug use and abuse occurs, The results of drug use and abuse, How drugs can be used effectively for therapeutic purposes.

Table of Contents

Prefacep. x
Introduction to Drugs and Societyp. 2
Introductionp. 4
Drug Usep. 4
Dimensions of Drug Usep. 5
Most Commonly Abused Drugsp. 14
An Overview of Drugs in Societyp. 18
How Widespread Is Drug Abuse?p. 19
Extent and Frequency of Drug Use in Societyp. 19
Current Patterns of Licit and Illicit Drug Usep. 28
Nonmedical Users of Pain Relieversp. 28
Types of Drug Usersp. 33
Influence of the Mass Media on Drug Usep. 34
Drug Use and Drug Dependencep. 36
When Does Use Lead to Abuse?p. 37
Drug Dependencep. 38
The Costs of Drug Use to Societyp. 39
Drugs, Crime, and Violencep. 41
Drugs in the Workplace: A Costly Afflictionp. 44
Venturing to a Higher Form of Consciousness: The Holistic Self-Awareness Approach to Drug Usep. 46
Explaining Drug Use and Abusep. 52
Introductionp. 54
Drug Use: A Timeless Afflictionp. 55
The Origin and Nature of Addictionp. 57
Defining Addictionp. 57
Models of Addictionp. 58
Factors Contributing to Addictionp. 59
The Vicious Cycle of Addictionp. 61
Nondrug Addictions?p. 61
Major Theoretical Explanations: Biologicalp. 62
Abused Drugs as Positive Reinforcersp. 62
Drug Abuse and Psychiatric Disordersp. 63
Genetic Explanationsp. 63
Major Theoretical Explanations: Psychologicalp. 64
Distinguishing Between Substance Abuse and Mental Disordersp. 64
The Relationship Between Personality and Drug Usep. 65
Theories Based on Learning Processesp. 65
Social Psychological Learning Theoriesp. 67
Major Theoretical Explanations: Sociologicalp. 67
Social Influence Theoriesp. 68
Structural Influence Theoriesp. 78
Danger Signals of Drug Abusep. 82
Low-Risk and High-Risk Drug Choicesp. 63
Drug Use, Regulation, and the Lawp. 90
Introductionp. 92
Cultural Attitudes About Drug Usep. 92
The Road to Regulation and the FDAp. 93
Prescription Versus OTC Drugsp. 93
The Rising Demand for Effectiveness in Medicinal Drugsp. 95
Regulating the Development of New Drugsp. 95
The Effects of the OTC Review on Today's Medicationsp. 98
The Regulation of Drug Advertisingp. 98
Prescription Advertisingp. 99
Federal Regulation and Quality Assurancep. 99
Drug Abuse and the Lawp. 101
Drug Laws and Deterrencep. 103
Factors in Controlling Drug Abusep. 104
Strategies for Preventing Drug Abusep. 107
Supply Reduction Strategyp. 107
Demand Reduction Strategyp. 108
Inoculation Strategyp. 108
Drug Courtsp. 109
Current and Future Drug Usep. 109
Drug Legalization Debatep. 110
Drug Testingp. 112
Pragmatic Drug Policiesp. 113
Homeostatic Systems and Drugsp. 118
Introductionp. 120
Overview of Homeostasis and Drug Actionsp. 120
Introduction to Nervous Systemsp. 120
Comprehensive Explanation of Homeostatic Systemsp. 122
The Building Blocks of the Nervous Systemp. 122
The Neuron: The Basic Structural Unit of the Nervous Systemp. 122
The Nature of Drug Receptorsp. 124
Agonistic and Antagonistic Effects on Drug Receptorsp. 124
Neurotransmitters: The Messengersp. 125
Major Divisions of the Nervous Systemp. 128
The Central Nervous Systemp. 129
The Autonomic Nervous Systemp. 130
The Endocrine Systemp. 132
Endocrine Glands and Regulationp. 132
The Abuse of Hormones: Anabolic Steroidsp. 133
Designer Steroidsp. 135
Conclusionp. 135
How and Why Drugs Workp. 138
Introductionp. 140
The Intended and Unintended Effects of Drugsp. 140
The Dose-Response Relationship of Therapeutics and Toxicityp. 141
Margin of Safetyp. 142
Potency Versus Toxicityp. 142
Drug Interactionp. 143
Additive Effectsp. 143
Antagonistic (Inhibitory) Effectsp. 143
Potentiative (Synergistic) Effectsp. 144
Dealing with Drug Interactionsp. 144
Pharmacokinetic Factors That Influence Drug Effectsp. 145
Forms and Methods of Taking Drugsp. 146
Distribution of Drugs in the Body and Time-Response Relationshipsp. 148
Inactivation and Elimination of Drugs from the Bodyp. 150
Physiological Variables That Modify Drug Effectsp. 151
Pathological Variables That Modify Drug Effectsp. 151
Adaptive Processes and Drug Abusep. 151
Tolerance to Drugsp. 152
Drug Dependencep. 155
Psychological Factorsp. 156
The Placebo Effectp. 156
Addiction and Abuse: The Significance of Dependencep. 156
Hereditary Factorsp. 157
Drug Cravingp. 157
Other Factorsp. 158
CNS Depressants: Sedative-Hypnoticsp. 162
Introductionp. 164
An Introduction to CNS Depressantsp. 164
The History of CNS Depressantsp. 164
The Effects of CNS Depressants: Benefits and Risksp. 165
Types of CNS Depressantsp. 166
Benzodiazepines: Valium-Type Drugsp. 167
Barbituratesp. 171
Other CNS Depressantsp. 173
Patterns of Abuse with CNS Depressantsp. 177
Treatment for Withdrawalp. 179
Alcohol: Pharmacological Effectsp. 186
Introductionp. 188
The Nature and History of Alcoholp. 189
Alcohol as a Drugp. 189
Alcohol as a Social Drugp. 190
Impact of Alcoholp. 190
The Properties of Alcoholp. 191
The Physical Effects of Alcoholp. 192
Alcohol and Tolerancep. 194
Alcohol Metabolismp. 195
Polydrug Usep. 195
Short-Term Effectsp. 195
Dependencep. 197
The Effects of Alcohol on Organ Systems and Bodily Functionsp. 198
Brain and Nervous Systemp. 198
Liverp. 199
Digestive Systemp. 200
Bloodp. 200
Cardiovascular Systemp. 201
Sexual Organsp. 202
Endocrine Systemp. 202
Kidneysp. 202
Mental Disorders and Damage to the Brainp. 202
The Fetusp. 202
Gender Differencesp. 203
Malnutritionp. 203
Alcohol: A Behavioral Perspectivep. 208
Introductionp. 210
Alcohol Consumption in the United Statesp. 210
Current Statistics and Trends in Alcohol Consumptionp. 211
Percentages of the Drinking Population: A Pyramid Modelp. 212
Economic Costs of Alcohol Abusep. 218
History of Alcohol in Americap. 220
Drinking Patternsp. 220
Historical Considerationsp. 221
Defining Alcoholicsp. 221
Cultural Differencesp. 225
Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholismp. 226
Types of Alcoholicsp. 226
Cultural Influencesp. 227
Culture and Drinking Behaviorp. 228
Culture and Disinhibited Behaviorp. 229
Culture Provides Rules for Drinking Behaviorp. 230
Culture Provides Ceremonial Meaning for Alcohol Usep. 230
Culture Provides Models of Alcoholismp. 230
Cultural Stereotypes of Drinking Patterns May Be Misleadingp. 231
Culture Provides Attitudes Regarding Alcohol Consumptionp. 232
College and University Students and Alcohol Usep. 233
Binge Drinkingp. 234
Gender and Collegiate Alcohol Usep. 235
Alcohol Consumption Patterns of Womenp. 235
The Role of Alcohol in Domestic Violencep. 237
Alcohol and Sexp. 238
Alcohol and the Family: Destructive Types of Support and Organizations for Victims of Alcoholicsp. 238
Codependency and Enablingp. 238
Children of Alcoholics (COAs) and Adult Children of Alcoholics (ACOAs)p. 239
Treatment of Alcoholismp. 239
Getting Through Withdrawalp. 240
Helping the Alcoholic Family Recoverp. 241
Narcotics (Opioids)p. 250
Introductionp. 252
What Are Narcotics?p. 252
The History of Narcoticsp. 252
Opium in Chinap. 252
American Opium Usep. 254
Pharmacological Effectsp. 256
Narcotic Analgesicsp. 256
Other Therapeutic Usesp. 257
Mechanisms of Actionp. 258
Side Effectsp. 258
Abuse, Tolerance, Dependence, and Withdrawalp. 258
Heroin Abusep. 259
Treatment of Heroin and Other Narcotic Dependencep. 265
Other Narcoticsp. 268
Morphinep. 268
Methadonep. 269
Fentanylsp. 269
Hydromorphonep. 270
Oxycodone (OxyContin)p. 270
Meperidinep. 271
Buprenorphinep. 271
MPTP: A "Designer" Tragedyp. 271
Codeinep. 272
Pentazocinep. 272
Propoxyphenep. 272
Narcotic-Related Drugsp. 272
Dextromethorphanp. 272
Clonidinep. 273
Naloxone/Naltrexonep. 274
Stimulantsp. 280
Introductionp. 282
Major Stimulantsp. 282
Amphetaminesp. 282
Cocainep. 294
Current Attitudes and Patterns of Abusep. 299
Minor Stimulantsp. 308
Caffeinelike Drugs (Xanthines)p. 308
OTC Sympathomimeticsp. 313
Herbal Stimulantsp. 313
Tobaccop. 322
Tobacco Use: Scope of the Problemp. 324
Current Tobacco Use in the United Statesp. 324
The History of Tobacco Usep. 325
Popularity in the Western Worldp. 325
History of Tobacco Use in Americap. 326
Phamacology of Nicotinep. 330
Nicotine Administrationp. 330
Effects on the Central Nervous Systemp. 330
Other Effects of Nicotinep. 330
Clove Cigarettesp. 336
Cigarette Smoking: A Costly Addictionp. 336
Mortality Ratesp. 336
Chronic Illnessesp. 337
Effects Without Smokingp. 340
Effects on the Fetusp. 340
Tobacco Use Without Smokingp. 341
Environmental Tobacco Smokep. 342
Who Smokes?p. 342
Reasons for Smokingp. 343
The Motivation Not to Smokep. 343
Alternative Activities for Successfully Quittingp. 344
Smoking Cessation Aidsp. 344
Social Issues: Looking to the Futurep. 346
Tobacco as a Gateway Drugp. 346
Smoking Prohibition Versus Smokers' Rightsp. 347
Hallucinogens (Psychedelics)p. 352
Introductionp. 354
The History of Hallucinogen Usep. 354
The Native American Churchp. 355
Timothy Leary and the League of Spiritual Discoveryp. 355
Hallucinogen Use Todayp. 356
The Nature of Hallucinogensp. 356
Sensory and Psychological Effectsp. 357
Mechanisms of Actionp. 359
Types of Hallucinogenic Agentsp. 359
Traditional Hallucinogens: LSD Typesp. 360
Phenylethylamine Hallucinogensp. 368
Anticholinergic Hallucinogensp. 370
Other Hallucinogensp. 372
Marijuanap. 382
Introductionp. 384
History and Trends in Marijuana Usep. 385
Current Use of Marijuanap. 388
Trends in Usep. 390
Annual Usep. 392
Perceived Harmfulnessp. 392
Disapprovalp. 392
Perceived Availability, Risk, and Usep. 392
Marijuana: Is It the Assassin of Youth?p. 293
Major Factors Affecting Marijuana Usep. 393
Is Marijuana Really a Gateway Drug?p. 394
Misperceptions of Marijuana Usep. 395
Characteristics of Cannabisp. 395
The Behavioral Effects of Marijuana Usep. 397
The "High"p. 397
Subjective Euphoric Effectsp. 398
Driving Performancep. 400
Critical Thinking Skillsp. 401
Amotivational Syndromep. 401
Therapeutic Uses and the Controversy over Medical Marijuana Usep. 403
The Physiological Effects of Marijuana Usep. 407
Effects on the Central Nervous Systemp. 407
Effects on the Respiratory Systemp. 408
Effects on the Cardiovascular Systemp. 408
Effects on Sexual Performance and Reproductionp. 409
Tolerance and Dependencep. 410
Chronic Usep. 410
Inhalantsp. 418
Introductionp. 420
History of Inhalantsp. 420
Types of Inhalantsp. 421
Volatile Substancesp. 421
Anestheticsp. 423
Nitritesp. 424
Current Patterns and Signs of Abusep. 424
Adolescent and Teenage Usagep. 424
Gender, Race, Socioeconomics, and Abusep. 425
Signs of Inhalant Abusep. 426
Dangers of Inhalant Abusep. 426
Over-the-Counter (OTC), Prescription, and Herbal Drugsp. 430
Introductionp. 432
OTC Drugsp. 432
Abuse of OTC Drugsp. 432
Federal Regulation of OTC Drugsp. 434
OTC Drugs and Self-Carep. 434
Types of OTC Drugsp. 436
OTC Herbal (Natural) Productsp. 448
Prescription Drugsp. 451
Prescription Drug Abusep. 451
Proper Doctor-Patient Communicationp. 452
Drug Selection: Generic Versus Proprietaryp. 453
Common Categories of Prescription Drugsp. 455
Common Principles of Drug Usep. 462
Drug Use Within Major Subculturesp. 468
Introductionp. 470
Athletes and Drug Abusep. 471
Drugs Used by Athletesp. 473
Prevention and Treatmentp. 482
Drug Use Among Womenp. 482
Women More Concerned About Drug Use Than Menp. 483
Patterns of Drug Use: Comparing Females with Malesp. 483
Female Roles and Drug Addictionp. 483
Women's Response to Drugsp. 485
Treatment of Drug Dependency in Womenp. 488
Drug Use in Adolescent Subculturesp. 489
Why Adolescents Use Drugsp. 490
Patterns of Drug Use in Adolescentsp. 492
Adolescent versus Adult Drug Abusep. 493
Consequences and Coincidental Problemsp. 493
Prevention, Intervention, and Treatment of Adolescent Drug Problemsp. 498
Summary of Adolescent Drug Abusep. 500
Drug Use in College Student Subculturesp. 501
Reasons for College Students' Drug Usep. 501
Additional Noteworthy Findings Regarding Drug Use by College Studentsp. 504
HIV and AIDSp. 506
Nature of HIV Infection and Related Symptomsp. 507
Diagnosis and Treatmentp. 507
Who Is at Risk for AIDS?p. 510
AIDS and Drugs of Abusep. 512
Adolescents and AIDSp. 513
What to Do About HIV and AIDSp. 514
The Entertainment Industry and Drug Usep. 515
More Recent Promoter of Drug Use: The Internetp. 517
Drug Abuse Preventionp. 526
Introductionp. 528
Drug Prevention Programsp. 530
Considering the Audience and Approachp. 530
An Example of Drug Prevention at Central High in Elmtownp. 532
Comprehensive Prevention Programs for Drug Use and Abusep. 531
Harm Reduction Modelp. 534
Community-Based Drug Preventionp. 534
School-Based Drug Preventionp. 535
Family-Based Prevention Programsp. 538
Drug Prevention Programs in Higher Educationp. 539
Overview and Critique of Existing Prevention Programsp. 539
Examples of Large-Scale Drug Prevention Programsp. 541
BACCHUS and GAMMA Peer Education Networkp. 541
Fund for the Improvement of Post-secondary Education Drug Prevention Programsp. 541
DARE (Drug Abuse Resistance Education)p. 543
Drug Courtsp. 543
Problems with Assessing the Success of Drug Prevention Programsp. 546
Other Alternatives to Drug Usep. 546
Meditationp. 547
The Natural Mind Approachp. 549
Treating Drug Dependencep. 554
Treatment of Addictionp. 556
Drug Addiction Treatment in the United Statesp. 558
Therapeutic Strategiesp. 558
Historical Approachesp. 558
General Therapeutic Strategiesp. 560
Specific Therapeutic Strategiesp. 561
Pharmacological Strategiesp. 562
Current Trends in Providing Treatment Servicesp. 564
Appendicesp. 568
Indexp. 576
Photo Creditsp. 588
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